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biography means Russell Means (born 1939) led the American Indian Movement (AIM) in a 1973 armed seizure of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, site of the previous massacre of Sioux by Seventh U.S. Cavalry troops on December 29, 1890. With co-leaders Dennis Banks and art action research paper, Leonard Peltier, Means and AIM held off hundreds of federal agents on the Pine Ridge Reservation for seventy-one days before their surrender. Essays White? Russell C. Means has been an outspoken Indian rights activist for more than two decades. Paper? The organizer of numerous protests against the U.S. government's treatment of Native Americans and essay about, a major figure in the American Indian Movement (AIM), Means is perhaps best known for leading a 71-day siege at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which drew national attention to Indian-rights issues in the early 1970s. The head of the American Indian Anti-Defamation League since 1988, Means continues to fight for the unique identity and independence of Native Americans. Russell Charles Means, who would use the art action research, traditional term Lakota rather than the term Sioux, which he views as a derogatory white word, was born November 10, 1939, on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, the oldest son of of eb white chapter, Harold (Hank) Means, a mixed-blood Oglala Sioux and Theodora (Feather) Means, a full-blood Yankton Sioux. He attended the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) school on the reservation and research paper, later public schools in Vallejo, California.
During his high school years, he transferred from the racially mixed Vallejo school to the almost all-white San Leandro High School where he experienced daily ethnic taunting. Not knowing how else to respond, Means at first fought back and then retreated into drugs and delinquency. After barely graduating from high school, he worked through various jobs and attended five colleges without graduating. He spent much of the 1960s drifting throughout the west, working as a cowboy, day laborer, and at an advertising firm. In 1969 he moved from cambridge essay library mind paperback philosophy a position on the Rosebud Sioux tribal council on the Rosebud Reservation in art action South Dakota to the directorship of the government-funded American Indian Center in Cleveland, Ohio.
In Cleveland Means met Dennis Banks, one of the cofounders of the essays of eb white chapter summary, newly organized American Indian Movement, a militant Indian civil rights group. Inspired by paper, Banks and his movement, he set up AIM's second chapter in Cleveland. Means became a national media figure representing dissident Indians on Thanksgiving Day in 1970 when he and a small group of other Indians confronted costumed Pilgrims on the Mayflower II in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Macbeth? Dressed in combination western and Indian style, he became an effective symbol for AIM. Art Action Research Paper? Eloquent and charismatic, he inspired support from local Indian people while his inflammatory statements riled non-Indians. That same year, Means participated in a prayer vigil on Mount Rushmore, a symbolic demonstration of Lakota claims to Black Hills land. His next protest was to library paperback philosophy file a $9 million dollar lawsuit against the Cleveland Indians baseball club for use of Chief Wahoo as a mascot, asserting in research paper the suit that the symbol demeaned Native Americans. Rs Coursework Racism? This latter action provoked Cleveland ball club fans, and led to paper Means's decision to resign his position at the Cleveland Center in 1972. He returned to South Dakota and participated in alcohol coursework further activities intended to bring attention to Indian rights.
In February, 1972, Means led 1,300 angry Indians into the small town of Gordon, Nebraska, to protest the art action research, suspicious death of Raymond Yellow Thunder. The demonstration convinced town authorities to coursework conduct a second autopsy, which eventually led to the indictment of two white townsmen for manslaughter. The Indian protest gained further success when the city council suspended a police officer accused of molesting jailed Indian women and then organized a multiracial human rights council. Violence against Indians increased all over art action research paper the country that summer, leading to further defensiveness among local Indian people who felt they needed to arm themselves if they were to be the targets of rs coursework racism, murderous attacks. At the annual Rosebud Sun Dance celebration, Means helped plan a mass demonstration to art action research occur in Washington D.C. during election week of 1972. He urged a march to demand a federal law that would make it a crime to kill an Indian, even if it had to be added as an amendment to the Endangered Species Act. A series of rs coursework, cross-country caravans called The Trail of art action, Broken Treaties arrived in Washington November 2 only to find that the adequate housing promised by the Department of the Interior was in fact crowded and rodent-infested. Feeling that the government officials sent out to investigate were officious and patronizing, Means then led the group to the Bureau of Indian Affairs where they successfully seized the offices and renamed the coursework, building the art action research paper, Native American Embassy.
On Novembe#8230;U.S. District Court Judge ordered the rs coursework, group's forcible eviction. Angry and frustrated, the Indians destroyed furniture and equipment and removed files they felt exploited Indian people. The next day the group agreed to leave the building peaceably after government officials promised to investigate federal programs affecting Indians and to consider the issue of art action paper, Indian self-government. The government also offered $66,000 to cover travel expenses. Occupies Town of Historic Massacre. When Means returned to South Dakota, he learned that the president of the in intentionality library mind paperback philosophy, Oglala Tribal Council, Dick Wilson, had obtained a court order prohibiting members of AIM from attending public meetings on the reservation. Art Action Research? Wilson, a conservative opposed to the extreme activities of AIM, received government support to increase his police force, and had Means arrested twice for challenging the court order. When a white man was charged for second degree manslaughter instead of murder for the stabbing death of an Indian man, Means was among the leaders of a protest through the town of Custer where court was held.
He and essay library mind paperback, nearly 80 others were arrested for rioting and art action paper, arson. The internal tribal governance conflict escalated as traditional leaders requested AIM's help in getting rid of council president Wilson, whom some viewed as representative of Washington bureaucracy. On February 27, 1973, Means and rs coursework racism, a group of research, nearly 200 armed supporters occupied the community of Wounded Knee, the site of the 1890 massacre of some 350 Sioux men, women, and children by the U.S. Of Eb Chapter? military. Tensions mounted as heavily armed FBI agents and federal marshals surrounded the area. More than a month later, Means agreed to art action research paper fly to Washington to negotiate an agreement to end the siege, but the government refused to negotiate until all arms were laid down. Means refused to the unconditional surrender and left the meeting. He was arrested and detained for the remainder of the siege when he announced his intention to essays summary return to Wounded Knee. Art Action? On May 8, 1973, the remaining Indians surrendered when the government agreed to meet with tribal elders to sindhi in sindhi language begin an art action research investigation into tribal government, which had been accused, under Wilson, of ignoring the tribal constitution, among other things. Highly publicized in the national media, the ten-week siege became known as Wounded Knee II and garnered the support of many white Americans, including several Hollywood personalities. Of Eb White Chapter? Means ran against Wilson in the 1974 election of tribal council president while under federal indictment for actions during the Wounded Knee occupation.
He lost the election, receiving 1530 votes to Wilson's 1709, but claimed that his election results indicated strong support for research AIM causes on the reservation. His trial opened on February 12, 1974, and continued until September 16, when U.S. District Court Judge Fred Nichol dismissed the charges against essays white Means and Banks and denounced the prosecution's handling of the case, which had included the use of information obtained from a member Means's defense team by a paid FBI informant. When asked years later about the beneficial results of the Wounded Knee occupation, Means related a story of art action research, watching three little Indian boys playing, one pretending to rs coursework racism be Banks, one pretending to be Means, and the third refusing to art action paper be Wilson. Means felt that the protests influenced the development of a different sense of Indian identity: that government Indians were considered traitors. During the Wounded Knee occupation, Means was shot by a BIA officer. In the following six years, he survived four other shootings and was stabbed while serving a term in South Dakota's prison. These attempts on white, his life sent a message to other Indian people that they were not safe from art action research paper violent attacks. In 1975 Means was indicted for a murder in a barroom brawl, but his attorney, William Kunstler, who had been one of the macbeth, defense attorneys during the Wounded Knee trial, argued that the government had created such a climate of fear that Indians were armed in self-defense.
The jury acquitted Means of the murder charge on August 6, 1976. He was convicted of riot charges relating to art action the 1973 Custer demonstration and served one month in jail. In November 1977, he served a term for rioting in a South Dakota state penitentiary. Reclaims Indian Land at Yellow Thunder Camp. Russell Means was also among the group who occupied federal land at rs coursework Yellow Thunder Camp. In April 1981, a group of Dakota AIM and traditional Lakota people established a camp on federal land in research paper Victoria Creek Canyon, about twelve miles southwest of Rapid City, South Dakota. Named in honor of role essay, Raymond Yellow Thunder, the man murdered in Gordon, Nebraska, in art action 1972, the camp was established as the essay in intentionality paperback, first step in reclaiming the Black Hills land for Lakota use. When the U.S.
Forest Service denied a use permit for the camp, Means acted as a lay attorney in the complaint against the Forest Service for research violating the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act of 1978. In 1985, Judge Donald O'Brien ruled in favor of the rs coursework racism, Indian camp, but a higher court overturned the decision. After the Yellow Thunder trial, Means became involved in native rights issues in other countries, including supporting the cause of the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua. He has been associated politically with the Libertarian Party. In 1992, he turned actor, playing the role of Chingachgook in the movie The Last of the Mohicans. While on research, the set, Means served as liaison between Indian extras and the movie producers during a labor dispute. He claimed that he had not abandoned his role as activist. Alcohol? In an article in Entertainment Weekly, Means commented, I have been asked whether my decision to act in The Last of the art action paper, Mohicansmeans that I've abandoned my role as an activist. On the contrary, I see film as an extension of the essays of eb chapter, path I've been on for the past 25 years#8212;another avenue to eliminating racism. In the spring of art action, 1994, AIM cofounder Clyde Bellecourt accused Means of selling out the AIM cause by accepting a $35,000 settlement from the 1972 suit against macbeth gender essay the Cleveland Indians baseball organization.
Means, who left the American Indian Movement in research paper 1988, responded that his current organization, the American Indian Anti-Defamation League, would be filing another lawsuit against of eb white summary the ball club he never received any of the art action paper, money. Although Means generally detests writing as a European concept, he agreed to have his words published as a chapter in Marxism and Native Americans in order to communicate with a wider audience. He urged each American Indian to essay in intentionality mind paperback avoid becoming Europeanized, using traditional values to resist. He criticized the European intellectual traditions, including Christianity and research paper, capitalism, and accused the Europeans of despiritualizing the universe. He also warned that Marxism, as a European tradition, is also no solution for American Indians' problems. He concluded: I am not a 'leader.' I am an Oglala Lakota patriot.
That's all I want or need to be. And I am very comfortable with who I am. In late 1995 Means published his aut obiography Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of Russell Means coincidentally with Native American Heritage Month. Not surprisingly the strident Means used the occasion to show his disdain for the notion of alcohol coursework, heritage month, which he finds abhorrent, as he does the term Native American. Means told Library Journal in a telephone interview that the term Native American is used to #8230;. describe all the prisoners of the U.S. Research? government and that the idea of a Native American Heritage Month is a #8230;. subterfuge to hide the ongoing daily genocide being practiced against my people by this United States of America. The 1950s? Since being recognized nationally for his reform movements and AIM activities Means had been approached numerous times to write an autobiography. At first he regarded such a proposals as arrogant but after undergoing treatment for art action paper alcoholism and his anger towards white America Means relented and came to believe that an autobiography would prove helpful and relevant to his cause by shedding light on the social reform movements of the turbulent Sixties and Seventies and helping to correct prevailing stereotypes of the American Indian. The Washington Post has called Means the #8230;. biggest, baddest, meanest, angriest, most famous American Indian activist of the late 20th century.
And Means was angry, angry at the White Man's fascist government, the White Man's economic exploitation, and gender role, the White Man's despoiling of nature. Art Action? Means was also angry at his own people, especially the women who would pull at his braids and white summary, tell him how cute they were. Means feeling his person had been violated by their actions would retaliate by pawing at their breasts while saying Oh how cute! By coming to grip with his emotions and anger however Means has worked through his defects and has come to find #8230;peace of mind, the exhilaration of freedom, the bursting of bonds. Means has also continued to be active on research, the Hollywood scene. His acclaimed role of Chingachgook in Last of the Mohicans was followed with his doing the voice of racism, Chief Powhatan in research Walt Disney's hit Pocahontas. He also has credits in Natural Born Killers, Wagons East, and Wind Runner. Racism? Means is also planning a school at Pine Ridge to be called the University of the Universe and will teach Lakota culture as does his Yellow Thunder Camp in art action research the Black Hills. Means hopes that through these spiritual youth camps he will leave a legacy of self-dignity and self-pride amongst his people.
Means, Russell, Where White Men Fear to Tread: The Autobiography of Russell Means, St. Martin's Press, 1995. Words near Russell Means in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Role Essay? Sign up today and paper, start improving your vocabulary! Please set a username for yourself.
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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of repeating the same formula each time – particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Art Action Research Paper. Even better: start a study group. Just as the macbeth gender, books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to paper, read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of arguments or styles, so the online essay, wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for art action research, you to pick up and rs coursework racism use in essays of your own.
As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the art action paper, writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays, essays is the paper, broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and essay dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they’ve left things out to paper, try to persuade you to cambridge essay library mind paperback philosophy, a particular opinion. Art Action. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the best of these writers and essays of eb white pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Art Action Research Paper. Build your vocabulary and use it properly.
Make use of dictionaries and thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to alcohol coursework, express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the art action research paper, number of sindhi language, words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to the point is through accurate and effective use of paper, advanced vocabulary. A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to online about the 1950s, vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in art action, your essay-writing. Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: – Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and have them all in one place ready to rs coursework racism, flick through and learn from in an idle moment. – Read widely, and refer to art action research, a dictionary for words you don’t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in essays, context so you know how to art action paper, use it properly. Macbeth Essay. Read different genres of fiction, and art action research non-fiction covering a range of topics, and you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary.
– Use a thesaurus – if you find yourself using the same words over and over again, add variety to your language by essays of eb chapter summary, looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the research paper, same thing. Macbeth Gender Role Essay. A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in research paper, a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. – Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots – it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. Coursework. Many roots come from Latin and research paper Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to macbeth essay, words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and “benefit”. Research Paper. It’s often possible to 9, deduce the meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in context.
Prefixes are added to paper, the beginning of a word to change the sindhi language, meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. – Start a vocabulary book – you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for art action, your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to collect new words and their meanings. The act of writing down the rs coursework racism, definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the word is used to paper, increase your chances of gender role, memorising it for use in essays. It may help to art action, have different sections for words on cambridge library mind, particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the art action paper, notebook could be dedicated to words of use in history essays, science essays and so on.
The aim of improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and reduce waffle. Put the new words you’ve learned to sindhi language 9, good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in art action research, each essay you write. This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite role effect to the one intended. Research Paper. What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the waffle by macbeth role essay, reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is art action research paper, a pleasure to read. 3. Words to help develop an argument.
Part of sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on using language effectively to help build an argument and sindhi essays language class 9 create a sense of structure. To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word “also”, for example. Vary your language, and use words such as “moreover”, “furthermore” and “however”. Such words help develop your argument and make the art action paper, reader feel they are being guided through the problems on a sort of essays white chapter summary, ‘journey’ to your conclusion. Would you be able to art action, summarise your essay between floors? We’ve probably all had it hammered into us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to know what the argument you’re going to make actually is.
Only then can you start writing the structure for an essay that builds up to your overall conclusion. To condense what you’re trying to say into a short, snappy summary for cambridge essay in intentionality paperback, you to work from, try making an ‘Elevator Pitch’ style summary of what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in it. The Elevator Pitch is art action research, a technique used by salespeople when condensing the alcohol coursework, arguments for buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in a lift; in the time it takes for that lift to reach the art action paper, desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of that product that would result in the customer buying it, or at least wanting to alcohol, know more. Your Elevator Pitch for your essay should sell the idea of it to a reader, leaving them wanting to read the research, essay in essays in sindhi 9, question. Research. This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to macbeth role essay, be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and choice of art action paper, words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and it’ll help you achieve clarity in what you’re trying to say. 5. Online Essay About. Tell the reader what other people say.
Be aware of research, who the foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. Essays Chapter Summary. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and research paper the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on alcohol, essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Essays are a chance for research paper, you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and essay in intentionality library paperback philosophy also mention what a range of art action research paper, modern scholars have to say about the topic. Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on about the 1950s, the topic, so show you’ve looked at all the possible angles.
For each of the subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. That way, you’ll have something to refer to when you’re writing an essay and research paper want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to hide behind other people’s words. It’s fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so. This shows that you have thought about essays white, it and made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the hallmarks of brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and tone of voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when you’re reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the world of difference to how intelligent you sound.
As we’ve already said, the most important consideration when you’re writing is making yourself easy for readers to understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of art action research, interesting syntax at role, the same time. Art Action. Employ a variety of class, sentence structures, long and short, but don’t let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to read. Effective punctuation is vital in research, conveying your arguments persuasively; the last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an essay riddled with poor grammar. What’s more, the reader shouldn’t have to read a sentence more than once to online about, understand it. You probably already have a tone of art action research paper, voice you use for writing essays, but is it interesting and engaging? Read through some of your old essays and ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing. If they’re not, it could well be because you’ve not established the rs coursework, right tone of voice. Essays constitute a formal, academic context, but that doesn’t mean you have to be boring. A confident tone of voice will help show the research, reader that you know what you’re talking about and reassure them that they’re in safe hands.
Writing in the active rather than the passive voice is a well-known trick of the rs coursework racism, trade that writers use to give their writing a sense of immediacy and make it more compelling; you too can deploy this technique in your essays by steering clear of the passive voice (for example, rather than writing “Much work is being done to…”, say “Scholars are putting a great deal of effort into…”). Over the art action research, course of an entire essay, you’d be surprised what a difference this makes to your tone. We hope you’ve found these tips and techniques useful and that they help you take your essay-writing to essay mind, new heights. If you have any tips you’d like to paper, share with us, do let us know by sindhi essays in sindhi language class 9, leaving a comment below! 161 Responses to “How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips” June 10, 2014 at 4:16 pm, Jedi Santos said: Thanks for the tips!I’m looking forward for more! #128578; October 15, 2014 at 6:22 am, preeti said:
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While they wait for her, Othello describes to the Duke the real way in which he won Desdemona's heart. She arrives, with Iago following her. She tells the Duke and her shocked father that she did fall in sindhi essays language class love with Othello for the visage in his mind (252). She begs to be allowed to go with Othello to Cyprus. The Duke grants her permission to accompany Othello, but Othello must leave immediately. Desdemona must meet him there at a later time, and Othello entrusts Iago with her safe passage: Honest Iago/My Desdemona must I leave to art action research thee (I.iii.295). The senate adjourns and leave the council chamber, followed by alcohol, Brabantio, Othello, Desdemona, and all the art action research paper, rest, except for Iago and Roderigo. Iago assures Roderigo that Desdemona's love for Othello is fleeting and that, if Roderigo will come to Cyprus, he will continue scheming to break up the newlyweds.
Roderigo agrees and leaves to make preparations to sail for Cyprus. Once alone, Iago reveals phase two of his evil plan -- the destruction of Michael Cassio, the macbeth role essay, soldier who received the promotion from Othello. He will make Othello believe that Cassio is art action research, Desdemona's secret lover, thereby ruining both of his enemies with the essay in intentionality library mind philosophy, same lie. Act II opens in Cyprus where Montano, the Venetian governor, and his friends discuss a tempest that might have destroyed the Turkish fleet. A messenger comes in paper with the news that the enemy ships have indeed been pulled under by the waves. But they soon begin to fear that the essays of eb white, very same storm has taken the lives of Othello and paper, his crew. Cassio arrives, confirming that Othello cannot be located. One ship does land, carrying Iago, Desdemona, Roderigo, and Iago's wife, Emilia, who has come to look after Desdemona. Desdemona is shaken with fear for her husband, but, much like her warrior husband, she is brave and steady, and keeps her worry to herself.
She converses with Iago and macbeth essay, Emilia, and is sure to include Cassio in the discussion. Cassio is an old and research paper, beloved friend of Othello's and he too is afraid that the ship has been lost at sea. Out of this great concern for sindhi essays in sindhi language class, Othello's safety, Cassio takes Desdemona by the hand. Iago delights in this overt display of affection that he will use against them. A trumpet sounds and to everyone's relief Othello enters. He greets Desdemona with a kiss and art action paper, addresses the crowd, proposing a great feast in celebration of the Venetian victory. Macbeth Essay! All but Iago and Roderigo move from the seaport to the royal castle. Iago tells Roderigo that Cassio is also in love with Desdemona and that, to paper help their plans, Roderigo should pick a fight with Cassio while he is on duty. This will hurt Cassio's reputation and ruin his friendship with Othello and in sindhi language, help keep him apart from Desdemona. Desperate, Roderigo agrees: I will do this if you can bring it to art action any opportunity. (II.i.276). They bid each other goodbye and Iago walks off alone.
He soliloquizes that he intends to make the Moor thank and love him, while at alcohol coursework, the same time planting thoughts of jealousy in Othello's mind -- thoughts so strong That judgement cannot cure. (II.i.296) On a street in Cyprus a herald announces the great victory feast and party that Othello has planned. All the soldiers have full liberty to make merry until eleven o'clock that evening, at research paper, which time they must return to sindhi language class their posts. In the great hall of the castle Othello, Desdemona, and Cassio speak briefly about Iago. Othello tells Cassio that Iago is most honest. Othello and Desdemona leave and Iago comes in to join Cassio. Iago asks him to art action research partake in a glass of wine.
Cassio agrees, but insists that he have only a little, for he has no brains for drinking. But reason gives way to temptation and rs coursework, soon Cassio is drunk. Although he should know better, Cassio takes his post as usual. Iago sends Roderigo to engage Cassio in research paper the fight and essay about the 1950s, within moments the two come bursting back into the hall, swords clashing. They duel until Othello rushes in and demands that they stop. Research! Disappointed and angered by Cassio's behavior, Othello dismisses him from gender role, duty. Othello leaves and Iago convinces Cassio that, in order to regain Othello's favour and his position as lieutenant, he must persuade Desdemona to speak to Othello on his behalf.
Cassio leaves, confident that Iago's plan will work to restore his friendship with Othello. Iago is also sure that his plan will be a success, but with much different results. His intent is to art action research paper make it appear that Desdemona is pleading for essay, her long-time lover. Desdemona will become Iago's most valued pawn: Outside the castle, Cassio has gathered some musicians in the hopes of putting Othello in a good mood. Cassio asks Emilia if she will grant him access to visit Desdemona. Iago overhears and paper, offers to fetch Desdemona at online about, once. Desdemona agrees to an interview with Cassio and Emilia shows him to Desdemona's chamber. In this short scene Othello makes plans to art action paper inspect some parts of the rs coursework, fortifications built by his troops.
The purpose of this scene is to explain why Othello is art action, not initially present when Desdemona meets with Cassio. Iago had planned to concoct a story to ensure Othello was absent for Cassio's visit, but luck has made Iago's job easier indeed. The scene shifts to the garden of the castle. Sindhi Essays 9! Cassio asks Desdemona to art action paper speak to Othello and convince him that he is still a trustworthy soldier and friend. Desdemona does not hesitate to help because she knows how deeply Cassio and Othello feel for one another. She longs for them to reconcile: You do love my lord/You have known him long (III.iii.10-1). In a moment of brilliant dramatic irony, Desdemona innocently professes her undying support for Cassio:
In front of the castle Desdemona and Emilia meet the Clown, a servant to Othello. Desdemona asks him where Cassio might be, and he says that he will search for essay about, him. Desdemona is distraught over her missing handkerchief and tells Emilia that she would have rather lost anything else she owns, ironically adding: On the grounds of the castle, Iago and Othello have found a secluded place in which to continue their discussion of art action Desdemona's adultery. Although to the audience it appears that they have resumed where they left off at the end of Act III, Shakespeare hints that much time has elapsed and that Iago used those missing hours and days to pollute further Othello's mind. Iago tells Othello that Cassio has admitted to having sex with Desdemona. Othello, overcome with rage, spirals into essays white chapter summary, incoherent hysteria: In a room of the research paper, castle Othello has found Emilia to question her about her knowledge of sindhi essays language 9 Desdemona's affair. She tells him that she has been with them every time they have spoken, and that she has heard nothing that would be considered suspicious in the least. She begs Othello to put such thought out of his mind at art action, once, for Desdemona is chapter, as true and loyal a wife as any woman could be. She adds, If any wretch have put this in art action research paper your head/Let heaven requite it with the serpent's curse! (IV.ii.15-6).
Othello commands her to leave. He does not want to rs coursework racism hear the art action research, truth and ignores her testimony. He calls her a madam, lying to protect her whore Desdemona. When Desdemona enters Othello coolly asks her to come to him. Desdemona is very afraid and library paperback philosophy, when he orders Emilia to leave Desdemona begs to hear the reason for his fury.
He asks her what she is and she replies that she is his loyal wife. He calls her as false as hell and a labels her a strumpet and a whore. Desdemona is stunned when she realizes what she is being accused of, and she can only deny the art action research paper, charges against her, which fall upon deaf ears. When Emilia re-enters to check on Desdemona, Othello walks out, telling Desdemona to keep their conversation a secret. Emilia asks Desdemona is racism, she is all right and art action research, she replies that she cannot tell if she is awake or dreaming.
Shaken to her very core, she cannot regain her composure, but asks Emilia to fetch her husband. Emilia is surprised at Desdemona's request for the 1950s, Iago, but she agrees and leaves to search for him. Research Paper! When Iago comes into the room, Desdemona begs for his counsel. Iago tells her that a matter of state is weighing heavy on Othello's mind and he assures her that all will soon be well. She leaves the room and Iago immediately sends Roderigo to kill Cassio.
Roderigo agrees to the murder because Iago convinces him that Cassio's death will force Othello to rs coursework remain in research Cyprus and thus Desdemona will also stay and continue to racism be close to art action him. In another room, Othello is gathered with Desdemona, Emilia, and of eb chapter, Lodovico. Othello tells Desdemona to art action research paper dismiss Emilia and get to bed, and he will be up shortly. While she gets ready for bed she speaks with Emilia, who helps her unpin her gown. Desdemona sings a sorrowful song about a woman who is rs coursework, abandoned by her lover and she waits for Othello's knock at the door. She asks Emilia how any woman could do what she herself is falsely accused of doing. Emilia replies that she can certainly understand why women sometimes cheat on their husbands and, considering the way men treat their wives, it is oftentimes wholly justifiable. Paper! Desdemona bids Emilia good night and the scene ends with Desdemona's lines so characteristic of her virtuous nature. She prays that the poor way in which she has been treated by Othello will teach her, not to hate or seek revenge, but to forgive and improve upon gender her own faults: Good night, good night/Heaven me such uses send/Not to pick bad from bad, but by research paper, bad mend! (IV.iii.102-3) Out on the streets Iago positions Roderigo to ambush Cassio.
Roderigo stands in the shadows with his sword ready, and Iago watches close by, mentioning to the audience that he hopes each one will kill the other so that he will not have to return Roderigo's money and jewels. Cassio appears and Roderigo attacks him, but Cassio's thick coat shields him from the point of the rapier. Philosophy! Cassio strikes Roderigo, wounding him, and Iago is forced to crouch down and stab Cassio in the leg. Cassio's injury causes him to art action paper fall to cambridge the ground and when Othello arrives, he is delighted to see what he believes is the corpse of Cassio. He quickly leaves for art action, the castle, ready to administer Desdemona's punishment. Lodovico and Gratiano appear and Rogerigo asks for their help. Iago comes out of the dark and pretends to be shocked by cambridge in intentionality library mind philosophy, the chaos. Cassio is very much alive and he identifies Rogerigo as one of his attackers. Art Action Paper! Iago, aware he must silence Roderigo for sindhi essays language class 9, good, expresses his outrage at the attack and stabs Rogerigo in a fit of supposed righteous indignation. Art Action Paper! Roderigo cries O damn'd Iago!
O inhuman dog! (V.i.63), and sindhi in sindhi language class 9, dies. Iago orders Emilia to tell Othello what has happened and, when Biana arrives upon the scene, Iago accuses her of being Roderigo's accomplice and research paper, places her under arrest. The scene shifts to Desdemona's bedchamber in the castle. Desdemona is sleeping peacefully when Othello enter with a lantern. Essays In Sindhi Language Class! He stands for art action paper, a long while at racism, the foot of her bed, staring at her, overcome with feelings of love. He declares that he will not scar her beautiful face, but rather he will kill her bloodlessly. He kisses her one last time and she awakens and sweetly asks her husband to come to bed.
He orders her to paper say one final prayer and to prepare for death. She begs him to tell her what she has done and he reveals it is because she gave his handkerchief to her lover, Cassio. She pleads with him to fetch Cassio who will support her innocence, but he says the Cassio is dead. She begs Othello to let her live, Kill me tomorrow; let me live to-night! (V.ii.80). But Othello will not listen to her cries, and cooly tells his horrified wife that It's too late (V.ii.88). He smothers Desdemona where she lay. Emilia bangs on the door, reporting to Othello that Cassio has been injured but that he is still alive. Othello draws the curtains on Desdemona's bed to hide his heinous deed and lets Emilia in to tell him more. But Desdemona, not quite dead, lets out a faint cry professing her innocence one last time. Emilia demands to alcohol coursework know who has hurt her, and even now Desdemona loves Othello enough to paper protect him: Nobody -- I myself.
Farewell (V.ii.124). Desdemona dies, and Othello cowardly denies that he has murdered her. But Emilia does not believe him and he at last blurts out that he is guilty, but only of sending a liar gone to burn in racism hell! He threatens Emilia to keep silent but she screams murder and alerts the whole castle. Montano and Iago run into Desdemona's chamber, and Othello again speaks of the art action research, handkerchief. Emilia tells Othello that Iago made her steal the handkerchief, and, beginning to cambridge in intentionality comprehend the paper, terrible truth, he lunges at Iago, but is promptly disarmed by Montano. Iago grabs Emilia and about, stabs her, much to the dismay and shock of Montano. As she lay dying, Emilia remembers Desdemona's song and confirms that she was chaste and in love only with the cruel Moor. Iago runs away and the men chase after him, leaving Othello by himself.
He has a sword hidden in the chamber and he waits for the men to research paper return with Iago as prisoner. Othello stabs Iago, only to wound him, and is again disarmed. He asks forgiveness of Cassio who is now in the room, and essays class, Cassio obliges. More information about Iago's plot is revealed in a letter left by Roderigo and picked up by art action, Cassio as he lay on the street. Othello gives a final speech and pulls out a dagger he has hidden well. He stabs himself and falls dying next to Desdemona.
He last words are to his innocent wife and victim: I kiss'd thee ere I kill'd thee. No way but this/Killing myself, to die upon a kiss. (V.ii.358-9) 1999-2010 Amanda Mabillard. All Rights Reserved.
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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. “This is the art action research paper, end…” Actually, just the macbeth gender role, beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didn’t say much about it. That’s because it’s a very well-known – and brilliant – use of sound in paper, the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is “The End” by The Doors. Online Essay? Why a song about the end at the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the art action, end of Captain Willard’s illusions about the war, and the end of America’s illusions as well.
The film was made in philosophy, 1979, four years after the art action research paper, Vietnam War ended, and it was a bitter, soul-searching time – what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of “malaise” in the country. The United States had lost a war for the first time in its history; it’s technological prowess and superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and the message would have been quite different. Sindhi Essays Language Class? I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the art action paper, norm for movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the “use of sound to indicate character subjectivity” (236). They also mention that “often diegetic music reveals character traits” (237). All this is true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of Willard in the hotel room. It reveals to us what Willard is thinking, in all it surreal contours.
We hear other sounds mediated through Willard’s subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into the distorted sound of helicopter blades – the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and alcohol throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altman’s M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. Paper? The fact that the sound is distorted tells us it’s coming from Willard’s subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the mind paperback, snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is plenty of art action, that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: “Saigon. Shit. Alcohol Coursework? . . . Still in Saigon.” In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in art action paper, regards to the war, while at the same time showing that he can’t wait to get back to the jungle.
Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and essay the 1950s plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village “back to the Stone Age,” destroying a village in order to save it. He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: “The Ride of the Valkyries,” from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to research paper, [D. W. Griffiths’s film] The Birth of cambridge in intentionality philosophy, a Nation , whose original score featured Wagner’s music accompanying the Ku Klux Klan’s triumphant charge.
Moreover, the art action research, choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagner’s music and the composer’s anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of cambridge essay paperback, a quiet village, where only the sound of children can be heard, and then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of paper, dread. The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to about, soft shifts the audience’s identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. Art Action Research Paper? Sound editor Walter Murch’s manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in the position of the of eb white, attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audience’s experience, but also the experience of the war on the “home-front,” with the American populace nearly split on the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the art action paper, film is also part of a larger sound design in the film, in macbeth role essay, which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over art action research the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) – or use radio or megaphones – is not bad sound design. The noise is an inescapable part of modern, mechanized war. In the first half of the sindhi language class 9, film, the audience is art action, encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam.
It illustrates this statement by alcohol coursework your textbook authors: “Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important” (251). In regards to sound in films, if it’s soft and research hard to hear, it’s important. The quieter it is on the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the rs coursework racism, sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in paper, the private quarters of alcohol coursework, a general, and is given his mission to kill Colonel Kurtz.
First, there’s the background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). Art Action? It’s what we would call “muzak,” or “easy-listening” music. It defines the general and the scene, in contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the general is genteel, and a little prissy – or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people “not to trust anyone over 30”). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the general’s soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene.
In this scene, we also hear Col. Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. It’s significant that Kurtz is of eb white, introduced in the film via sound. It’s even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of research, a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to macbeth gender essay, hear. We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon the captured Willard that the paper, military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the “silent partner” that I concentrated on when we discussed this scene in class. The “silent partner,” unlike the other two men, is alcohol coursework, wearing civilian clothes. Art Action Paper? He is most likely CIA. Cambridge In Intentionality Mind Philosophy? He does have one line, and it’s an important one: he says, “terminate with extreme prejudice.” What this basically means is: “do whatever you need to art action research, do to kill Kurtz.” With this one line, the role essay, CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to research, kill Kurtz.
In this, he shows that he is the essays of eb white summary, real one in charge, even in “mufti” (civilian clothes). This is Coppola’s way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Research Paper? Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the secretive CIA – the “silent partner” – that really runs things behind the essays of eb chapter summary, scenes. Silence in the Temple of research paper, Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to define different characters and cambridge in intentionality library mind paperback philosophy different scenes . There are a lot of art action research, synthesizers on the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in every scene. The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for different scenes. If you listen closely enough, you’ll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the online, boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtz’s compound, etc. For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more “Asian” in tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and research industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river.
I also have to point out the brilliant and devastating use of essay philosophy, sound in research paper, the scene where Clean dies. You’ll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and it continues on rs coursework racism, the soundtrack as the crew on the boat deal with Clean’s death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, don’t get shot and come back to us in one piece, while the dead, shot Clean lies on paper, the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on essay, the use of silence in the second half of the paper, film. The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the first half is set in war-zones and much of the second half is set in rs coursework, Kurtz’s compound in the Buddhist temple. But I don’t want you to come to research paper, the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because it’s noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Rather, as in essays 9, the scene in the general’s quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in art action research, point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace.
He is also prone to long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtz’s “guest.” The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (“Jordy” Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to rs coursework, articulate things the way Kurtz can. “I wish I had the words…” he says at one point. But inarticulation is also one of Kurtz’s preoccupations. Art Action Research? During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: “Words can’t describe what is mind philosophy, ‘necessary’ to research paper, those who don’t know what horror is.” Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it can’t be suppressed by silence. In fact, the horror whispers in the shadows of the role essay, compound. Art Action Paper? For instance, often times on the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtz’s compound. The silence can’t block out the flies; instead, the essay in intentionality mind philosophy, silence makes the sound audible. You would never be able to hear the flies during the battle scenes in art action, the film.
Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and racism dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of Kurtz’s insane tyranny: he commands it. That’s why the people are so quiet there.
It’s one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtz’s compound. There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by the boat’s siren. They’re inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by a large, utterly silent, crowd.
Willard is the art action paper, new chief, the of eb chapter summary, new tyrant. Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that it’s a accoutrement of research, command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtz’s dying words: “the horror, the horror.” They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in cambridge in intentionality mind paperback, the quiet that the art action, horror manifests itself. That is, the online about the 1950s, film suggests that it’s the silence that brings out a person’s inner demons, not the bombast of war. War and its horrors are represented by art action research paper more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones.
War is also represented – or cloaked – by quiet, by whispered conversations in silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, that’s what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by online about the sounds of explosions. It will also be known by the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. Last week in class I mentioned that I planned to research paper, write a blog entry comparing Hitchcock’s Psycho with Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. White Chapter? I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcock’s had a huge commercial and art action research paper critical success with his film, whereas Powell’s film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Powell was practically “blacklisted” in role essay, movies for years afterward.
The purpose of research, my blog entry was to essays white chapter summary, figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera. I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is called “the Male Gaze.” According to Glen Johnson, “the Male Gaze” (or “The Gaze”) is. a concept introduced by research Laura Mulvey (“Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema,” 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is macbeth, coded as male. Art Action Paper? Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an essay about, indication of power or control within the art action research paper, movie.
Bob Bednar adds that Mulvey’s. essay outlines an idea about the “male gaze” in essay mind, which men have the art action paper, power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Cambridge Essay Mind Paperback Philosophy? Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and research not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Sindhi Class? Still, Mulvey’s idea about the male gaze has some validity to it, which we find in art action, Hitchcock’s films.
Simply put, the Male Gaze refers to the idea that the point of view in racism, Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcock’s Rear Window is Mulvey’s textbook example of the Male Gaze at work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by research Hitchcock. This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and in intentionality library mind philosophy Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of these studies (including Mulvey’s) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and profit. Scottie, with his camera, in Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and art action research Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcock’s work is prototypical of the alcohol coursework, extremely violent assaults on paper, women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of ‘masochists’. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in rs coursework racism, the films – the one who would threaten patriarchal law and order through the force of her anarchic desires – but also the research paper, women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17).
But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater. The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about essay about, Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and art action research paper wrote a study of of eb white chapter, Hitchcock’s The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early ’70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. I’ve been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of “the male gaze” that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to paper, a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an in intentionality paperback, object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over art action paper woman by turning her into mere matter, into “meat” – I think this was utter nonsense from the start. Macbeth Essay? . . . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and female victimization, and then came this theory – the “victim” model of feminism applied wholesale to works of culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the film of a misogynist; quite the research, contrary. But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Let’s call it the “Self-Awareness Defense” (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term you’ve been introduced to and which will be important in the second half of the course, is essays white, a term quite similar to “self-awareness”). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is art action paper, doing, and he makes sure the viewer knows what he’s doing.
Hitchcock doesn’t leer at gender role women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to the viewer. We can test my “Self-Awareness” thesis by research looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in Psycho . And she is often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the cop are fairly obvious in alcohol coursework, their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from art action paper across the essay the 1950s, street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. In the art action, opening scene, the macbeth gender role, long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of a bedroom, the hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the art action research paper, camera acting like a “peeping tom,” Hitchcock draws attention to it. He is self-aware about rs coursework, it, which means he tries to art action research, make the viewer aware of it.
Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the essay about, first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in the office, to art action, the suspicious Police Officer and ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by the script and the representation of the characters. A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marion’s activities, we . . . feel he is cambridge essay philosophy, being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also.
The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the film viewer never really takes on art action, the point of view of the macbeth role, police officer in this scene. The viewer doesn’t see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing. Art Action Paper? That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering – he exposes him – rather than let us share the officer’s leering point of white, view. Research? This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in Psycho . The parlor scene is another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Essay In Intentionality Library Mind Paperback? Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Norman’s stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the paper, action of capture and the bird’s all-seeing point of view on its prey.
Norman’s declaration to Marion: “You, you eat like a bird” reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an ‘eagle-eye’ view of Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of sindhi essays language, Norman’s Male Gaze. But the art action research paper, Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the camera zooming in on language class, his eye. Research Paper? This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and macbeth role prepare for a shower, and art action research paper when the camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this “peeping tom” moment is that we see that it is a “peeping tom” moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on rs coursework, Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marion’s room illuminates Norman’s eye in art action research paper, profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to Norman’s point of view and instantly implicates the viewer in the voyeurism.
We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on online essay the 1950s, Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Norman’s arousal and the manifestation of his desire from paper behind a wall – forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: “Look, you’re a voyeur too!” When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Norman’s assistance, we will spy on Marion in sindhi essays in sindhi language class, a bedroom.
We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of art action research, Norman’s eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the macbeth essay, watchful camera (the first entrance into art action paper, Sam and Marion’s hotel room, the essay the 1950s, tracking shots of the art action paper, envelope stuffed with cash and rs coursework the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in art action research paper, various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. Essays Chapter Summary? During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. We didn’t notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Norman’s point of view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is no longer innocent. We are aware of paper, what it means now.
Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife. In Sindhi 9? Some critics read this scene as the epitome of the art action, Male Gaze, and see Norman’s attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and screams, goes so far as to visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”. Essay About The 1950s? It is an onscreen manifestation of the male’s desire to “rape” the female, and research paper Marion’s murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on her lifeless eye, furthering the chapter summary, notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is art action research, “an opportunity for the presumed male audience to see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on of eb white chapter summary, screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulvey’s famous article ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975). Art Action Paper? . . . If this scene was in alcohol coursework, reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from art action Marion’s perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.” Spachis notes all the “allusions to the voyeuristic eye” in the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marion’s dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of role, a horrifying event – we feel as if we are seeing “everything,” far more than we want to see – without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. Research? To a very great extent the violence is implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship.
In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to see the naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. But Hitchcock won’t give us the one without the other. But it’s not just a matter of Hitchcock making the macbeth gender role essay, viewer pay for his or her desire by forcing the him or her to witness a murder. It’s that he makes us witness a murder to show us the art action, end result of essay in intentionality mind, desire. Hitchcock is research, self-aware about watching in cambridge essay in intentionality philosophy, the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too.
He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of art action, a greater awareness of the way men, in particular, objectify women when watching films. The basic premise of what I’m arguing is rs coursework, that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. Art Action? But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is still a little blurry, don’t worry. We’ll be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course. University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, “Mulvey”, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, “Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960)”, Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, “Feminist film theory,” MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988).
Evangeline Spachis, “Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in class 9, Hitchcock’s ‘Psycho’ (1960)”, Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, “ The Savage Id” (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, “‘Here’s Lookin’ at You, Kid!’: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho ,” Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (there’s also an essay, at the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcock’s Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in art action research paper, the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates.
It is an example of how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cambridge essay in intentionality library mind paperback philosophy, cuts, is significant. Research Paper? At the sindhi in sindhi language class, beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. Research Paper? But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to coursework, show emotional responses by both Marion and Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in research, the textbook is the short sequence that shows the alcohol, murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman – or rather, Norman’s mother. This is an example of collage – encouraging “the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of research paper, each shot” ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193).
The scene begins with a shot from high above the action, in the stair landing on the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and about the 1950s falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the paper, camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the essays chapter, contrast between the long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on him. It was like music, you see, the high shot with the research, violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of alcohol, this quote, that it “suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in camera positioning can evoke an emotional response.” The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the research paper, audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Like the other formal film elements we’ve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors don’t discuss Hitchcock’s use of the same overhead shot – though much more drawn out – a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isn’t a cut to something else, in rs coursework racism, this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.
Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the stairs is distinctive. It is an example of the “trombone” shot that Hitchcock made famous in art action research, Vertigo . This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at racism the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and misapprehension in art action paper, the audience. Essays Chapter Summary? (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is art action, walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the film, which is actually a number of zoom shots edited together, transporting the coursework, viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they can’t get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in research paper, another post.
Then I showed you an example of an eye-line match cut, in the scene where Marion is deciding whether she will steal the money, or not. Throughout the scene, the rs coursework racism, editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Research? Eventually, she decides to take the money; and cambridge library this sets up the most prominent “McGuffin” in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a “red herring”). Then we looked at paper the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in her car, with the stolen money. Essays In Sindhi Language? Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and research paper an obscured view of a rain-drenched road.
Once Marion decides to alcohol coursework, stop her car at the side of the road to sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and art action research the policeman in sun-glasses, in racism, which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we can’t see his eyes, makes him an ominous figure. Research Paper? Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to white chapter summary, the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and then, to paper, emphasize Marion’s anxiety, the camera cuts to shots of the police car in the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in class, I hadn’t discussed the editing of the famous shower scene in alcohol, Psycho . Art Action Paper? When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the language 9, thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in art action research, the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up). Let me add that, as the camera usually has a point of view, the gender role essay, editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to take on Norman’s crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by now quite common in horror and research suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in cambridge essay library mind paperback philosophy, Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marion’s car – with all of Marion’s effects, including, unbeknownst to Norman, the research, money Marion stole – the pacing of the editing of the essay, shot/reverse slows down. Art Action? Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Norman’s anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to coursework, sink.
In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene. One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in art action, this sequence is that the sinking of the car represents Norman’s psychological repression of the essay about the 1950s, heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Norman’s unconscious. While the final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Norman’s crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and research paper Lila (Marion’s sister) go to the Bates motel to investigate. Online Essay? We have shots of art action research paper, Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and role essay cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.
Bates in the house. This, like much of the research, editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is done to create suspense. One of the essays language 9, interesting things about the cross-cutting here is research paper, that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the $40,000, Lila – by rs coursework racism way of many eyeline-match cuts – finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Norman’s arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the art action research, details in Norman’s home. Happy Halloween from Norman’s mom, three weeks early. Don’t eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine!
Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights. With it’s use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and essays of eb white summary has been hugely influential. Art Action Research? The irony is macbeth role, that cinematographer Gregg Toland’s unsettling and art action idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. I’ve already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the more innovative uses of of eb, cinematography in Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 – 2:46). Coming near the beginning of the paper, film, this is one of the more striking shots in essays in sindhi language class, the film. Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of a nurse entering the room.
It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at the moment of research paper, his death. 2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 – 12:27). Chapter? This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kane’s “pleasure palace.” We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Research? Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. Alcohol? But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to research paper, highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane).
Both are used to communicate power. Note also the grainy look of the older film excerpts. This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of rs coursework racism, film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 – 14:58). I discussed this shot in class. Though it is research, made to look like one long crane shot, it is online essay about, really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. The famous crane shot in Orson Welles’s Touch of Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). Art Action Research? The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 – 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 – 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 – 27:15). At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at essay in intentionality paperback his first Christmas in art action research, New York city.
We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and the older Thatcher’s response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the coursework, viewer to a shot of Kane and Thatcher at Kane’s Inquirer office. During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and paper also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over racism Kane, but by the end of the art action, scene Kane is decidedly taller. I wrote about figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. In Sindhi Language Class? Deep focus shot at Kane’s party (40:08 – 45:11). Research Paper? This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. We see, reflected in a window, the rs coursework, logo of research paper, Kane’s rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. Macbeth Gender Role? The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten “star” journalists working for the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the art action, ten journalists now work for Kane’s New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at alcohol a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. There is art action research, one sequence where we have an alcohol, extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing.
Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window. As is often the case with deep focus shots, particularly in Citizen Kane , the figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and it covers over the figure of Kane in the window. Here the camera suggests Leland’s suspicion (later confirmed) that Kane’s principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 – 1:17:31; 1:29:42 – 1:30:32). Research Paper? The scene in cambridge essay library mind philosophy, which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in art action research paper, the film, once from Leland’s point of view, and then from Susan’s point of about, view. Paper? In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the rs coursework, camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to art action, indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susan’s singing.
When it comes time for Susan to narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. Sindhi Essays Class? So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the wings (Susan), to indicate two different points of view. From Susan’s POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from high above the stage. This shows Kane’s dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 – 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is art action paper, certainly creative shot-making, but the summary, effect is due more to editing than cinematography.
7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 – 1:56:35). Near the end of the film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kane’s valet Paul, there is art action, a lot of interesting camera work. White Summary? First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Paul’s view of paper, Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down “Rosebud.” The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with “loot,” after Kane’s death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of rs coursework racism, these – including Kane’s most cherished “junk,” such as his sled – are thrown on the fire. Art Action Research? This suggests the rs coursework racism, transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to art action paper, memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the cambridge in intentionality mind philosophy, poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by art action research paper another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at racism the end of his life: And on the pedestal these words appear: ‘My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:
Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!’ Nothing beside remains. Research Paper? Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare, The lone and level sands stretch far away’ (“Ozymandias”). University of Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 – 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu.
snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of white chapter summary, xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 – 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 – 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 – 1:47:12) kane and thatcher (movement foreground to background, low and research paper high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to “come alive” shot (Chronicle to Inquirer journalists) Kane’s party (deep focus) leland’s story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to object, low and high angle shots) leland’s view of opera house (beginning of shot susan from audience POV, crane shot up) susan’s view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to susan’s POV) kane’s view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over susan. montage of susan’s opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background – foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctor’s black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in sindhi language in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles.
Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. Art Action Research Paper? G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in of eb white chapter summary, 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, “Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane —highly unusual at a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by research paper the studio system” (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welles’s first project was to be Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget. He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didn’t go over budget. Alcohol? This time he didn’t. The film was released according to Welles’s vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane “is the studio era’s outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the system in research paper, almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio – the first American mainstream art film” (50).
The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welles’s forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst. Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the essays white, film and Welles. Hearst wouldn’t let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and refused to publicize RKO films. Art Action Research? It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearst’s film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of “Great Man” biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearst’s opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in language, big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKO’s vaults and art action research was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the racism, best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on paper, the look-out for “Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of essay in intentionality library paperback philosophy, film art within the art action research paper, artistic constraints imposed by the studio system. The studio ‘factory’ was seen to alcohol coursework, have produced its auteurs against research the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation” (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for racism, the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of Orson Welles. It wasn’t just Hearst that had it in for Welles.
In the history of Hollywood film, Welles is considered by some a tragic figure, an artist brought low by his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . Paper? After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welles’s producers at RKO cut an hour out of the film and tacked on essays, a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the art action research, film could not be reconstructed. This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many – Welles among them – consider this as the essay in intentionality library mind, beginning of the end of Welles’s Hollywood career. Art Action Research? He made most of alcohol coursework, his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from his acting fees. There is art action paper, good reason to believe that Welles the of eb chapter, auteur was destroyed by the Hollywood studio system. Research? This was because, according to David Thomson, he was “a young man who intended to online essay the 1950s, defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kane’s newspaper in Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and art action research he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion” (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.
Instead, the essays in sindhi language class, Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to art action research paper, How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by sindhi in sindhi language 9 John Ford (he didn’t just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Ford’s film was fine, but not the earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the art action paper, Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at rs coursework racism that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To… As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for research, television syndication – and particularly after French critics got a hold of it – Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics’ lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in sindhi essays in sindhi language class, the poll. It was bested by Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo . This is art action research paper, what the in sindhi class 9, British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.
Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the research paper, film goes “after the white chapter, dark heart of the American dream.” And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of suspense was so poorly received upon paper, release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcock’s finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of desire. Racism? A thriller of dreamlike allure, it’s whipped to dizzying heights by paper Bernard Herrmann’s Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by online essay Vertigo has been controversial. Paper? Some critics see dark forces at work. For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking: The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in library, a Harvard-bound honor student’s eye, and the idea of art action paper, communicating in racism, 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content – innovative, visionary, ponderous – atop the field forever.
That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for art action research paper, the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out online essay about the 1950s that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired. University of Maryland. British Film Institute, “The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and Sound,” 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway?
The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, “‘Citizen Kane’ v. Paper? ‘Vertigo’: Why ‘Kane’ Fell in essay library philosophy, the Sight and Sound Poll,” The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, “Smoke and Mirrors in Citizen Kane ,” Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, “Film in Context: Citizen Kane ,” History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. “The Mark of Kane,” Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48. Stanley Kubrick and research his Conspiratorial Interpreters.
According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is “a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years.” Watercutter and essay in intentionality mind paperback Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of research paper, Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at ten of the interpretations of macbeth gender, these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations.
There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubrick’s cryptic confession that he was involved in the supposed faked moon landing of art action research paper, 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen King’s novel. Watercutter explains Weidner’s thesis further: As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (it’s 238,855 on average) and the inscription on the room’s key: ROOM No 237. “There’s only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them,” Weidner says. “And that’s ‘moon’ and ‘room’ and so on the key, the tag, it says ‘moon room.'” (Those letters also spell “moron,” but that seems like more of a coincidence.)
One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in Stuart Ullman’s office. According to Weidner, Ullman’s paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the in intentionality library paperback, window in that scene does not exist in the floor plan on the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the paper, rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the monster. Paperback? As evidence, Kearns argues that Jack’s face gets progressively bull-like in research, the film. She also sees a minotaur in coursework, a sky poster in the film.
Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film. Vary discusses Ascher’s contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of art action, a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name “Monarch,” a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the film has a subtext that concerns the essays of eb white chapter summary, Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jack’s Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriter’s color shift has significance to his theory that Kubrick’s film has “a deeply-laid subtext” about the paper, Holocaust. “That typewriter, that German. typewriter – which by the way changes color in the course of the film, which typewriters don’t generally do – is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event.” This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny). About The 1950s? It doesn’t help Cocks’s case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call “continuity errors” (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . Paper? For instance, there is cambridge essay paperback, a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubrick’s attempt to parody the horror genre.
Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to art action research, attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the case that The Shining , when run forwards and coursework backwards, offers up many new meanings. Art Action Paper? He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryan’s ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the online about, film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesn’t really build a theory around this as much as play around with the paper, film and deconstruct (or “hack”) it via technology. However, like the other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. Macbeth Gender Role? For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jack’s abuse of Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse. Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the art action research paper, interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter.
Watercutter doesn’t say much about coursework, Blakemore’s larger theory that the film is about the genocide of Native Americans. Research Paper? In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on macbeth role essay, Wendy’s clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film – which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans – and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is full of Native American designs. Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing.
In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Research Paper? Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): “The design on the rug shows basically – in essays of eb chapter, geometric form with round curves – the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . Art Action Research? . Essay The 1950s? Sort of research paper, like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life.” More “evidence” of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have – but did not – made the cut in Ascher’s documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in sindhi essays in sindhi class, an “in-depth” analysis of The Shining that he published online. You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Grady’s daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes: There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is only something that’s been around in the latter part of the film’s history. We can only guess what kind of theories will arise in paper, an even newer technological moment, when anyone at essays of eb chapter summary anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and art action backwards to essays 9, their heart’s content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed “Immersion Criticism”: the kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of art action research paper, times. “It’s not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by essays in sindhi language 9 anyone who’s perceptive,” Klosterman wrote about Room 237 at research Grantland . “It’s a matter of noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention.”
Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the cambridge paperback philosophy, producer of Room 237 : “'[ The Shining ] doesn’t solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We don’t really know. Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is played almost like a big reveal of ‘Aha!’ But it’s not really.
If anything, it just deepens the mystery’” (qtd. in Vary). Kubrick’s reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: “I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and there’s a reason,” says Kirk. “That is a jumping off point for art action paper, a lot of people. . . . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection,” he adds, “that if you don’t get something . . . Gender? there’s a trust that it’s not that it’s a mistake, it’s that you didn’t figure it out.” All work and research no play means too tired to notice obvious continuity errors… This is language 9, what I call argument by mise-en-scene. It’s an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in research paper, the shot (visual details) is an accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.
The Shining is in intentionality library mind paperback philosophy, a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. Research Paper? That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isn’t necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on macbeth, The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesn’t list the art action, one I discovered: in essays chapter, the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the paper, ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). “The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy person’s conspiracy theory!” So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death – or from the cambridge, grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on art action research paper, the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and the changed room number.
How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, America’s abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. Of Eb Chapter Summary? It’s only research a matter of time before someone links The Shining to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and the Mayan Apocalypse. I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of blood.
Prepare yourself. . Racism? . . I’m outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, “The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means”, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Art Action Research? Vary. “5 Conspiracy Theories About ‘The Shining’ That Aren’t In ‘Room 237.’ Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).