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Benito Cereno and American Characteristic. 19th Century Literature Prof. Bland Typical American Character “Benito Cereno” is a work that exceedingly depicts how ideological self-delusion of an American character is one of the most dangerous capacities of mankind. Captain Delano a Yankee from “Duxbury Massachusetts” exemplifies these two American cultures of concerning nature and confidence. As Americans we have concerned and helped other less fortunate (i. e. the amount we donate to help third world countries), we are also confident and fearless in nature that we can accomplish anything (i. Debutante Essay? e. American dream). These traditional American characteristics I believe forms the American arrogance that we are stereotyped to have. We maybe helping others we have no business helping. Just like the American culture Delano truly believes he is doing the right thing, by showing concern and having confidence in being able to help the San Dominick slave-ship and he is incapable of seeing the horrifying consequences of his actions both with respect to his “friendly racism” and his fantasy of term, “superiority”. He spends a day on the San Dominick following a slave mutiny, never quite aware that anything is wrong until the truth all but bites his head off. Delano subscribes to a typical #8220;Northern#8221; view of African slaves: he considers them to write debutante essay be naturally good-natured, submissive servants.
He spends much of his time aboard the can you in creative, San Dominick condescendingly admiring Babo#8217;s performance. Debutante Essay? Melville critiques this naivete arrogance of thesis fund, superiority and friendly racism to which although these characteristic are positive if not careful, can be a barrier that blinds a person from seeing the actual situation. #8220;None wore fetters, because the owner, his friend Aranda, told him that they were all tractable#8221; (BC 224) As Delano first boards Benito#8217;s ship, the slaves are still unfettered. The ship seems unreal; these strange costumes, gestures, and faces, but a shadowy tableau just emerged from the deep, which directly must receive back what it gave#8221; (BC). This #8220;shadowy tableau,#8221; on the ship inhabited mostly by unregulated African slaves, roaming around freely is there for Captain Delano to write debutante develop his own understanding as to why this ship culture is the way it is. Having the traditional American character of concern, Delano in nature is concerned about the ship and his intention of genuinely helping the troubled captain Benito Cereno becomes a curtain that prevents him from seeing the stephen harper, real intentions of the slaves. Write Essay? This trustful and concerned nature of Americans is write term one of the characters Captain Delano represents. That an American upbringing create a perception even today that we, as a country, had a right to go around the world helping other struggling nations who were beset by tyrants or internal fighting with the attendant killing and essay, raping of the mencken, populace. This trusting and debutante, concerned nature makes us delusional preventing us from thesis fund, seeing the write, facts that maybe these country America is helping does not want our help. The same goes for captain Delano his trustful nature creates a delusion of “faithful and harmless slaves” that helping this slave ship and its current condition of unfettered slaves is a result of the poor management of Captain Delano’s lesser Hispanic counter Captain Benito Cereno therefore his is obliged to help to get it under control.
This concerning nature blinds Captain Delano from seeing the essay school, truth. Before even making contact with the write essay, blacks on the ship, Delano readily stresses their good-natured and pristine qualities. Essays Mencken? These #8220;unsophisticated Africans,#8221; with their #8220;self-content#8221; and #8220;peculiar love . . . of uniting industry with pastime,#8221; (BC) bring out Delano#8217;s #8220;weakness for negroes. #8221; In his understanding of debutante, them, they are a mixture of docility and nobility. Delano feels confident as he sees #8220;the affectionate zeal#8221; and #8220;good conduct#8221; (BC) As this book reveals, Delano alternates between his images of the Africans as an innocent faithful slaves, he completely misinterprets the slave revolt and totally neglects the blacks#8217; inner motivations. While revealing how Delano adapts these ideological images of the black man to fit his own understanding. This confidence from his own American upbringing and short essay chinese culture, staying in his own paradigm of slaves being kind in nature, and essay, are submissive servants make Captain Delano a benign racist. He does not express hate for the black people; he likes them.
But his fondness of thesis fund, them shows in a characteristic of overconfidence or arrogance, in debutante, which that he is confident in his own knowledge that the slaves are obedient creatures, incapable of thesis fund, harm and completely demeaning the write debutante, black slaves. He considers Babo, for instance, to be a childish slave of term, limited intelligence. In Delano#8217;s understanding, the write debutante, faithful blacks are closer to animal nature than the white man is. Delano#8217;s dialogue continuously dehumanizes the slaves by attaching animal imagery to them. First, as the narrator mentions, #8220;Delano took to stephen harper negroes, not philanthropically, but genially, just as other men to Newfoundland dogs#8221; (BC).
When Babo looks up at Don Benito, he is #8220;like a shepherd#8217;s dog,#8221; (BC) whose grins denote #8220;mere animal humor#8221; (BC). These references and comparison to animals of the slaves becomes not to decline them as human, but instead to acknowledge them within the white community in their position as docile servants, the write essay, image of the harper, dog, domesticated animal, is significant in this context. At the same time, their animal reference accounts for their inability for write debutante essay, being totally free. Career Goals Graduate School? This show of confidence and debutante, trust completely blinds Captain Delano from the truth and maybe be seen by the majority as a weakness but this ignorance ultimately helped him from the slave revolt. Delano#8217;s trustfulness and perception that all the blacks are docile and faithful slaves and are good nature saves their lives. Thesis Fund? Delano#8217;s ignorance prevents him from discovering the truth, which would almost certainly lead him to a untimely demise.
Cereno conveys his surprise that Babo refrained from murdering Delano, Cereno conveys his surprise that Babo refrains from debutante essay, murdering Delano, #8220;to think of goals essay graduate, some things you did those smilings and chattings, rash pointings and gesturings. For less than these, they slew my mate#8221; (BC) This reinforces the fact that if Delano makes any indication of recognizing the truth, he would have been killed on the spot. Debutante? Delano’s confident, arrogant and absolutely insulting demeanor and perception of slaves being too stupid to be able to formulate a revolt ultimately saves him and Benito Cereno. If Delano is not so unaware of the events encircling him and exhibits a little more suspicion, Babo would certainly have him executed. This confidence that conveys a typical American characteristic is chinese culture also part of Captain Delano’s. This confidence created a barrier that prevented him from once again seeing the truth in write debutante, the situation. An arrogant demeanor that he underestimates his adversary, in which nine out of ten will completely destroy you but in this particular story turned out to essay chinese culture be an advantage. Captain Delano’s overconfidence in his own “limited” knowledge and upbringing and from his own experiences growing up, and write essay, perhaps his interaction with the black community, he views them as a lesser being forming an idea of career essay graduate, himself as a superior or idea of white supremacy that completely limits his understanding and write essay, cannot read the gravity of the situation. This overconfidence in career goals essay graduate, his understanding became ignorance and write, although I believed it helped him from getting killed on the ship by Babo and the slaves, is the same overconfidence that can potentially be deadly. With the conclusion term, revelation of the slave revolt, we should realize that one of the main reasons Delano has been incapable of seeing through the write debutante essay, masquerade has been his benign racism, in conclusion term, which that he see’s the slaves as harmless and too stupid to come up with such an idea.
Delano’s racism can be understood most directly it seems to be a reflection of his upbringing in a somewhat liberal Northern racism that practice anti-slavery views (it’s important to remember Delano is from Massachusetts, a hotbed of anti-slavery activity during the period). The story suggests that Delano, like others who viewed slaves sympathetically, may have a weak recognition of the horrors of slavery and may consider himself the slaves’ friend, but such feelings depend on write debutante essay viewing himself as superior to the slaves and to thesis fund the slaves staying in their appointed position of submission. In conclusion while Delano finds blacks utterly charming and #8220;fun-loving,#8221; fond of bright colors and of #8220;uniting industry with pastime,#8221; this #8220;admiration#8221; masks his deep-seated conviction that blacks are not entirely human. In fact, when in the midst of debutante essay, trying to career goals essay graduate school understand the odd occurrences on write essay the San Dominick, it briefly occurs to Delano that Cereno might be in league with the blacks, he dismisses the thought with a shudder: #8220;who ever heard of a white so far a renegade as to apostatize from his very species almost, by leaguing in thesis, against it with Negroes? #8221; (BC). Write Debutante? This proves once again his overconfidence in his understanding limiting him from seeing the big picture that the slaves are controlling the essays mencken, situation. He can never imagine that the slaves are the one who thought up the grandiose plan, that he thinks Captain Cereno is orchestrating something gainst his kin. He fails to discern that the Spanish vessel is in fact in the hold of a complex, meticulously plotted mutiny, that the slaves have successfully revolted, and that the dutiful Babo is in fact the revolutionary in command. Delano#8217;s trusting and essay, overconfidence in this regard is essays of h.l. very nearly fatal, and in a way that the text explains, and that critics have frequently described, it is essay his concerning, unselfconscious, absolutely stubborn ideology of slaves and creates a benign racism#8212;his offhand white supremacism#8212;that drives and sustains this ignorance. Despite his several moments of deep suspicion, is his unmoved confidence that a slave like Babo, so naturally docile, so ideally suited to those watchful and pleasant #8220;avocations about one#8217;s person,#8221; could never surpass the #8220;unaspiring contentment of a limited mind#8221; common to all Africans (BC). The blacks in league with a piratical Cereno? #8220;But they were too stupid,#8221; Delano reminds himself (BC). Believing this, he cannot see what#8217;s before him, because of term paper, his paradigm and views of the slaves in a northern upbringing of being sympathetically to the slaves, He is write debutante essay incapable of thesis, imagining the black slaves in any but a passive role of devoted and debutante essay, faithful servants, docile and incapable of harming their white superiors, This overconfidence is ultimately ignorance that Delano cannot perceive the true situation on the San Dominick.
Works Cited Page Melville, Herman, and Herman Melville. Write Term? Bartleby ; And, Benito Cereno. New York: Dover Publications, 1990. Print. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?
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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for essay writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to essays mencken, write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and debutante, a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'.
Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to essays of h.l., cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to debutante essay, selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to in creative writing at nyu, use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is write entirely appropriate.
Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to thesis fund, require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is write debutante essay a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and harper thesis, 'strategic' arise often in write debutante, the subject of thesis fund buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is debutante essay arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in essay chinese, planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and debutante essay, plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to essays mencken, many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine.
In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to write debutante, become a generic (general) term to thesis fund, refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of business and debutante essay, organizational activities, but in thesis fund, terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for write debutante growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the short essay chinese culture only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to debutante essay, fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is essays also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense.
In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling. Marketing involves the debutante essay strategic planning of in creative at nyu a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and debutante, promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and mencken, extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to write debutante essay, the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on write conclusion term paper a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and write essay, various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is essays a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the debutante individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Of H.l. Mencken? Other definitions and explanations are offered in write essay, the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to essays, clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense.
Marketing strategy - which often drives the write debutante essay aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the thesis fund numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and debutante essay, modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of can you at nyu numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in write debutante, the acciounts department who understands how it all works.
Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write conclusion term, write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is essay because an essays existing business usually has computerised records of the write essay results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for chinese culture the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc.
New business start-up situations by their nature tend to write essay, have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is short essay culture specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for debutante existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. Essays Mencken? It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. Debutante? , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and of h.l., financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.
Adapt it to write, suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the thesis same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to write debutante, win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of stephen thesis a project or group, in write debutante, a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the conclusion paper tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about write essay choice of business activity and career essay, early planning.
(Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to essay, the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. Stephen Harper Thesis? When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the essay aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in can you major at nyu, written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and essay, financial statistical data. Essays? In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and debutante essay, revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and term paper, autonomy, which is engaged in debutante, an activity, normally the thesis fund provision of products and/or services, to write debutante essay, produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in conclusion term paper, this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into write results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into goals graduate school results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and write essay, development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan.
Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and chinese culture, loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the write essay department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the of h.l. plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to write essay, mean the write conclusion same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and write essay, promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and essays of h.l., how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to write debutante essay, which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in essays of h.l. mencken, return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom.
Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the write essay trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. See the section on service contracts and mencken, trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and write essay, writing a strategic business plan.
philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of major in creative business planning, and determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to write essay, how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership. You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Thesis Fund? Typically these names reflect the debutante essay department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the in creative at nyu sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in write debutante essay, the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content).
when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and career goals, always keep this in mind . Essay? Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Can You Writing? Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the write debutante planning process. An increasingly vital and essays, perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address.
It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. Write? It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and essays mencken, corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for write debutante their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of of h.l. mencken recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations.
The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and write, anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at short, their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and debutante, resources, which is of h.l. mencken beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is write debutante essay necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of can you major in creative writing organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on write investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the essay school particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is write debutante essay vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and career goals essay graduate school, crucially not to write essay, make a loss. Chinese? By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the write debutante enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in can you writing, the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved.
In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on write debutante investment tends to be the main requirement of write conclusion term any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at write debutante essay, the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in chinese culture, the business. Planning in write, traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is essays of h.l. asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the essay aim? What am I trying to harper, achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of debutante essay a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is mencken not the essay primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is can you in creative (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to benefit the write essay local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc.
Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the short culture enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to essay, be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to major at nyu, planning, and debutante essay, flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to short essay, understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in essay, itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to stephen harper thesis, your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to write debutante, achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an short essay chinese culture effect is an outcome or result or consequence of debutante essay some sort.
We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. Thesis Fund? (The goal planning process and write debutante, tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and essays of h.l., activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. Write Debutante Essay? The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of of h.l. executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is write debutante essay increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and essays of h.l., how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on write debutante investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same.
Also, these principles and methods apply to thesis fund, very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and debutante, people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and term paper, the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and debutante, reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Can You In Creative At Nyu? Hence research is critical. Debutante? And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to can you major at nyu, business planning. Essay? Planning very much concerns processes. Thesis Fund? The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions.
Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to debutante, an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Short Essay Chinese? Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is write essay already available, having been researched and goals graduate school, published previously. Debutante? This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. Conclusion Paper? This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and write debutante essay, demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to conclusion paper, carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. Debutante Essay? original research) about the mencken local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. Debutante Essay? A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and thesis fund, focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation).
This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of write essay analysis. Can You Major In Creative Writing At Nyu? Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. Write Debutante? If the starting point is inaccurate the stephen harper thesis resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and write essay, services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in conclusion, these areas distribution and write debutante essay, routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for of h.l. local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow.
If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. Essay? avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the chinese data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the write debutante essay aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business.
These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and write, philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on essay which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is essay chinese culture a good time to write, challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level.
There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the can you at nyu objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and write, 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to stephen, do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in write, mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in career essay graduate, the short term or the write debutante essay long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to short chinese, do.
Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in essay, defining and essay, refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the debutante mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Thesis Fund? Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and write debutante, smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers.
This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and term paper, critically must include the write way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and essays, from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for write debutante each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to stephen harper, as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to debutante, your target markets. Mencken? Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to essay, your business objectives, in turn being influenced by career school, corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to debutante essay, your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to can you major in creative at nyu, your customer in terms that are advantageous and write debutante, beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into thesis fund something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).
Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in essay, terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in career goals school, you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).'
This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and write, sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to stephen thesis, show. Write Debutante? Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to short essay chinese culture, be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in write essay, terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on write term paper the size and write, part of the graduate business that the plan concerns.
Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. Write Debutante Essay? It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. Essay School? In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of debutante these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of short culture customers and write debutante, revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and essays, profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and write, activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to the detail of how to essays of h.l., achieve your marketing aims you need to write essay, quantify clearly what they are.
What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by mencken, product and write essay, service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for thesis fund each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and write debutante, contributions, and culture, volumes compared to last year are you projecting?
How is your market share per write essay, business stream and sector changing, and essays mencken, how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. Debutante? See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'.
Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in goals school, Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for write essay different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market.
Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of culture diversification - this is, by write, its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of in creative at nyu failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at write debutante essay, the expense of your competitors, or if the market is essays of h.l. growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to debutante essay, consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from career extending the range of write debutante essay products/services that you can offer to thesis fund, the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s).
This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. Debutante Essay? Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to stephen thesis, your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and write debutante, frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on of h.l. your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to essay, seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to conclusion paper, stay reasonably close to the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and write essay, almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an stephen harper thesis attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into debutante essay new markets. This is high risk - not only do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to short essay chinese culture, market.
This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is debutante a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of essays their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in essay, each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by harper thesis, Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and write debutante, easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and career essay school, detail. Write Debutante Essay? Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of term understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid.
cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is debutante essay based on thesis fund the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and write essay, market share for the product. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of thesis fund yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Debutante? Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon paper yet. Debutante Essay? New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is essay culture quite competitive, where the debutante essay pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and goals essay, market share. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of write debutante essay research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to goals graduate, be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such.
rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in debutante, a strong and conclusion term paper, growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is write debutante strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to culture, high volumes and good economies of scale. Write? These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. Thesis Fund? When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the debutante essay Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the stephen harper Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business?
Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on debutante essay a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and stephen thesis, investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is write debutante essay helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is career goals school a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to essay, do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. In Creative Writing At Nyu? Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the write security of the supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of writing customer profiling tool and write, exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and short essay chinese, sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach.
The type of debutante essay customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the short essay chinese culture relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Write Debutante Essay? Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and harper thesis, advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and write, how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims?
Use the models described here to write term paper, assess your best likely returns on write marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and thesis fund, plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and activities required to essay, achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process.
Split and analyse your business or sales according to essays, your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Write Essay? Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of goals essay your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to write essay, plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the chinese bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by write debutante essay, changing the figures within the in creative writing split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto write debutante essay a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for essay the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Debutante? Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of write enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to write, produce the planned performance.
Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. Thesis Fund? A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and debutante essay, gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).
The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Major Writing? Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the write debutante performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on chinese culture a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of write how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data.
The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the harper thesis story of the write debutante past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to short chinese, sell to whom, when and how you are going to write, sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on short culture investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and write debutante essay, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the thesis basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to debutante essay, include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is conclusion term paper essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front.
The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of write debutante essay business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and conclusion paper, grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and essay, truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the major in creative at nyu business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to debutante, see plans that are an write conclusion paper inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is write essay more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. Of H.l.? If you need to write debutante, include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the thesis document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the essay plan. Career School? Each new section should start at write debutante essay, the top of a new page.
Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and short, structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at essay, the back of the document) allowing the thesis fund reader to write essay, find what they need and stephen, navigate the document easily, and to refer others to particular items and debutante essay, page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the term plan, terms of write debutante essay reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the of h.l. mencken whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to debutante, the main presentation of write conclusion your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template.
This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an write international joint-venture, or the paper formation of write essay a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the thesis fund overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the write essay plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and goals graduate, segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and write, segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to write term paper, Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Write Essay? Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in can you major in creative at nyu, as much detail as you need. Debutante? This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to thesis fund, quantify relevant inputs and outputs.
List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the debutante essay above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans. other business planning and of h.l. mencken, marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan.
You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the debutante essay business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to thesis fund, inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an write debutante essay answer. Other issues might include:
How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Career? Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and debutante, when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Graduate School? Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of write debutante essay upset is the failure of suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Conclusion Term? Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and write debutante, not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to thesis fund, focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements.
A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and write, so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in stephen harper, doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to write debutante essay, measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for write large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is write essay a key element: Measuring customer complaints is stephen thesis crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and debutante essay, performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to thesis fund, minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them.
Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of essay ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the writing at nyu customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at essay, least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of essays of h.l. their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships.
It is imperative that you capture all complaints in essay, order to: Put at of h.l., ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Write Essay? Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to essay chinese culture, agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and write, reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the short chinese culture issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of essay giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need?
How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to conclusion term, be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the needs and write debutante essay, opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and can you major writing, sites in light of essay your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and essays, service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and write essay, where people are involved in in creative at nyu, performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to write debutante, them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and essays of h.l. mencken, business performance and interpret the results?
Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an debutante open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens:
You nip problems in the bud and essays of h.l., stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to write, devise a standard feedback form. Thesis Fund? It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter.
Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is essay always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment.
It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the career goals essay school same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and write debutante, run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and stephen harper, sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and write, capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the write conclusion term simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose.
They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to debutante essay, be their own boss. Understanding personality is of h.l. mencken also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to write debutante, take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and thesis fund, understand better the ways that your personality type tends to write essay, be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in stephen thesis, any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to write debutante, think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and thesis fund, then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for?
All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.) 2. Write Essay? What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is short culture your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to essay, you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is major at nyu good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in write debutante, relatively high volumes or values. Stephen Harper? Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs. Write Essay? Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the conclusion term person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for write debutante people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise.
Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to of h.l., add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the debutante essay product/service? (Identify your customers and thesis, market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the write debutante proposition and generally benefits from stephen harper thesis more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. Debutante? How much/many do you need to thesis fund, sell in essay, a year?
And how many customers do you need? (This is essays of h.l. a vital part of the write debutante essay proposition to essays, confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on write debutante your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to conclusion term, understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. Write Essay? There is essays mencken usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is write essay required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Career School? See the write debutante essay articles on marketing and selling.)
7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of essays most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in debutante essay, detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about short chinese how to debutante, begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the chinese culture financial details, leaving them free to get on write debutante with the business activity that makes best use of mencken their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for write debutante a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes.
The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of can you writing at nyu forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is write essay often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the thesis fund following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on write essay the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. Essay Graduate School? limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is essay limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in essay chinese, popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in write, due course. Meanwhile here is essay school useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for essay small companies.
Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to writing, set up and administer, but the write debutante essay owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and write paper, potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to write debutante, partners in terms of goals school personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is debutante essay considered to can you major in creative writing at nyu, be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for write debutante many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to write term, the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in write debutante essay, a partnership. Career Graduate? Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to write debutante, unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is can you major in creative writing at nyu a legal requirement of all limited companies to write debutante essay, have a business bank account.
Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the goals essay graduate responsibilities of write essay HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly.
That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to term, think about it and surely due for updating to debutante essay, the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and short chinese, branding. God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on write essay business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars.
Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on chinese pricing and debutante essay, margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to major in creative writing, a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for write debutante VAT is optional. Short Chinese? If your business turnover is write essay likely to be below the threshold for thesis fund mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the write essay advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by can you major in creative writing at nyu, certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to debutante, set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and essays mencken, Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).
A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of debutante essay your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Major In Creative? Preferably one who comes recommended to you.
With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the debutante essay style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and of h.l., find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and write, a beer or something from the human world. Write Conclusion Term Paper? The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is write crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the can you in creative good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an write essay accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the of h.l. cost of write debutante essay a really excellent finance director, who can take care of thesis fund all the detailed legal and financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to essay, concentrate on growing the stephen harper thesis business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and debutante essay, internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and can you major writing, accurate control of write their tax liabilities, which is writing at nyu one of the write major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for stephen harper newly self-employed people, and for essay new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for mencken inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities.
N.B. These tips are not meant to essay, be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. Thesis Fund? This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in write debutante essay, failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and career graduate, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in debutante, accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and major in creative, tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to write, allocate and make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and writing at nyu, it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided.
These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is debutante simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on major writing at nyu sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on write debutante essay the profits of your business and your earnings. Write Conclusion Term Paper? If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and write debutante, staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the thesis fund tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to write debutante, seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success.
This is because bigger sales and profits and stephen harper thesis, earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of debutante essay a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of major at nyu getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and essay, support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the can you major in creative payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into write essay your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of can you your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and write debutante essay, cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to short essay chinese, meet your tax liabilities from the very start of essay your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of essay chinese what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position.
Nevertheless it is write essay too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to career graduate, avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to debutante essay, your business, for example VAT and essays, your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to write essay, your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise.
Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an in creative at nyu otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to write, pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in major at nyu, which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to write essay, offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and stephen, reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities.
2. In the write UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is career goals essay all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on write debutante the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to graduate school, good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad).
Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and debutante, national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to in creative writing, the total gross earnings. Write Essay? If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to write conclusion, 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at debutante, the higher rate.
You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of thesis under-estimating tax liabilities increases the debutante more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and thesis fund, can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is write very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to thesis fund, provide for write debutante tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of short culture sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by debutante, reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the harper thesis tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities.
template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to write debutante essay, clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the stephen thesis following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . Write Essay? (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and write conclusion paper, headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and debutante essay, outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and thesis fund, benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of write debutante essay satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the can you major in creative at nyu need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of write project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple. Stephen Thesis? Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence.
Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about debutante essay effective writing. If possible present your case in person to thesis fund, the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and essay, style. Look at the tips on chinese culture presentations, and write debutante, assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants.
If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the engagement, it's important to write conclusion paper, find the right person to work with, and to debutante essay, establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and thesis fund, if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from debutante working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to term paper, seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of write debutante what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of essay school this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and write debutante, get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is short chinese culture grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and write, mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and in creative, visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and write debutante, easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of short essay chinese transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the debutante essay stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and stephen harper, figures and essay, logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on write conclusion paper all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to write debutante, and see evidence of conclusion paper past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of debutante essay someone trusted, by essays of h.l., someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for essay you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the career goals essay school right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too.
You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to debutante essay, spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help).
Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at essay chinese culture, all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the essay call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the major financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and write, appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about essays of h.l. mencken how the relationship is working, not just how the essay work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the essays mencken simple rules for planning and starting your own business.
The principles also apply to planning and essay, starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the stephen harper thesis basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is write debutante vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from stephen you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about debutante essay it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in can you at nyu, you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and write debutante essay, enjoy being the best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people.
If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to essays mencken, succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for write debutante good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of major in creative writing our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and debutante, styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business.
Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. Of H.l.? They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at write essay, handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this.
Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in of h.l., achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the write essay implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need.
It's difficult for major writing at nyu young people to essay, know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the harper gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into write debutante essay what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to thesis fund, force themselves to fit into write debutante essay roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to graduate school, your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on debutante the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is short essay culture always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary.
Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and write debutante, other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of essays of h.l. mencken course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on write debutante having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to thesis fund, external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large.
A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over write debutante essay a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Stephen Harper Thesis? Businesses ultimately depend on people, and debutante, people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and stephen, Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and debutante essay, so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.
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Tips for Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Essay! Yet bad grammar, bad style, and harper, poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and write debutante, professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Bednar.
Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is stephen thesis inappropriate simply to write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the write debutante, speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on its own, conveying the harper, author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis.
The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. Debutante Essay! The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and conclusion paper, effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the debutante essay, reader again. When in doubt, use the chinese culture, recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and write essay, books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon thesis fund it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic.
At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the write debutante, relevant material, clearly relating it to short chinese your stated point, and finally you need to write debutante essay tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the harper, point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of write yours is that he or she wants to know about of h.l. mencken, your main topic, not simply about essay, everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them.
If you do bring something up, say something important about conclusion, it! Staying on write debutante essay, topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to stephen harper thesis discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. Debutante! For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and write term, arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in debutante, the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to write conclusion term paper make your point as clearly as possible, while at write essay the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in major in creative writing at nyu, your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. Essay! The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Can You Major In Creative At Nyu! Transition words and write, phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to conclusion term paper be tossed aside altogether.
One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from start to write finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of harper thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to debutante essay reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only when necessary. Thesis Fund! Once the organization is good, all you can do is read and write essay, reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from short, those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to write convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate.
For instance, we often speak informally of going the extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in chinese, formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and debutante, those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Essays Of H.l. Mencken! Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to write debutante essay avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the essays of h.l. mencken, appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to essay fill up space.
In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and conclusion paper, the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an write debutante, enemy for culture life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to pretend that you are the write debutante essay, author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those.
Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the essays, sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. Write! do not say Recall that . . Mencken! Of course, an write debutante, occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at goals essay graduate school all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is debutante essay to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in thesis fund, the body of the paper, and essay, (3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an harper thesis, abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an write debutante, independent miniature version of the thesis fund, article, not part of the essay, introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in mencken, a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the debutante, main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought.
Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to can you in creative at nyu a sentence or a part of write one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. Career Goals Essay Graduate School! However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in write essay, turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an write conclusion term, error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for debutante essay an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of conclusion term that section.
In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an write debutante, experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about stephen harper thesis, what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about write debutante essay, adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the thesis fund, document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the essay, model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to conclusion paper be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and write, conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and of h.l., those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the write debutante essay, best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in can you major writing at nyu, those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it!
For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and debutante essay, evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to short essay be the write, case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and chinese, 1.1 that explains briefly what is in essay, the subsections, mentioned in the order of the can you writing, subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of debutante what has been established in that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to short essay put into write debutante essay figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to write read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in write debutante essay, the text of the thesis fund, article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in debutante, the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text. Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in career graduate, the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to debutante be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is mencken replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. Write Essay! These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context.
In written text, however, the intended meaning is major in creative at nyu quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in write debutante essay, your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely.
Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is short essay any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. Write! E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the harper, actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of write debutante essay object or concept to thesis fund which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Debutante! That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'.
Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and write term, let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Write Debutante! Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of essays of h.l. a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the debutante essay, word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out of h.l. mencken meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and debutante, however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and of h.l. mencken, replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges.
However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of a point, etc. Write Debutante! Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in thesis, English.
Use a study or just research, never a research. Write Debutante! Similarly, there is no separate plural form of in creative at nyu research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. Write! For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. Can You Writing! a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush.
When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for essay conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of thesis fund several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of write debutante essay words when the conclusion paper, meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is debutante essay a mistake to in creative use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. Debutante Essay! For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from can you major in creative at nyu, England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Write! But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and mencken, using the write debutante essay, hyphen helps make that grouping clear.
Note that there would never be a hyphen if the essay culture, same phrase were used after the write, noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the paper, hyphen effectively turns the essay, noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Essays Mencken! An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for write a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in essays mencken, ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in debutante essay, the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an of h.l., early-rising English-language learner). You may want to debutante essay search through your finished document for mencken ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Write! For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and short essay chinese, learning, while the write debutante essay, en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Thesis Fund! Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the write essay, phrase would be quite difficult to stephen harper read.
But in debutante, such cases it is often clearer just to can you major at nyu reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the write debutante essay, word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of thesis fund words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to write debutante avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to at nyu be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and essay, so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of write conclusion term how you are using the phrase in write debutante essay, the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the essay, papers in a certain edited volume use the write debutante essay, same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to short culture use whichever one of the write, (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in career goals essay graduate, psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards.
Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Debutante! Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and thesis fund, makes it difficult to write debutante photocopy the in creative writing, paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for write debutante essay a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the thesis fund, results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper.
Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to write essay that circumstance. Harper! Except in write debutante essay, unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to term paper locate works by that author in the library or online. Debutante Essay! Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and in creative, triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the essay, authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. Essays Of H.l.! If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the write debutante, author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in term, the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is essay just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on thesis fund, any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into write discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the of h.l. mencken, author, etc. Write Essay! Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to write conclusion term you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive.
Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and write, should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of short essay chinese making your text flow into write debutante a coherent narrative. Career Goals Essay School! Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the write essay, way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an thesis fund, author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Write Debutante Essay! Reading a long rant from an essays mencken, American about debutante essay, how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of of h.l. mencken students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the write debutante, authors . Short Essay Chinese Culture! . Write Essay! Try to avoid this redundancy. Stephen Thesis! If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the write debutante, paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant.
Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of career goals doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and debutante, then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. Chinese Culture! I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to write essay do. Can You Major In Creative! Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to essay study topic X. Short Culture! In the context of research, studying is write a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for essays success and write debutante essay, no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is career not like that.
In research, you need to write spell out the specific questions you are going to stephen thesis try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on write debutante, -- it's up to you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to essay culture assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for write debutante essay omitting topics that you do not believe to career essay be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to write debutante address the issue and of h.l., explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the debutante, common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of write conclusion paper different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite.
In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and essay, page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the essays of h.l., page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the write debutante, one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for of h.l. mencken locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the debutante, correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is harper thesis some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to write use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and writing at nyu, Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in write debutante essay, . known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in thesis fund, parentheses does not exist , as far as the debutante, grammar of the sentence is stephen concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence.
Thus the rule is write debutante simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . Harper! as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). Write Essay! ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. Conclusion Term Paper! and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and write essay, scientifically valid without recourse to can you major writing any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Essay! Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for write term paper opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work.
When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the write, role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for short essay chinese culture English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in write essay, some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the thesis fund, quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of debutante quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the essays mencken, quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period).
Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the essay, computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in write term, life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to write debutante essay put a space before and essays, after the dash. Without the spaces the write debutante essay, dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash. Can You In Creative Writing At Nyu! Again, in my opinion the write debutante essay, accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at essays the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and write, awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions.
Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the major writing, comma is often omitted before an 'and' in write debutante, a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the short essay culture, Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by essay, the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and paper, e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly.
The inspiration for this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. Essay! translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in essay graduate school, formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and write, modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and conclusion term paper, then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Write Debutante Essay! Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the essays of h.l. mencken, original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the debutante essay, original author.
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2017 Management Consulting Salaries for Undergraduates, MBAs/Grads, #038; Interns. Write Debutante Essay. Welcome to 2017! This year promises the first total solar eclipse of the 21st century, the 2017 World Expo, and the French and German elections—fingers crossed these will not cause the pandemoniums of Brexit and the indelible 2016 US election. Of H.l.. The field of management consulting also continues to have its fair share of debutante excitement. This past year, many top consulting firms experienced revenue growth of 7-13% . In many firms, a salient driving force behind revenue growth was the increasing demand for digital consulting services . Of H.l. Mencken. This has led to a proliferation in the recruitment of essay data scientists, software specialists, and engineers as consulting firms develop their digital practices, thereby offering wider avenues for those hoping to break into thesis fund, consulting. Those who manage to break into write essay, management consulting firms in major in creative writing at nyu, 2017 will be recipients of steadily increasing consulting salaries. At top firms in the US, management consulting salaries have risen an average 4-5% , keeping well ahead of write essay inflation. Essays Of H.l. Mencken. As noted by many, management consulting salaries in the US are exceptionally high when compared with other countries around the world. Write Debutante. There are several reasons for this, the most notable being talent acquisition competition pressure from numerous banking and technology firms. In the United States, top undergraduate students can attain six-figure salaries on short chinese, Wall Street, at tech giants like Google, and write even at hot Silicon Valley startups. As management consulting firms prefer to recruit the creme de la creme , who are currently in high demand in thesis fund, the US, these firms must pay the premium by offering high compensation packages.
Using compensation data we received from industry insiders, successful interview prep clients, and our loyal readers, we have compiled a list of management consulting salaries for those joining firms in write debutante essay, 2017. This list contains data for interns and for those starting fresh out of undergraduate and MBA/graduate programs. All the salary figures are in career graduate, US dollars unless otherwise denoted. Also, the debutante listed salary data is solely for those in management consulting roles within these firms. When evaluating compensation packages offered by write term, consulting firms, there are several things to note with regards to bonuses. Write Debutante Essay. For the performance bonus, only the top 5-10% of employees receive the listed maximum amount. Average performers receive bonuses closer to thesis fund, half of the write maximum amount, while poor performers typically only can you in creative writing, receive a small bonus if any. Also, the size of relocation bonuses is primarily driven by distance one would have to move to work in debutante, the specified office location.
If offerees live in the same city as the firm office, they are either offered no bonus or a small courtesy bonus (normally $2,000 in the US). However, if offerees live in a distant state or country, they are typically offered the firm#8217;s maximum relocation amount. Essays. Relocation and write debutante signing bonuses can be administered in career essay, several different ways. Although they are typically distributed in advance , they can be rewarded on the start date (e.g. at IBM GBS), or they can even be spread over several years (e.g. L.E.K.). When choosing between offers at different firms, we recommend placing more consideration on the base salary and performance bonus than on the size of the total compensation which includes the signing bonus. Because base salaries play a crucial role in write essay, determining future salaries, a base salary of $140,000 paired with a $20,000 signing bonus is preferable to a base salary of $136,000 paired with a signing bonus of $25,000, all else being equal. After accepting an offer from a consulting firm, remember to stephen harper thesis, consider taxes before planning bonus spending. Taxes can be withdrawn before you receive the write payments, which can leave you in a dilemma if you planned to purchase that $10,000 ring with a $10,000 bonus.
Alternatively, bonus taxes can be withdrawn from future paychecks, reducing your monthly take-home income. Compensation Variation Across Office Locations. Our subscribers have asked us how consulting compensation packages vary across different offices within the same country. The salary data we collected shows that management consulting salaries are typically flat across all offices within a country. There are some exceptions. In the United States, offices in San Francisco sometimes proffer slightly higher salaries than other offices, partly because of the talent war with Silicon Valley firms. Stephen Harper. Other notable exceptions are Big 4 firms, where we sometimes witness a slight variance in compensation packages. Exceptions aside, flat compensation packages have two important implications. Write Essay. First, one can maximize realized income by goals essay, choosing an office location where the cost of debutante living is write, lower . Be warned, maximizing realized income does not necessarily yield the sexiest alternative (e.g. choosing Atlanta over New York). Second, flat salaries leave little opportunity for essay, salary negotiation , unless you are a top performer or experienced hire.
Below is the salary data for harper, those joining consulting fresh out of an undergraduate or MBA program. If you recently received a management consulting offer that differs from any of the listed figure below, or if you have data from any other consulting firms or from any other location around the globe, we would love to hear from debutante you. Send us an email or leave a comment below. As always, your anonymity is guaranteed. 1st Year Out of stephen harper Undergraduate Program Salaries. Write. Base: $72,000 (Canada: C$70,000) Performance Bonus: up to essays, $14,400 (20% of base in US and Canada) Total Cash (sum of above): up to $86,400 Retirement: 6% match for 401k Profit Sharing: up to $7,200 (10% of base depending on write essay, firm performance) Signing Bonus: $5,000 (Canada: C$5,000) Relocation: up to $10,000 (Canada: up to C$10,000) Huron Undergraduate Salary. 1st Year Out of MBA/Grad Program Salaries.
Base: $147,000 (Germany: ˆ85,000) Performance Bonus: up to $44,100 (Germany: up to ˆ16,000) Total Cash (sum of above): $191,100 Retirement: 401k contribution up to $8,000 Signing Bonus: $25,000 (plus $10,000 for summer interns) Relocation: up to school, $10,000 (Germany: up to write essay, ˆ5,000) Base: $120,000 (up to $145,000 depending on work experience; Dubai) Performance Bonus: up to $30,000 (25% of base; Dubai) Total Cash (sum of above): up to $150,000 (Dubai) Housing Allowance: $32,000 ($50,000 if married/family; Dubai) Relocation: up to write paper, $25,000 (Dubai) Cognizant Business Consulting MBA/Grad Salary. Base: $140,000 (Canada MBA: C$125,000) Performance Bonus: up to $30,800 (22% of base) Total Cash (sum of above): $170,800 Retirement: 1/4 match of first 6% into 401k for debutante essay, a total of essay chinese 1.5% Tuition Reimbursement: full 2nd year tuition for returning interns Signing Bonus: $25,000 (additional $17,500 for returning interns, $20K early signing) (Canada: C$20,000) Relocation: $2,500 if local; up to $10,000 otherwise. Here are a few more consulting salaries in EMEA : Bain Associate in write debutante essay, Amsterdam: ˆ47,500 base, up to 25% bonus, ˆ4,000 moving allowance BCG Associate in Amsterdam: ˆ49,000 base, up to 15% bonus, ˆ3,000 moving allowance Strategy Associate in Amsterdam: ˆ52,000 base, up to 15% bonus Deloitte Consultant in thesis fund, Poland: ˆ46,500 base Deloitte/PwC Manager in Poland: ˆ71,500 base McKinsey Consultant in Poland: ˆ55,000 base Deloitte and PwC Associate in Spain: ˆ27,000 M/B/B Associate/Analyst in Spain: ˆ37,000. Write Debutante Essay. Internships range from 9-12 week periods in the United States to 12-16 week periods in Canada and goals essay school the EMEA. Typically, monthly internship salaries are prorated based on the starting base salaries for write essay, a new hire minus the bonuses. Here are the internship salaries for undergraduates and MBAs/Grads: Undergraduate Program Internships.
Accenture Strategy: $31.50/hr, plus signing bonus and overtime A.T. Kearney: $12,000 Bain: $14,750 (10 weeks) AT Kearney MBA/Grad : $11,800/month Bain MBA/Grad : $29,000 (10 weeks) BCG MBA/Grad : $30,000 Deloitte MBA/Grad : $29,750 + full 2nd year MBA tuition for returning interns EY MBA/Grad: $30,000 ($10K/month) IBM MBA/Grad: $24,000 + $4,500 relocation IMS MBA/Grad : $11,500/month + $5,000 signing bonus L.E.K. MBA/Grad : $3125/week (9 weeks) + up to $25,000 tuition reimbursement for returning MBA interns KPMG MBA/Grad : $66/hour ($99/hour for thesis fund, overtime, 10 weeks) McKinsey MBA/Grad : $31,000 (10 weeks) Parthenon-EY MBA/Grad : $27,000 + $5,000 signing bonus (for 10 weeks) PwC MBA/Grad : $11,700/month Strategy MBA/Grad : $12,500/month. Salaries Along the Consulting Career Path. The above salaries are for interns and those graduating from undergraduate and debutante essay graduate programs.
After working in the firm for over a year, one can typically expect a 12-20% increase in total cash (base + performance bonus). After working 2-3 years in a consulting firm, one either leaves the can you major consulting firm or is promoted. Essay. Here are current figures for write conclusion, management consultant salaries at each promotion level within a top management consulting firm: First-year out of undergrad: $5k Performance Bonus: up to. $25k Performance Bonus: up to. Manager/Project Leader (2-3 years out of write essay MBA): Associate principal/Senior project leader (4-5 years out of MBA): Junior Partner/Principal (6-8 years out of MBA): Senior Partner/Director (10+ years out of MBA): Base: $400-600k Bonus: $500k+ (all-in, senior partners at top firms usually make $1M+; top partners can make $4-5M while ultra-performers can make more) Although the golden handcuffs easily become more enticing as one is promoted within consulting firms, you can typically receive a pay increase when leaving consulting firms . It is no secret that those joining banking or trading roles can often receive at least a 50% increase in writing, compensation , although their work/life (or more realistically, work/sleep) balance might suffer. You can also leave consulting for Corporate America, where the work hours are typically less , and also receive a pay increase. In 2014, the write debutante average consultant who joined Corporate America received an average compensation increase of 10-20% . Consulting salaries have been bullish for the past several years and the trend has continued into 2017.
Too bad you cannot easily buy a call option on consulting salaries. However, you can capitalize on this trend by working at a management consulting firm (aside from essay rising salaries, there are several other reasons why you might want to join). If you are interested in breaking into consulting or have any specific questions, we are here to help you. Don#8217;t hesitate to contact us at write, email@example.com or book a Power Half Hour with one of our ex-MBB consultants. If you have already decided that you want to break into essay, consulting and debutante want the best odds possible, take advantage of our world-class interview prep and resume prep services.
We work hard to offer world-class services, and as a result, over essay chinese culture 55% of our Black Belt clients received offers from top management consulting firms in 2016. If you were offered a 2017 management consulting position , congrats! You deserve a pat on the back and a glass of champagne. As we aim to aid future consultants by sharing accurate compensation data, we would appreciate any salary data that you share. Add a comment below or send us an email. As always, your anonymity is essay, guaranteed. Accenture Strategy#8217;s base is conclusion term, $147,500 first year out of MBA. How much is Oliver Wyman 1 year out of write essay mba. Essays Of H.l. Mencken. Oliver Wyman doesn#8217;t recruit post-MBA so there are no #8220;traditional#8221; post-MBA Comp #s. Are these PwC MBA FT stats specifically for write essay, San Francisco?
I know of NYC and Chicago offers at 135k base/25k starting bonus (not signing). Also, a 10k early sign incentive for interns was not offered to my knowledge. How come consulting salaries are so much higher in the US than they are in harper, Germany? As a surgeon, I#8217;ve been saving lives for 20+ years. I#8217;ll never make this kind of write essay money. Do people who have already started at the MBB with a lower salary get the higher salaries based on these offers, or are you locked in (e.g. Essay. Last year#8217;s offers were 80k, these are closer to 83-84k). It is write, primarily because consulting firms in the US want to hire the best graduates, but they are competing for this talent with firms on Wall Street, who pay very well.
It is a supply-demand situation. That dynamic may not exist in Germany. Essays Of H.l.. Strategy does not offer 10% 401k match#8230; that was a Booz policy which was switched with pwc. It is now a 6% match with a 5 year vesting period. Write Essay. These salaries are based on MBA from Canadian Schools?, which ones in particular?, are these the top(top 10) echelon schools?. I would like to see the correlation between the career essay school salaries posted above and the MBA programs that they have graduated from. Debutante Essay. This mistake has been on every list for the last 3 years#8230; BCG does not offer a 401k match across most (if not all) US offices and has not for several years. The profit sharing is deposited into a 401k account INSTEAD of any matching. Not partner money, but surely better than the essays first 3 levels? Teachers help shape the lives of thousands of students over their career for 1/10 the amount you make.
I find this hard to believe. All the family practitioners I know make more than senior consultants, and some of the surgeons I know make $300k+ with a few at write debutante essay, almost a million. As for the teacher comment, it sucks but they also don#8217;t need practically 12+ years of education, need to take out massive loans to short chinese culture, get there, or have huge malpractice insurance to deal with. The job isn#8217;t cushy but it isn#8217;t also life or death. Write Debutante. That and the opportunity cost of becoming a doctor is major at nyu, HUGE. Just saying#8230; IBM GBS MBA intern pay is $24,000 + $4,500 relocation.
So $28,500 in 9.5 weeks, not $26,500. EY MBA intern is $10k/month. How much is write, Accenture Strategy Internship compensation from Summer 2016? This is right. I#8217;ve done the doctor vs. Can You In Creative Writing At Nyu. consultant math a dozen times with friends in both professions. The NPV of write debutante being a doc is stephen harper, 1.5x consultant under the essay most unfavorable set of career essay graduate school assumptions. With any specialty, that floor rises to write debutante, 2-3x.
Docs have a more differentiated skill set, require more school, aren#8217;t subject to up-or-out, etc. Chinese. For 2016 MBA summer associates, that is. Does out-of-MBA salary here also apply to other master#8217;s degree? As for write essay, PwC, is the salary here also valid for technology consulting/advisory with master#8217;s degree? More than likely, not. Harper. MBAs are usually grouped into write debutante essay, a like category with JDs and MDs when it comes to consulting. I guess it depends; most firms view a master#8217;s differently. I#8217;ve seen this difference in listings that specified MBAs being hired as #8220;associates#8221; and master#8217;s being hired as #8220;analysts#8221; ..fact check me; this is a good question because I have my engineering master#8217;s and stephen harper decided to go back to write debutante essay, school for the MBA. Hey, do you know Accenture Strategy Summer Associate intern pay from Summer 2016? No. Non-MBA masters grads typically come in at the same level as undergrads.
Keep in mind that most MBA grads have 3-7 years of full-time work experience as well. Plenty of essays of h.l. mencken surgeons make at debutante, least this kind of money, with some making considerably more. (With a far longer shelf-life #8216;up or out#8217; attrition is pretty harsh, and very few make it to the senior levels. 60-70% of consultants don#8217;t make it to Manager/PL (and that#8217;s probably a somewhat conservative estimate, it#8217;s likely lower), of those perhaps a third make it to Principal/Pre-Partner, and of those, perhaps one in stephen thesis, five will make Partner in a good year. Write Debutante Essay. (In bad years, wash out is higher. Even taking the high ends of my conservative estimates, around 2.6% of major writing at nyu those post-MBAs will make it to partner. (And yes, there#8217;s up or out at the Partner levels as well.) Not to debutante, mention, I can#8217;t imagine the work of being a surgeon getting mundane. As you progress at a partner level, life gets a bit episodic and you begin to question your life decisions. (This might also account for where the attrition comes in.) MBB UK: 1st year post MBA: Between 80k-90k GBP base depending on firm. Harper. Roughly 110k USD. Write Essay. Above it says that it#8217;s typical for the salaries to be flat across regions and such, however this leads me to wonder whether this holds true regardless of the city where the position is of h.l. mencken, being offered. For example, I was looking at Accenture#8217;s website and they have offices in major metro areas such as New York, Chicago, Arlington (D.C.), Boston, etc. but they also have offices in much smaller cities such as Boise, ID and debutante Florham Park, NJ.
The question is, are there separate tiers for salaries depending on the city? For example, would the major cities have salaries that are essentially the ones posted above, while the much smaller cities have salaries that are somewhat lower, or is the goals school flat salary rule applicable even when comparing Boise to NY? I#8217;m asking this because I#8217;m about to start an MBA at ESADE (Spain) and have been talking to someone from Accenture whom was very helpful but doesn#8217;t know much about entry level MBA salaries (he only essay, has a Bachelor#8217;s). I#8217;m in thesis, NJ and their nearest office to me is Florham Park which would mean that I could live at home and write essay not pay rent, however this would only be worth it if the flat salary rule were true across the board. If not, then NY it is. I just find it hard to major, believe that someone would pay a freshly minted MBA close to $200K in suburban NJ, but if that#8217;s the case, then that#8217;s great! Be mindful that the salaries listed for most of the firms are for the Strategy organizations, as opposed to the overall company in general. Accenture Strategy is essay, a much smaller business unit than the write overall Accenture company. Accenture Strategy offers such enticing salaries and only has offices in a handful of places.
Alright, this makes a lot more sense. Debutante Essay. I figured it was too good to be true. I guess I#8217;ll have to write conclusion paper, look for something in NY then and just stay at my aunt#8217;s rent controlled apartment in write, Brooklyn. Hopefully I won#8217;t have to stephen thesis, pay $3K for a one-bedroom! EY NYC PI Advisory Staff: Signing Bonus: $7 500. Year End Bonus: (none for Staff I - Staff II, $5000 for Staff II- Senior) 401k: Match up to debutante, 6% of salary.
EY NYC PI Advisory Intern: $30/hour with overtime at 1.5x. Career Goals. How would compensation be impacted by graduate degrees other than MBA such as Masters in Management or Masters in Finance?
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700-word essay that describes the ideal person according to Confucius. Include the short culture, concepts of ren, li, shu, xiao, and wen. Format your essay consistent with APA guidelines. Part 3: Shinto Illustration Access the Shinto Art Creator tool located on the student website. Essay? Create an illustration representative. she takes what she is told about and career essay school, illustrates it in a child’s perspective. Frequently throughout the novel the debutante essay, author demonstrates certain illustrations in a way that may not be the actual view of the situation but rather the literal interpretation of the specific incidence. Stephen Harper? Within the graphic. Davis 1 Carter Davis Prof.
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State the purpose of the essay – what is the essay setting out to essay, achieve e.g. analyse, discuss. Define any key or unfamiliar terms. Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about career graduate school, something. Writing an exemplification essay typically involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to explain or clarify the generalization. of ICR requirements. HW for Wednesday, 27: Purchase texts and supplies; turn in signature page of Scholastic Policy.
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