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Corruption essay in tamil

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AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. Corruption In Tamil! The cohesion property is properly defined as the portrt af en blogger, binding of water molecules by hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the corruption in tamil, strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on all of the adjacent molecules as a result of book cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity.

When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and corruption in tamil weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.

Water is known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids. An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is essay on stress present at the boundary between water and air. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an corruption essay in tamil invisible film along the best essay book, surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in plants. Corruption Essay! Evaporation from the leaves in plants pulls water up from the essay in the, roots. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding helps hold the column of water molecules together within the corruption, xylem vessels located in the stem or trunk of a plant. Adhesion helps the process by resisting the pull of gravity against the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is portrt af en its solubility. Water is known as the universal solvent of corruption essay in tamil life. Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Water, in solutions, is known as the solvent.

The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the portrt essay, solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid. Although water is technically not universal, it is corruption essay very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the gatsby essay, molecule to corruption in tamil, have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized.

The partially negative ion from the on stress management workplace, crystal bond to the hydrogen ions in water. The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from essay in tamil ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the essay, versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Water#8217;s solubility allows for essay, these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the gatsby essay, ions or molecules in the solution equal. Another property of essay in tamil water is its high specific heat. Child Of Appalachia! The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of its high specific heat.

Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of in tamil a substance to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of essay frankenstein heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Corruption In Tamil! Because of water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for each change in temperature. Of Appalachia Essay! Water#8217;s specific heat is a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in corruption essay the temperature primarily because most of the heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the medical essay, temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of corruption essay in tamil heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to life on child Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling.

The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits. Corruption In Tamil! Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in essay everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on AP Biology: The Properties of Water. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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Anti corruption essay in tamil

Pressing resume button does not reset printer. Posted by haseldenjr on Nov 25, 2010. I have tried the first solution you offer. It was available for free on the internet. It did NOT work. I feel conned and am sorry I seem to have wasted my money unless you can come up with a more successful answer. Please try again.

Thanks. I have tried the first solution you offer. It was available for free on the internet. It did NOT work. I feel conned and corruption in tamil am sorry I seem to have wasted my money unless you can come up with a more successful answer. Please try again.

Thanks. An expert who has achieved level 3 by essay getting 1000 points. An expert that got 20 achievements. An expert that got 10 achievements. An expert that got 5 achievements. If the Paper Jam error intermittently shows up on the machine without actual jammed paper, then it could be an in tamil, actual paper jam which you are unable to notice or is hidden from on stress management workplace, being visible. You need to manually clean the printer or if you are willing to dismantle the machine, you can check all the passages and essay in tamil the inner components.

Open both the front and medical school essay book the rear access doors, remove all the corruption cartridges, remove all the papers from the a view coursework tray(s), take a blower and blow through the front access door while you power up the machine. Do this while the printer cycles or while it's Off or when it's On. If there's paper jammed which isn't visible, this will definitely clear them out, I don't mean a normal size paper but a piece of corruption essay in tamil broken paper which swirled and stuck somewhere. Posted on Nov 27, 2010. An expert who has achieved level 3 by getting 1000 points. An expert that got 20 achievements. An expert that got 10 achievements. An expert that got 5 achievements.

Hold down both the Resume button and the Power Button. Gatsby On Colors? When the printer begins to restart, release the Resume button but continue pressing Power. Push in the Resume button twice, then let go of both the buttons. In a moment, a green light flashes a few times. Press the Resume button four times once the green flashing has finished. Push the in tamil Power button again until the printer shuts down. Wait a few seconds, then press the power button again to restart the device. The Canon Pixma IP4300 will now function properly. for more information http://www.fixyourownprinter.com/forums/printer/67824 hope this helps you.

Posted on Nov 25, 2010. The rollers usually are at the bottom right of the input feeder. The rollers usually are at essay the bottom right of the input feeder. a 6ya expert can help you resolve that issue over the phone in a minute or two. best thing about this new service is that you are never placed on hold and get to talk to corruption essay in tamil, real repairmen in gatsby essay the US. the service is completely free and covers almost anything you can think of (from cars to computers, handyman, and even drones). click here to download the app (for users in the US for corruption essay in tamil, now) and get all the help you need. Need repair answers fast Use 6ya to.

Posted on Jan 02, 2017. Tips for a great answer: - Answer the from question. - If you need clarification, ask it in the comment box above. - Better answers use proper spelling and grammar. - Provide details, support with references or personal experience. Complete. Click Add to insert your video. Add. Canon mx320 printer error has occurred 5200. • Press Resume button 2 seconds. then press the corruption essay in tamil power button until the green light on (when pressing the power button, Resume button) • Then release the resume button, but do not release the power button. • While the power button is still pressed, press the child Resume button 5 times. Led will light turns green orange with the last glow orange. • Release both buttons simultaneously.

• Led will blink briefly and in tamil then will glow green. • And the computer will detect new hardware, just ignore . • Press the essay power button again then the printer will flash and. Printer is ready for use. When I replaced the black cartridge , then the corruption essay in tamil MX300 showed check ink; U162, BLK, but I don't have the troubleshooting guideline to essay on colors, remove the trouble. Please help me, Tks. If this will help, please give this answer a good ratings!

I had a paper jam due to paper entering from corruption in tamil, sheet feed reader at an angle. Best School Book? I removed the paper. Now the paper jam message appears. Trying to press the resume button does not help. Essay In Tamil? I cannot switch to the. Card keeps jamming and ribbon breaks. approximately where it is jammed. At this point you can either try to essay on colors, correct the. problem and continue printing with the same card, or remove the card completely. and continue printing with a new card. Refer to the following steps for instructions.

on doing either: 1. In Tamil? Leave the power ON, and open of the printer?s Top Covers. the same card, do so by pressing the On/Cancel button to advance the card or. the Pause/Resume button to reverse the card. Use these buttons to help free the.

card from its jam. A View From? Try not to corruption essay, move the card too far from from a bridge, where it was just. before the corruption jam occurred. Once the jam is cleared, replace media, close the Top. Cover(s), and on stress press the in tamil Pause/Resume button to essay, resume printing. On/Cancel and Pause/Resume buttons to manually eject the card. Then, replace media, close the Top Covers, and press the On/Cancel button. At this. point, the LCD Display will prompt you to corruption in tamil, either press the Pause/Resume. button or the of appalachia essay contest On/Cancel button. Pressing the Pause/Resume button will cause.

the printer to feed in a new card and reprint the job which originally jammed. along with all subsequent jobs still being sent. Pressing the On/Cancel button. will reboot the printer and cancel all jobs within the printer?s memory. In this. case, you must also cancel and corruption in tamil resend the print jobs from your computer. If the ribbon or overlaminate becomes stuck to a card or jammed inside the printer, the LCD Display will indicate that it is jammed. Refer to the following steps to clear.

1. Leave the power ON, and child contest open the printer?s Top Covers as necessary. 2. In Tamil? Remove the Take-Up core (the side with used ribbon or overlaminate on essay it) from in essay in tamil between the two black Drive Hubs. 3. Steadily pull the ribbon or overlaminate free from where it is jammed. If stuck. to a card, pull the ribbon or overlaminate off the card and throw the card away. If it is jammed underneath the rollers, press and hold down the printer?s. Pause/Resume button as you gently pull up on the ribbon or overlaminate. Do. not **** the ribbon or overlaminate to free it, since this will increase the essay frankenstein chance. of breaking it.

If it does happen to break, simply tape the broken end of the. supply roll directly onto in tamil, the take-up roll. Then, wind a few inches worth of. ribbon or overlaminate from the essay supply roll onto the take-up roll. Be sure the. ribbon or overlaminate is passing beneath both the supply and take-up rolls. 4. Once the jam is cleared, replace media, close the corruption Top Covers, and press the. On/Cancel button. At this point, the LCD Display will prompt you to either. press the Pause/Resume button or the On/Cancel button. Pressing the.

Pause/Resume button will cause the printer to feed in a new card and essay on stress reprint. the job which originally jammed along with all subsequent jobs still being sent. Pressing the On/Cancel button will reboot the printer and cancel all jobs. within the printer?s memory. Corruption Essay? In this case, you must also cancel and resend the. print jobs from your computer. H. CLEANING THE CARD FEED ROLLERS. To assure consistent printer operation, all of the gray card feed rollers within the. printer should be cleaned during every ribbon change (every 250 prints) or if the. rollers are noticeably dirty.

To clean these rollers, use the special adhesive-backed. Cleaning Cards from the Printer Cleaning Kit. Refer to essay frankenstein, the following steps to run a. Cleaning Card through your printer: 1. Corruption In Tamil? Open the Top Covers and remove all print supplies from the printer.

Leave the. printer power ON and the Top Covers open throughout this procedure. The. Cleaning Roller Assembly can also remain within the printer during this. 2. Remove the best medical school Cleaning Card?s adhesive backing paper. Card jams and ribbon keeps breaking. As you use your printer, dust and other foreign particles may accumulate inside. the printer?s case. These particles are attracted to the underside of the ribbon by. static produced during printing and can cause voids on the printed image.

Periodically, use the following procedure to remove dust and other foreign. 1. Open the printer?s Top Covers. 2. Remove the in tamil ribbon and essay on colors overlaminate from the printer. 3. Use a Cleaning Pad from the corruption Printer Cleaning Kit or a soft, lint-free cloth. slightly moistened with isopropyl alcohol to wipe out all visible areas inside. the printer. Remove any debris that may be inside. Essay On Stress Management? Be extremely careful not to. let any alcohol drip inside the corruption essay in tamil printer! 4. Once the gatsby on colors cleaned areas are completely dry and free of foreign debris, re-install.

the ribbon and overlaminate, and close the covers. F. CLEARING A CARD JAM. If a card becomes jammed inside the printer, the LCD Display will indicate. approximately where it is jammed. At this point you can either try to correct the. problem and corruption essay in tamil continue printing with the same card, or remove the card completely. and continue printing with a new card. Refer to the following steps for instructions. on doing either: 1. Leave the power ON, and open of the printer?s Top Covers.

2. Essay Management In The Workplace? Remove the ribbon and overlaminate as needed. 3. If you would like to try to correct the problem and essay continue printing with. the same card, do so by pressing the On/Cancel button to advance the card or. the Pause/Resume button to reverse the management card. Corruption Essay? Use these buttons to help free the.

card from its jam. Try not to move the a view card too far from corruption, where it was just. before the jam occurred. Once the jam is cleared, replace media, close the Top. Cover(s), and press the Pause/Resume button to resume printing.

4. Essay Book? If you would like to in tamil, remove the jammed card completely, do so by using the. On/Cancel and Pause/Resume buttons to manually eject the a view a bridge coursework card. Then, replace media, close the Top Covers, and press the On/Cancel button. At this. point, the corruption LCD Display will prompt you to either press the Pause/Resume. button or the On/Cancel button. Pressing the Pause/Resume button will cause.

the printer to essay workplace, feed in a new card and reprint the job which originally jammed. along with all subsequent jobs still being sent. Pressing the On/Cancel button. will reboot the printer and cancel all jobs within the printer?s memory. In this.

case, you must also cancel and resend the print jobs from your computer. Section 7: Maintenance 53. Pro-L Card Printer User?s Manual. G. CLEARING A RIBBON OR OVERLAMINATE JAM. If the ribbon or overlaminate becomes stuck to a card or jammed inside the printer, the LCD Display will indicate that it is jammed. Refer to the following steps to clear.

1. Leave the power ON, and open the corruption in tamil printer?s Top Covers as necessary. 2. From A Bridge? Remove the Take-Up core (the side with used ribbon or overlaminate on in tamil it) from in between the two black Drive Hubs. 3. On Stress In The? Steadily pull the ribbon or overlaminate free from where it is jammed. If stuck. to a card, pull the ribbon or overlaminate off the corruption essay card and a view from a bridge coursework throw the card away. If it is jammed underneath the rollers, press and corruption hold down the printer?s. Pause/Resume button as you gently pull up on the ribbon or overlaminate.

Do. not **** the ribbon or overlaminate to free it, since this will increase the chance. of breaking it. If it does happen to break, simply tape the essay broken end of the. supply roll directly onto in tamil, the take-up roll. Then, wind a few inches worth of. ribbon or overlaminate from the on stress management supply roll onto the take-up roll. Be sure the. ribbon or overlaminate is passing beneath both the supply and corruption take-up rolls.

4. On Stress In The Workplace? Once the jam is cleared, replace media, close the corruption essay in tamil Top Covers, and essay press the. On/Cancel button. Essay In Tamil? At this point, the gatsby essay on colors LCD Display will prompt you to either. press the Pause/Resume button or the On/Cancel button. Pressing the. Pause/Resume button will cause the corruption in tamil printer to blogger, feed in a new card and reprint. the job which originally jammed along with all subsequent jobs still being sent. Pressing the On/Cancel button will reboot the printer and cancel all jobs. within the printer?s memory. In this case, you must also cancel and resend the.

print jobs from your computer. H. CLEANING THE CARD FEED ROLLERS. To assure consistent printer operation, all of the gray card feed rollers within the. printer should be cleaned during every ribbon change (every 250 prints) or if the. rollers are noticeably dirty. To clean these rollers, use the special adhesive-backed. Cleaning Cards from the Printer Cleaning Kit. Corruption Essay In Tamil? Refer to essay frankenstein, the following steps to run a. Cleaning Card through your printer: 1. Corruption Essay? Open the Top Covers and remove all print supplies from the a view coursework printer.

Leave the. printer power ON and corruption essay in tamil the Top Covers open throughout this procedure. The. Cleaning Roller Assembly can also remain within the best school printer during this. 2. Remove the Cleaning Card?s adhesive backing paper. Instead of printing, the printer ejects empty paper and shows Error code 6000. Restarting the corruption essay in tamil printer as recommended in medical essay the manual doesn't help. On the essay in tamil operator panel, press and essay hold the ON/OFF button for one second. (The display will go blank.) If pressing ON/OFF button does not shutoff the device then unplug the power cord.

Wait Approx. 10 Sec then press power button ON/OFF button again. Wait until the device has completed its cycling process before submitting another job request. 2) Remove Paper Jam if any. Else your device need service (repair) Canon ip90 has error message 1300- there is no paper jam- have tried to reset- no luck -help. Following step by step resetting canon Pixma iP90 : Before resetting printer canon iP90, start with printer power off. Press resume button coincide with power button.

While pressing power button, release resume button. Corruption In Tamil? Press resume button 2 times and then release both button Green LED indicator will blinking and then stopped blinking. When the Power LED lights in green, press resume button 4 times. Press power button and the printer power will off. Otherwise off, depress again power button. And the turn on the printer again, your printer canon iP90 should be response as normal.

You may not see a paper jam. And gave the rode that the ink slides on a good clean and maybe a bit oil on cloth and af en blogger wipe the corruption in tamil rod with it. All The Best : Pineworks. I have a Canon mp450 also jamming paper after about 1 inch. Following step by step resetting canon Pixma iP90 : Before resetting printer canon iP90, start with printer power off.

Press resume button coincide with power button. While pressing power button, release resume button. Press resume button 2 times and then release both button Green LED indicator will blinking and then stopped blinking. When the Power LED lights in green, press resume button 4 times. Press power button and portrt blogger essay the printer power will off. Otherwise off, depress again power button. And the turn on the printer again, your printer canon iP90 should be response as normal.

You may not see a paper jam. And gave the rode that the ink slides on a good clean and maybe a bit oil on cloth and wipe the rod with it. All The Best : Pineworks. When a printer error occurs, the POWER lamp flashes. The number of flashes indicates the type of error that has occurred. Count the flashes and take the appropriate action to correct the error. Two flashes: Printer is out of corruption in tamil paper /Paper does not feed. Reload paper to the sheet feeder or cassette and press the RESUME button.

Three flashes: Paper jam/Paper output tray is closed. If paper is jammed, remove the jammed paper, reload paper in the printer, and a bridge coursework then press the RESUME button. If the paper output tray is closed, open it. Four flashes: Empty ink tank. Press the RESUME button to corruption, resume printing with an empty ink tank. Replace it with a new ink tank immediately after the child contest printing. It may damage the printer if you continue printing with an empty ink tank. Five flashes: Print head not installed/Print head not installed correctly/Print head is defective. Install the in tamil Print Head. If the Print Head is already installed, remove the Print Head and check the electrical contacts for foreign matter, then reinstall.

After reinstalling the Print Head, you may need to school, realign it. If this error still remains, the Print Head may be damaged. Contact a Canon service representative. Six flashes: Inner cover error. To print on paper:

Close the inner cover. Then press the RESUME button to start printing. Do not move or close the inner cover during printing. It may damage the printer. Seven flashes: The CD-R or DVD-R is not set on the CD-R tray.

Reset the CD-R tray feeder with a CD-R tray containing a CD-R or DVD-R, and corruption then press the RESUME button. Printing will resume. This function only works with models that support CD-R printing. Eight flashes: Waste ink absorber almost full. The printer has a built-in waste ink absorber for medical school essay, the ink used during print head cleaning.

Eight flashes indicates that the waste ink absorber is nearly full. Press the essay RESUME button to cancel the error so you can continue printing. Before the essay waste ink absorber becomes completely full, contact a Canon service representative. Canon recommends that you call for service as soon as this error occurs. Corruption In Tamil? Once the waste ink absorber becomes completely full, printing will no longer be possible. Nine flashes: A specified period of time has lapsed without receiving no response from the digital camera / The digital camera or digital video camcorder connected is not compatible with this printer.

Disconnect the camera cable, press the printer's RESUME button and reconnect the cable. If the error is still not solved, there is a possibility that you are using a digital camera or digital video camcorder that is not supported by this printer. Use a digital camera or digital video camcorder compatible with this printer. Ten Flashes: Cannot print on both sides of the page. The size of paper may not be compatible with automatic duplex printing. For information on the size of paper compatible with auto duplex printing, see Automatically Printing on Both Sides of the Page. Pressing the RESUME button will discharge the paper, and restart printing from the front side of the next paper. The reverse side will not be printed when an error occurs. Eleven flashes: Cannot perform automatic print head alignment correctly. Possible causes are as follows: A4 or Letter-sized paper is not loaded on the sheet feeder.

Ink has run out or ink tanks are not installed correctly. See Ensure that the ink tank is child, installed properly. Ink level is in tamil, low. Print Head nozzles are clogged. Press the of appalachia RESUME button.

For information on how to corruption essay, print a nozzle check pattern, see Printing the Nozzle Check Pattern. The paper output slot has been exposed to a strong light source preventing correct print head alignment. Press the RESUME button to resolve the error. Align the a view a bridge printer so the paper output slot will not be exposed directly to essay in tamil, a strong light source. After carrying out the above measures, if the problem continues after aligning the a view from a bridge coursework print head again, press the RESUME button to resolve the error, and then perform manual print head alignment. For details on manual print head alignment, see Aligning the Print Head. POWER lamp flashes alternate green and orange: An error that requires contacting a Canon service representative may have occurred. Disconnect the essay printer cable from the printer, and book then turn the printer off and unplug the printer from the power supply. Plug the printer back in and turn the corruption essay in tamil printer back on best essay book after leaving it for a while. If the problem remains, contact a Canon service representative.

Not finding what you are looking for? View Most Popular. PIXMA iP4300 InkJet Photo Printer. Canon mx320 printer error has occurred 5200. Canon PIXMA Office Equipment Supplies.

printing blank new ink; used deep clean button several time until now the Black 4 is low. No improvement. How do I overcome service error B200? My printer will not print and corruption in tamil shows Service error B200. how to open canon ip4300 top cover? canon pixma Mx922 nozzle check pattern will not print black only colors print. 222 people viewed this question.

Usually answered in minutes! Setting up Wireless Pixma MP620 to my wireless XP Toshiba Laptop. Check Out the Latest Printers Report. Top Canon Office Equipment Supplies Experts. Are you a Canon Office Equipment and portrt blogger essay Supply Expert?

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The Role of Alum in Historical Papermaking. (This article is based on in tamil a talk presented at child of appalachia essay the IPC Conference 1992 in Manchester, England. A paper published in the conference proceedings contains additional information not included here.) As a sizing ingredient, alum has been one of the most important materials in the history of papermaking. Since the late 19th century, it has also been mentioned as a primary cause of paper degradation, but little detailed information on the manufacture and corruption essay in tamil use of alum has been available in the readily accessible literature. The two major alum varieties employed in on stress management papermaking have not always been distinguished for their different properties. Aluminum potassium sulfate was used throughout the history of papermaking until the 19th century. It was then replaced by the newly developed aluminum sulfate, a cheaper and more concentrated source of aluminum compounds. Although both aluminum potassium sulfate and aluminum sulfate tended to introduce different impurities into paper, the negative effect of aluminum sulfate on paper degradation overall is more significant.

Certainly, an corruption, understanding of the characteristics of the two compounds can provide certain insights into the aging properties of paper containing either alum variety. Aluminum potassium sulfate had been imported into Europe since antiquity for application in various trades such as fabric dyeing, and it was the first alum used in papermaking. It could be obtained from essay frankenstein minerals such as alunite which occurred in sulfur-containing volcanic sediments. Essay. Mining sites were sometimes located in volcanic crater bottoms where the stones were extracted with naturally heated water, alum crystals forming in the evaporating solution. In the mid-15th century, the first European alum mines were exploited at Tolfa, a volcanic area north of Rome in central Italy. This particular site is of interest to child contest, us as the source of corruption what appears to have been one of the best varieties of alum in papermaking: the so-called Roman alum. 1 Known for its high quality until the 19th century, Roman alum was recognizable by on colors its distinct reddish appearance, which was a result of dusting the essay in tamil, alum crystals with a pigment--probably iron oxide. 2 The pigmentation served as a trademark of Roman alum. Before use, the alum could be rinsed under cold water to remove the a view from, pigment without dissolving significant amounts of the alum itself.

Slate and in tamil shale were other minerals which yielded alum when subjected to several production steps which can be summarized as follows: the aluminous rocks were piled up, roasted, and subsequently extracted in water; potassium hydroxide was added to the resulting solution; the crude alum crystals which formed in essay the evaporating solution were rinsed and redissolved in boiling water to purify the alum; the solution was transferred to corruption essay, large wooden casks where the alum crystals formed on the inside walls; and child essay finally the casks were dismantled and the crystals removed. 3. Alum could be contaminated with byproducts of its manufacture, iron oxides and iron sulfates. Iron compounds significantly impaired the performance of alum as a mordant of textile dyes and essay were more likely to essay frankenstein, discolor gelatin-alum sizes, as is indicated by the concern of 18th-century papermakers for good quality alums. The repeated recrystallization of the corruption in tamil, alum effectively freed it from iron contaminants.

In Europe, the use of alum for hardening gelatin sizes is recorded during the essay, 16th century. Corruption In Tamil. In 1579, Samuel Zimmermann in Germany wrote in a treatise on so-called secret arts, which included papermaking: The printing and other paper. . . is drawn through alum-water and dried again. Af En. 4 This quotation apparently refers to essay, the separate application of gelatin and alum, a practice which was continued until the 18th century. 5 In the essay, process, the paper was first gelatin- sized, then steeped in a vessel containing the alum solution, and finally pressed for removal of excess size. Gelatin solutions already containing the alum were more economical to use. They offered the corruption essay in tamil, advantage of preventing the rapid spoilage of the size during storage since the alum crystals were added to child of appalachia essay contest, the freshly cooked gelatin sizing solution.

Despite these advantages of the latter method, both sizing processes appear to have been used contemporaneously. Like other 18th century writers, Lalande provides more detailed information on alum than is available from earlier sources. Roman alum, he states, was preferred in papermaking over what was designated only as rock alum. 6 Rock alum was a general term for corruption in tamil an inferior quality alum which could affect the paper brightness. Until the 19th century, paper mills prepared their own gelatin size solutions by cooking raw animal parts. The reported weight of alum added to such a solution was typically based on the weight of the animal parts rather than the gelatin concentration of the solution. This information only allows an estimate of the ratio of alum and gelatin in the size. Percentages of 5% to 40% have been mentioned in the literature. Barrett used Lalande's text to calculate that the size described in his book could have had an alum content of 27%, based on the weight of the dry gelatin.

7 It is interesting to note that aluminum ammonium sulfate was a not uncommon substitute for management in the workplace regular alum in paper sizing until the 1800s. 8. A.3 Miscellaneous Historical Uses of corruption essay Alum. Watercolorists brushed their gelatin-alum sized papers with an alum solution to ensure or improve their uniform moisture resistance. Alum was also believed to give additional luster to of appalachia essay contest, watercolors, as is noted in a 17th century manual.

9 More significant, however, is the fact that some pigments used in watercolors are altered through the increased acidity of the alum-treated paper surface. In 1901, Church described how an artist can test the acidity of in tamil watercolor papers by portrt af en blogger essay applying ultramarine, chrome yellow and carmine washes. The subsequent visible alteration of corruption pigment color indicated the presence of excess alum. 10. In traditional bookbinding, alum was also widely used. For example, decorative paste papers, which were manufactured from the 16th century onward, were sometimes brushed with an alum solution after application of the pigment-paste mixture. Child Of Appalachia. This treatment increased the toughness of the paper surface. For centuries, alum has been used as an ingredient in corruption essay in tamil Japanese dosa or gelatin sizing for the preparation of paper for painting or printing. Aluminum sulfate, also called alum, became an industrial product in essay the 19th century. Corruption Essay. It was made by child treating either bauxite or china clay with sulfuric acid. Unlike true alum, aluminum sulfate could not be conveniently purified through recrystallization because of its greater solubility in corruption in tamil water.

This is one of the reasons why it often contained varying proportions of silica, iron and free sulfuric acid. By the early 20th century, however, commercial aluminum sulfate varieties were relatively uniform in quality. They were ranked according to grading systems and could be purchased in solid pieces as so-called patent alum. A View Coursework. Well-known varieties included cake alum 11 , porous alum 12 and Turkey Red Alum. 13 Because of its greater concentration of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and cheaper production procedures, aluminum sulfate saved mill expenses and therefore replaced aluminum potassium sulfate for most purposes in papermaking and particularly in rosin sizing towards the mid-19th century.

This earned it the in tamil, name papermaker's alum. Some 19th century European papermakers produced alum in their own facilities to ensure a more consistent quality at best medical essay book a lower price. 14 At the mill, alum was emptied into tanks for dissolution in water prior to use. In the early 19th century, papermakers learned the correct use of the newly-developed rosin sizing technology by essay trial and essay contest error methods. Essay. The first valid theory explaining the gatsby essay on colors, principles of rosin sizing was not put forward until 1879.

To precipitate one part rosin onto the paper fibers, 1.5 parts alum were required in the pulp solution, but an excess of alum was frequently added to ensure sufficient sizing. (Through improvements in 20th-century paper manufacture, the proportion of rosin and alum added to the pulp has significantly declined.) Not all of the alum was retained by the paper and some mills recovered it from the white water drained from the wire of the paper machine. Papers which needed to essay in tamil, be particularly strong could be sized twice--either with rosin and a subsequent gelatin size or with two gelatin size applications. In such cases, the alum concentration was sometimes increased in af en the second size bath. B.2 Miscellaneous Historical Uses of Aluminum Sulfate in Paper Manufacture. In 19th-century paper mill operations, alum was introduced for miscellaneous purposes besides sizing.

It became what a critic called one of the most used (and most abused!) non-fibrous materials in the papermaking industry. 15. For water clarification, blocks of alum were placed at the bottom of water tanks feeding into the mill. There the slowly dissolving alum precipitated suspended dirt particles and alkaline earth carbonates. The presence of either was particularly undesirable in rosin sizing. 16. In the chlorine bleaching of pulp, small quantities of alum were added to speed up the chemical reactions. The risk of damaging the cellulose fibers increased through this treatment. 17. Alum helped to retain clay fillers, pigments, resins and fiber fines in the pulp by aggregation.

They were otherwise easily drained away with the white water from the pulp on the paper machine. 18. Alum was effective in pitch control. Pitch, composed of resinous unsaponifiable chemicals in certain types of pulp, accumulates in the headbox and on the wire of the paper machine and can interrupt its smooth operation. The frothing or foaming of dispersed sizing materials on the paper machine was also inhibited through the presence of alum. 19. Aluminum ions also act as deflocculating agents in pulp slurries. 20 They react with the paper fibers and give them electrical charges of the same sign. The repulsion of their like charges keeps the fibers apart and in even suspension. On the other hand, alum helped to essay in tamil, increase bonding between fibers during sheet formation on the paper machine. This increased the wet strength of the portrt af en, paper.

Figure 1. Presence of alum in historic book papers. The percent of books that contained alum is indicated for each century. Average pH of tested books is indicated in each bar. (Source: Barrow.Research Laboratory, 1974, Table 2) Overall, the use of alum increased between the 16th and the 20th century. (Fig. 1) Simultaneously, the essay in tamil, average pH of book papers shifted from 6.7 to 4.8. 21 Barrett, in his X-ray fluorescence analysis of book papers from 1500 to 1800, found that papers in gatsby good condition contained less aluminum, potassium and sulfur than those in poor condition. 22 Twentieth-century sizing trends can be further exemplified by the postwar US rosin consumption, which steeply increased during the late 1950s. 23 At the same time, up to 500,000 tons of alum were used each year worldwide by corruption in tamil the paper industry, which amounted to 60% of the worldwide alum production. Only a small percentage of this alum was sold as being iron-free. 24 The use of rosin decreased significantly during the gatsby, 1980s.

C. ASPECTS OF THE ROLE OF ALUM IN PAPER SIZING. Aluminum ions show a characteristic strong affinity for cellulose and a complex behavior under various papermaking conditions. Some of the relevant research of the past years has been excerpted as follows: Figure 2. In Tamil. Example for blogger rosin-alum bonding to cellulose. (Source: Gess, 1989, p. Essay In Tamil. 78) The basic mechanism of rosin sizing involves, among a variety of other possible reactions, the formation of cationic aluminum salts from the rosin soap and the aluminum ions.

As Gess observes, the aluminum salt can then react with the cellulose to essay, provide the bridged complex between the cellulose and the rosin. 25 (Fig. 2) Figure 3. Structure proposed by corruption essay Gess for the aluminum/beta keto acid reaction product. (Source: J.M. Gess and R.C. From Coursework. Lund, The Strong Bond/Weak Bond Theory of Sizing, Tappi J. Jan. Essay. 1991, p. 111 ff.) In the child of appalachia contest, sizing process with alkyl ketene dimers, the corruption in tamil, aluminum in from coursework the beta-keto acid complex serves a similar purpose by linking the dimer to the cellulose, as recently proposed by Gess. (Fig. 3) Only five pounds of alum are usually added per ton of paper produced. In Tamil. 26. In gelatin-alum sizing, the formation of crosslinkages between hydrated forms of essay management workplace aluminum ions and gelatin molecules has been suggested.

27. Figure 4. Retention of rosin and alum in paper as a function of pH conditions during sheet formation. (This graph shows two of the in tamil, curves in Fig. 1.1, p. 28, from E. Strazdins, Chemistry and Application of Rosin Size, in W.F. Reynolds, ed., The Sizing of Paper, 2nd ed., Tappi Press, 1989.) Figure 5. Relationship between extractable acidity and sheet making pH, for pulp containing 30% alum. (Source: W.F. Reynolds and W.F. Linke, The Effect of essay frankenstein Alum and pH on Sheet Acidity. Tappi , Vol.

46, 7, 1963, p. 410 ff. The alum and rosin retention in the paper is essay in tamil determined, among other aspects, by the pH of the pulp solution. There is from a bridge evidence that the alum retention increases with increasing pH in the 4 to 6 range, whereas the rosin retention remains constant over that range. 28 (Fig. 4) Varying pH conditions also determine the extractability of acidity from paper as demonstrated for softwood pulp impregnated with aluminum sulfate. The amount of acidity, measured as sulfur trioxide, which could be extracted from the sheets was greatest when the sheets were formed at pH levels between 4 and 6. Essay In Tamil. 29 (Fig. A View. 5)

The effects of conservation treatments on corruption alum-containing papers have been investigated by a number of individuals. Some of the findings can be briefly summarized as follows: In the child of appalachia contest, 1970s Daniels found that the bleach chloramine-T was retained by water-rinsed test samples impregnated with alum, whereas alum did not affect the removal of other oxidizing bleaches. 30. Wilson noted that, among selected deacidification agents, only magnesium carbonate was able to reduce the concentration of aluminum compounds in alum-impregnated papers, and corruption essay its effect was slight.

31. Prolonged aqueous conservation treatments may cause the partial removal of alum-containing sizes, as has been noted in a recent study on the light bleaching of paper carried out at the Conservation Analytical Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 32. E. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS ON GELATIN-ALUM SIZING. In order to investigate the natural aging characteristics of gelatin-alum sized papers, the essay, author carried out several experiments. Test papers were sized with 3% gelatin solutions containing varying proportions of corruption alum. In some cases alkaline earth carbonates were added to simulate hard water papermaking systems. The papers were artificially aged at from coursework 90°C and 50% RH and tested for a change of physical properties. The resulting color change, ÆE, and tensile energy absorption, TEA, of the aged papers can be summarized as follows:

Figure 6. Relationship of corruption essay in tamil alum content in gelatin size and color increase in sized and coursework aged cotton linter papers. (Original data) The increase in discoloration in units of ÆE (measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter) of sized and aged cotton linter papers was directly proportional to the increase in aluminum sulfate concentration, which ranged from 0 to 90% based on the gelatin content. The alum concentrations above 50% do not reflect papermaking practices but were included to show possible paper aging trends resulting from the alum increase. (Fig. 6) The presence of iron compounds with the alum in the paper appeared to play a significant simultaneous role in inducing the corruption, color changes. Also, alum concentrations higher than 40% made the essay, paper very water absorbent. Accelerated aging (90°C, 50% RH) produced a color shift in cotton linter papers that depended on the composition of their size. In Tamil. Under the on stress management in the workplace, aging conditions employed, unsized paper remained relatively white. Gelatin-sized paper showed a tendency towards yellowish discoloration, whereas increasing alum concentrations in the gelatin size shifted the discoloration from yellowish towards grayish brown. Test papers impregnated only with alum also discolored to a distinct grayish brown tone. Figure 7. Relationship of alum content in gelatin size and paper strength in sized and in tamil aged Whatman #4 filter papers. (Original data)

The value of the TEA measure of gatsby paper strength declined proportionally with an increase in alum content of gelatin-alum sized and aged Whatman filter papers. (Tensile energy absorption is a measure for essay the amount of energy necessary to stretch a sheet of paper to the point of rupture.) Interestingly, the test paper sized with only 1% alum on the weight of the gelatin did not suffer physical strength loss during aging. Papers impregnated with magnesium carbonate or calcium carbonate and from then sized with a gelatin-alum solution showed better physical strength properties after aging than did similarly sized unimpregnated papers. (Fig. Corruption In Tamil. 7) Pre-16th century accounts of the a bridge coursework, use of alum in papermaking are scarce, but alum was very likely known to papermakers by corruption in tamil the 14th century. The presence of elemental aluminum and potassium detected in 15th-century papers indicates the application of alum. From. The early use of the substance is not surprising since it provided the most effective method of reducing the ink absorbency of essay in tamil gelatin sized writing papers. Papers sized only with gelatin remain readily moisture absorbent. In sizing practice, alum was added to best essay, the gelatin size or, alternatively, was applied to paper separately after gelatin sizing. Essay. Both of these sizing methods are recorded in the 18th-century literature. Whether the aging properties of school essay book sized papers were affected by the method chosen remains to be investigated. The quality of the alum (as mainly determined by the extent of its contamination by iron) and of the gelatin probably was more important in influencing the aging properties of papers than was the method of application.

Aluminum ammonium sulfate was an occasional substitute for aluminum potassium sulfate in paper sizing. This should be borne in mind when elemental analysis of paper specimens shows the presence of aluminum, but not of potassium. In sized and artificially aged test papers, alum decreased the paper strength and brightness. Essay In Tamil. It was observed that, whereas the use of Whatman filter papers ensured the child of appalachia essay contest, greater homogeneity of the corruption essay in tamil, sample population and therefore greater reliability of the test results, handmade cotton linter papers had aging properties more closely resembling those of naturally aged papers. The cotton linter papers, for example, discolored more readily upon artificial aging (90°C, 50% RH), probably because of impurities such as iron compounds in the pulp. In the gatsby essay on colors, evaluation of essay historical papers, however, alum should not be regarded as the only cause of paper degradation. The effect of alum on paper can only book be appreciated in context with the many interrelated aspects of paper composition, including the quality of the gelatin used; the pH of the sizing solution; the purity of the alum; and the presence of corruption essay other pulp constituents. Although it will not be possible for a conservator to distinguish between these aspects for every paper examined, the history of alum application should be a reminder of the variability of paper as a historical medium. The author expresses her gratitude to frankenstein, the faculty of the in tamil, Art Conservation Department, State University College at Buffalo, especially to Cathleen Baker for suggestions and comments and to essay frankenstein, Dan Kushel and Christopher Tahk for technical advice and assistance throughout the project. Essay. She would also like to thank Timothy Barrett, Director of Paper Facilities (at the af en, School of Art and Art History, University of Iowa and the UI Center for the Book), for carrying out X-ray fluorescence analysis and folding endurance testing. He, along with Pamela Spitzmueller, University Conservator, University of Iowa Libraries, generously shared their insights into papermaking practices and paper properties.

The helpful historical literature suggestions provided by in tamil Tom Conroy in Berkeley, California, are also much appreciated. This paper was prepared during 1990-91 while the author was a Getty Senior Fellow at school the Art Conservation Department, State University College at corruption essay Buffalo. Barrett, Timothy. Medical School. Early European Papers/Contemporary Conservation Papers. The Paper Conservator, 1989, Vol. 13. Barrow, W.J., Research Laboratory. Physical and Chemical Properties of Book Paper, 1507-1949. (Permanence/Durability of the Book--VII) Richmond, Virginia: Barrow Research Laboratory, 1974. Beckmann, Johann A. Anleitung zur Technologie. Corruption. 4th edition from 1796, in: Karl Keim, Das Papier, 2nd edition. Otto Blersch Verlag, Stuttgart, 1956.

Chambers, E. Cyclopedia or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. London, 1784. Church, A. H. The Chemistry of a view from a bridge coursework Paints and Painting. Seeley and Co. Ltd., London, 1901. Daniels, Vincent. The Elimination of Bleaching Agents from Paper. The Paper Conservator, Journal of the IIC United Kingdom Group Paper Group, 1976, Vol. 1.

Davis, Charles T. The Manufacture of Paper. In Tamil. Philadelphia, 1886. Gess, J. M. et al. The Strong Bond/Weak Bond Theory of Sizing. Tappi Journal, January 1991.

Gess, J. M. Rosin Sizing of Papermaking Fibers, Tappi Journal, July 1989. Grant, J. A Laboratory Handbook of Pulp and Paper Manufacture, 2nd edition. Edward Arnold Co., 1944. Hofmann, Carl. Praktisches Handbuch der Papier Fabrikation. Verlag der Papierzeitung, Berlin, 1891. Vol. 2. Jenner, Thomas.

A Book of Drawing, Limning, Washing or Colouring of Maps and Prints. Printed by gatsby on colors Simmons for Jenner, London, 1652. Kragh, A. M. Corruption Essay. The Effect of Aluminum Sulphate and other Polyvalent Metals on the Viscosity of Gelatin Solutions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, June 8, 1957. Lalande, Joseph de. The Art of Papermaking (1761), transl. by R. Essay. Atkinson. County Clare, Ireland: Ashling Press, 1976. Libby, C. Earl. Corruption Essay. Pulp and Paper Science and Technology, Vol. II. McGraw-Hill, New York, no date (probably 1960s).

The Manufacture of Pulp and Paper, Vol. Af En. III. (Joint Executive Committee on Vocational Education Representing the Pulp and Paper Industry of the United States and Canada) McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1922. Rance, H. F. The Raw Materials and Processing of Papermaking. Handbook of Paper Science, Vol. Corruption Essay. 1. Elsevier, New York, 1980. Reynolds, W. F. et al. The Effect of Alum and pH on Sheet Acidity. Tappi, Vol.

46, No. Essay. 7, 1963. Schaefer, Terry T., et al. Corruption. Effect of Aging on an Aqueously Light Bleached, Mixed Pulp Paper. The Book and Paper Group Annual, Vol. 10. American Institute for Conservation, Washington, D.C., 1991. Singer, Charles. The Earliest Chemical Industry: An Essay in the Historical Relations of Economics and Technology Illustrated from the Alum Trade. 1st edition.

The Folio Society, London, 1948. Tomlinson, Charles (ed.). Cyclopedia of child of appalachia Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical Manufactures, Mining, and Engineering. London, 1862. Ure, Andrew. A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, Vol.

1. Appleton Co., New York, 1866. Wilson, William K. et al., The Effect of Magnesium Bicarbonate. Essay In Tamil. Preservation of Textiles and Paper of Historic and Artistic Value II. J. C. Williams, ed. (Advances in Chemistry Series, 193) American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1981. Witham, G. S. Modern Pulp and Paper Making. Chemical Catalog Company, New York, 1920.

Zimmermann, Samuel. Von Gehaimnuß verborgner Künsten/ New Titularbuech Das ist/ wie man ainer Jeden Person/ sey was Wurdigkait sie wolle/ in zwen Thail gethailt/ sambt etlichen hinzugethanen fürtreffentlichen Gehaimnussen/ verborgenen Mechanischen Apochryphischen und gleichsam Übernatürlichen Künsten/ des Lesen und die Schreiberey betreffend/ Desgleichen vor niemals in Truck aussgangen. Ingolstadt, 1579.

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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in data mining and essay in tamil machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of iterations to essay on stress management in the converge the weight coefficients of essay in tamil edges in the network; thus, settling into a decision model. Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of distributed computing environment. In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.

For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and the follow-up information from from, patients. Then, the essay privacy of the patients must be protected, according to the privacy rules in essay, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) [1], which establishes the regulations for the use and disclosure of Protected Health Information. Why the researchers would want to build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the corruption essay training data on one computer is a natural question. If there is a learner trusted by all the data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. However, in many real-world cases, it is af en essay rather difficult to corruption essay in tamil find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like ‘What will you do to of appalachia essay my data’? and ‘Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research’? On the other hand, given the distributed and essay in tamil networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the a bridge coursework scientific advances [2]. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning even before they see the data from other parties. As a concrete example, the progress in corruption, neuroscience could be boosted by making links between data from labs around the world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by on stress in the others because of privacy and security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.

This thesis describes the design and development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for essay Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the procedures used to test their effectiveness. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on review of essay on colors different related work as well as emphasizing on privacy preserving distributed datasets for corruption essay solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.

This chapter describes the portrt blogger essay problem definition and goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of system, architecture of the system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and Analysis.

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In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier [8], and support vector machine (SVM) [9] Generally speaking, the existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches[7] Randomization-based approaches, by perturbing data, only guarantee a limited degree of privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation [10]. The works of secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to essay management workplace the millionaire problem proposed by Yao, in which two millionaires can find out who is richer without revealing the amount of corruption essay in tamil their wealth. In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. On Stress Management Workplace. Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the cryptography-based approaches are difficult to essay in tamil be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.

For example, although Laur et al. Coursework. proposed an elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in [9], their protocols are based on corruption essay in tamil circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in practice. L.Wan, W. Gatsby Essay On Colors. K. Ng, S. Essay. Han, and V. C. S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of gatsby gradient descent with data privacy preservation [13]. They present two approaches’stochastic approach and least square approach’under different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of Present Practices. In the Literature Survey, work is essay in tamil carried on essay frankenstein privacy preserving Data Mining for corruption essay performing data analysis on portrt af en blogger distributed datasets. Further the in tamil solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for preserving privacy of distributed datasets to essay on stress management in the solve optimization problems. There is no any work done related to essay in tamil gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. Blogger Essay. horizontal fragmentation and corruption in tamil vertical fragmentation datasets.

It is therefore required that this solution for the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning of multiple parties’ data for solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. Essay. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for learners to essay develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Hence the goal is to design and on colors implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets for solving classification problems. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems. If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. Goals of dissertation are: ‘ Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. ‘ Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of essay owner’s dataset.

‘ Implementing of essay management workplace Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for essay in tamil Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Analyze the results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to securely compute the piecewise linear function for the neural network training process to obtain the desired output. We can train the essay neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.

If unknown samples come for essay testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is used for updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. Gatsby. In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and implementation details of dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.

There are 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach i.e. Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and essay Wine Dataset. Modules in the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. 2. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. 3. Essay Workplace. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and Implementation of essay in tamil Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. Analysis of essay contest results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of essay in tamil System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on of appalachia contest Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for training dataset on back propagation neural network is implemented for analysis purpose.

4.1.2 A cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the essay in tamil algorithm is to secure each step in portrt af en essay, the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the corruption essay in tamil other party nor the essay intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and essay Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for classification of data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset.

In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of dataset and to guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for two parties. To hide the intermediate results such as the values of hidden-layer nodes, the two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in the Back propagation Neural Network to obtain exact output by minimizing the best essay book error rates. After the essay entire process of private training, without revealing any raw data to essay frankenstein each other, the corruption two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the properties of the on stress union dataset used for solving classification problems.

4.1.6 Comparison study and analysis of results. ‘ Comparison of non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and vertically partitioned cases in terms of error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ To test the accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. System is initiated from three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.

In first module we train the neural network by using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for analysis purpose. Corruption Essay In Tamil. In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is essay used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for essay neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. From Coursework. Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the accuracy of each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for corruption essay proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is a view from coursework carried out on first module implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is applied for Least Square Approach where the essay in tamil iteration is decided based on the tolerable error allowed to stop the training process.

The literature behind the same and sample hand simulation is shown in frankenstein, the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of Neural Network. The connection we’re interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and C, but we’ll return to that later. The algorithm works like this: 1. First apply the corruption in tamil inputs to the network and work out the output ‘ remember this initial output could be anything, as the initial weights were random numbers. 2. Next work out the error for neuron B. The error is what you want ‘ What you actually get, in other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB’ OutputB).

3. The ‘Output(1-Output)’ term is necessary in the equation because of the Sigmoid Function ‘ if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target ‘ Output). 4. Essay Frankenstein. Change the corruption essay weight. Let W+AB be the gatsby new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the output of the connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in the output layer in essay in tamil, this way. 5. Calculate the Errors for the hidden layer neurons.

Unlike the child of appalachia essay contest output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the algorithm). This is done by taking the Errors from the output neurons and in tamil running them back through the weights to get the hidden layer errors. For example if neuron A is portrt blogger connected as shown to B and C then we take the errors from B and C to generate an error for corruption A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 – OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the factor ‘Output (1 – Output )’ is present because of the sigmoid squashing function.

6. Having obtained the on colors Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in stage 3 to change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of corruption essay layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for Least Square Approach on Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on second module Implementation of ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. The main idea of the algorithm will be secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Gatsby Essay. Possible encryption mechanism is in tamil Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and from coursework study its properties.

In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for corruption public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. It was described by gatsby Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is usually used in a hybrid cryptosystem. Corruption. i.e., the frankenstein message itself is encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and ElGamal is then used to encrypt the key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for the same level of essay security, so it is faster to encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the time is quite small if compared to the size of the message) with Elgamal and gatsby essay the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 4.2.2.1 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:

The ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to compute private key of decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. 1. Key generator. i. Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the integers. ii.

Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Represent the message as integers m in the range . iii. Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and in tamil ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. ??). i. Use secret key a to compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.

Recover m by computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.

Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 4.2.2.2 Properties of essay ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and m2, an encryption of can be obtained by an operation on E(m1,r) and corruption essay E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the blogger essay encryption operation also needs a random number as input. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.

This is called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. Corruption Essay In Tamil. This Horizontal Partition Case is essay on stress workplace experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset.

1. Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at corruption essay in tamil, party one. It will generate the portrt blogger output weight vectors. These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements. 3. Essay In Tamil. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Essay. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to essay convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in module 2.

2. All encrypted data is collected at a single repository. 3. Normalization of the record is made in the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. 4. Medical School Essay. Least Square Approach Training for essay Back propagation neural network is essay performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and corruption essay in tamil weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the following steps: ‘ Forward propagation of a training pattern’s input through the coursework neural network in order to generate the propagation’s output activations.

‘ Backward propagation of the in tamil propagation’s output activations through the neural network using the training pattern’s target in order to generate the deltas of essay on stress management all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the following steps: ‘ Multiply its output delta and input activation to get the gradient of the weight. ‘ Bring the weight in the opposite direction of the essay gradient by subtracting a ratio of it from the essay management in the weight. This ratio influences the corruption in tamil speed and quality of essay on stress in the workplace learning; it is called the learning rate. The sign of the essay gradient of a weight indicates where the error is increasing; this is why the weight must be updated in the opposite direction.

Repeat phase 1 and 2 until the performance of the essay network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Essay In Tamil. Also we analyses execution time of algorithms, Number of iterations and Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the class diagram of the a view from system. System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. Corruption In Tamil. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of essay on stress management workplace gradient descent method. Dataset class print input and output of dataset values.

Form class shows the graphical presentation of system. Corruption Essay In Tamil. AttributeSet class print the attributes of datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the system.

The purpose of sequence diagram is to visualize the interaction behavior of the system. The sequence diagram shows the gatsby on colors actual working of Least Square Approach of corruption in tamil Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and a view from Multivariate.

Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and corruption essay Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Wine Dataset ‘ Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and Analysis:

The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for the datasets as shown in portrt, Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for the datasets. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters is as shown in Table 5.2.

Sr.No Name of essay in tamil Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the graph of best essay testing accuracy of non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of any dataset by corruption in tamil training the network for essay on colors longer duration with less of learning rate.

This behavior can be analyzed using the statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of corruption essay in tamil Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in test results due to reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in from coursework, test results due to increase in number of corruption in tamil iteration against Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of percentage accuracy of Tennis dataset.

The Execution Time of the algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the increase in the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.

250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in Learning Rate increases the execution time based on above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of iteration of the school book algorithm based on sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of number of iteration also increases the execution time based on Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.

We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on generating the truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the program implemented for converting the Dataset values to whole numbers and in tamil writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the dataset.

Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and updated dataset for the sake of training. Name of of appalachia Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.

Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the Accuracy Factor involved in the training of iris and iris new dataset (as needed for ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of Test Samples 50 50.

Number of Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is essay acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the portrt af en essay screenshot of number of records read by Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of records read by Party one.

Further the training is corruption carried out with the of appalachia essay parameters as shown in above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on the 54 records of essay this iris dataset as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the of appalachia essay contest learning process at Party one is completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the weight vector values which can be transferred by corruption essay Party one to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the data elements as shown in Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to Party two for performing his set of training. Hence we transfer the file from Party one to essay frankenstein Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of in tamil exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by gatsby reading this partial trained weight vector values and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for performing testing as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Screenshots of training performed at Party two. Testing Results either at Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and compared the results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for corruption essay in tamil the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is as shown in Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.

Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of gatsby essay Dataset Number of corruption essay Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of testing results between non privacy and privacy preserving algorithm.

From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is essay in the no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on essay ample number of iterations. Best Medical School. With security of corruption essay data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the essay algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of essay gradient descent method for Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is experimented a dataset which is divided in medical, two parties and they together want to essay train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for keeping the data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the Elgamal encryption technique individually and send the data to trusted third party where the data will be collected in Encrypted.

To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for ElGamal Encryption is Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of execution of a view a bridge coursework ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of in tamil execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the data records. This simulation can be done by individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the data is in encrypted form. Coursework. The learning trusted party will also be not able to incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: Screenshot of essay in tamil Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the test records can also be encrypted. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshot of big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to normalize because to get higher accuracy of essay frankenstein neural network. Normalization is carried out in the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.

In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshots of normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the result of corruption essay Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of portrt af en essay Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for corruption the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of Work. We analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and from coursework Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on corruption essay in tamil Vertical Dataset. Table 5.6 shows the comparison of best medical percentage accuracy of testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.

Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.

So in above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for corruption essay in tamil vertical partitioned datasets. Although this can be taken as a future work as to extend the vertical partition case for a character type of from coursework data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of corruption testing datasets for three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of portrt blogger comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is corruption essay no significant loss in the accuracy if training is frankenstein performed on ample number of iterations. Essay. The number of essay management workplace iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the cryptographic implementation makes the data loss to happen. But still at the cost of corruption essay in tamil some learning improvement the data can be kept secured for gatsby Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is essay in tamil used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. School. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for training of neural network for distributed datasets. Essay In Tamil. Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. stochastic approach and Least Square approach. For our work least square approach is used and a view a bridge coursework it is well suited for training of neural network.

We use Back Propagation neural network for in tamil training purpose. We works on essay on stress in the workplace privacy preserving protocols for securely performing gradient descent method over vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Corruption Essay In Tamil. Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and essay preserving privacy of each data holders. We also conducted experiments to analyze the corruption essay results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for horizontal and vertical portioned datasets. The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. horizontal partitioned and vertically partitioned datasets using the least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to portrt af en blogger essay work with Encryption mechanism. [1] HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the Privacy of corruption essay in tamil Personal Health Information, [Online].

Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html. [2] M. Chicurel, ‘Data basing the brain,’ Nature, vol. 406, pp. 822’825, Aug. 2000. [3] D. Agrawal and R. Srikant, ‘Privacy-preserving data mining,’ in Proc. ACM SIGMOD. [4] Y. Of Appalachia Contest. Lindell and corruption in tamil B. Pinkas, ‘Privacy preserving data mining,’ in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.

1880, pp. 36’44. [5] N. Zhang, S. Wang, and W. A View From A Bridge Coursework. Zhao, ‘A new scheme on privacy-preserving data classification,’ in corruption essay in tamil, Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. On Stress Management Workplace. Knowl. Disc. Data Mining, 2005.

[6] G. Jagannathan and in tamil R. N. Wright, ‘Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over arbitrarily partitioned data,’ in Proc. ACM. [7] O. Goldreich, Foundations of Cryptography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [8] R. Blogger Essay. Wright and Z. Yang, ‘Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on essay distributed heterogeneous data,’ in Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD. [9] H. Yu, X. Jiang, and J. Vaidya, ‘Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on horizontally partitioned data,’ in Proc. Annu.

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8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006. [12] A. Yao, ‘How to generate and exchange secrets,’ in Proc. 27th IEEE Symp. Essay In Tamil. Found. A View From. Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162’167. [13] L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. Corruption In Tamil. C. S. Frankenstein. Lee, ‘Privacy-preservation for gradient descent methods,’ in corruption in tamil, Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of essays:

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