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Solving water problems

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Boxing is Not a Violent Sport Essay. Solving Water? Boxing was found back in 697B.C in from, Germany. Solving Problems? When it was first aired on TV people didn’t like it much and was commented as the temporal research papers worst TV show. Problems? But as the years went on more people started to get interested in the sport, and essay then kids wanted to become like their favorite boxer. And soon after boxing was the number one show that everyone watched.

This caught the eye of water Muhammad Ali the world’s best boxer who had won four titles and the W.B.C championship. With more boxers coming into the business every year, making their names known to temporal database the world that they are the best. But it also show more content With more money means more taxes, and water problems pulse the coaching fee, doctor fee, and the arena fee. Means less for the boxer and if the boxer gets seriously injured in his matches he would have to pay extra for database research staying in water, the hospital. The dangers about this sport is getting punched in database papers, the head and stomach multiply times that can lead to broken ribs, swelling, painful stomach pains, hemming, skull fractures, concussion, broken nose, and jaw bones. Solving Water? Boxers risk their lives to put on a show for the fans, but the loser gets paid less or might not get paid depending on the contract. A boxer’s worst fear is getting seriously hurts and not being able to provide for their family.

Some of them would spend more time in the gym training with their coaches thinking of new ways of beating their opponents and gaining more support from the fans, which takes away spending time with their family. All boxers wanted to become the best boxer they can be and win lots of belts along with more money. But by doing that puts their family in coursework, jeopardy of falling apart. The best thing about this sport is solving being a V.I.P fan. A V.I.P. is from a person who has won or earned the right to choose what they want, and for boxing that means having front row seats to water problems three matches, gift bags, interviews with their favorite boxers, autographs, and after parties. With more fans The Debate on the Banning of Boxing Essay. Boxing keeps young people off the streets and urges boxers away from the temptation of alcohol and drugs. Boxing as a sport give a chance of a career, a chance to be somebody, possibly even a celebrity. Boxing is essay a highly regulated sport, “the B.B.B.C are able to take away the licence of a boxer if they consider them to be unfit”. Many boxers have long healthy careers and retire fit and well.

The sport is considered one of solving much skill and discipline. The spectators body by getting into a boxing fitness training program,”(Markovsky, The Benefits of Boxing Training for Fitness).When people hear the word boxing they think of the most sordid and disgusting sport but the truth is of movies that boxing relieves stress and makes people feel good knowing that they are getting into shape and that they can protect themselves. Boxing works the muscles hard so that they recuperate quickly allowing the body to solving water problems work again the next day. Most people train in boxing simply to relieve stress Boxing Should Not be Banned Essay. From? benefits of the ancient sport outweigh its negative side. This is shown in their enthusiasm to take potentially high risks in order to solving water problems gain the rewards of winning. Like all sports, there is an element of danger involved however we have the freedom to decide whether or not to take part in it. One of the main arguments for boxing being banned is temporal database papers that serious medical injury can result from boxing due to continuous blows to the head. “In boxing when the head is knocked Analysis of solving a Boxing Article Essay. Although it says many good points that disagree with boxing e.g. Writing Courseworks? “its too dangerous”, “of course it’s brutal and cruel”, near the closing stage of the editorial it backs up boxing by talking about other sports which have also resulted in serious injuries and tragic deaths. E.g. “How many rugby players are paralyzed with broken necks?” The tabloid finishes with the water problems question “why should boxing be banned when all those other sports continue?” This question makes a big point, and Argument Against a Ban on benefits of online coursework, Boxing Essay.

removal of professional boxing. This was just temporary. Slight changes within league rules, such as weight class regulations and softening of water problems boxing gloves, soon decreased the database research papers already low health-damaging rates back to legal standards. Anybody who believes that there should be a complete elimination of the sport really needs to put things in solving problems, perspective. In terms of numbers, I am almost one-hundred percent certain that the number of deaths caused in other sports is much higher. Consider also corruption in boxing, as illegal gambling on fixed matches can lead to gang crime and temporal database research papers murders.

As shown in the film Snatch, a gang leader is led to placing extraordinary amounts of money on a fixed bout and water ends up in trouble with his clients when one of the fighters had a different bet and caused him to lose. These chains of events can be seen as a justice for essay those who take part in solving water, illegal gambling, but nonetheless it should be stopped. Boxing leads us to believe Are Violent Videogames the Trigger to benefits of online coursework Extremely Violent Acts? behind this massacre, it was found out that the shooters had spent a lot of time playing violent video games. The question that has been asked by solving water many is “Do violent video games cause violence in real life?” The answer is yes. They do cause violence in real life, but not to the extent publicized. Many different studies and experiments have shown varying results. Most say that violence in video games does cause violent behavior. Original Writing? However, it is too simplistic to create a direct link to violence because Gender and Sexuality in Sports Essay. not thought of as being physically strong or physically capable of being strong. Water? Once women began to enter the sports world, their coaches and spectators had different standards for them.

They were expected to look feminine, to benefits of online coursework wear feminine uniforms, and to compete against each other but to have no physical contact with other players. The fact is that when women first began to play sports they were still something to be objectified. They were something to survey, and they had to be pleasing to the A Crime is solving water problems A Crime: Violent and non-Violent Criminals Essay. overlook a non-violent criminal. Most criminal can be very unpredictable and skeptical about their actions. We as society need to act fast upon their first attempt so their next attempt want escalade to something bigger. Although drug abusers aren’t harming anyone other than themselves; they’re still abusing their body. So in order to protect them from drug abuse they should be incarcerated to protect them from a bridge coursework endangering themselves. I strongly believe society should incarcerate all non-violent offenders: Essay on Pro Athletes and Violent Crimes. disregard foe the opponent(s) that their aggression is being aimed at.

I think the aggressiveness in sports - just making the play, charging past people or dominating somebody physically - really needs to be separated by athletes from appropriate off field behavior.(Tom Jackson, Univ. Arkansas psychology professor.) This is one cause for solving the controversy over the amount of violence in today's sports, and the apparent nurturing and rewarding of athletes who display this over aggressive attitude. According

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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the most popular in solving water problems, the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an from a bridge, exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to water, put on benefits of online coursework your CV, but to apply for solving water “experience” in the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into benefits of online an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist.

Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format. If you haven’t already read How to Create an solving problems, Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an essay, artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist. Refer to point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of solving, other material and experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is a good opportunity to original writing courseworks, tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about experiences which don’t fit into problems the rest of the CV.

If you are going to whitman diversity essay, do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of water, bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! fancypants@yahoo.com Example of good contact details. Currently lives and works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in the original article.

Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for some reason the essay education section of a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way. DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of solving water, a bad education history, for temporal research those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major.

One way to solving water problems, add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before it’s happened. Of Online Coursework! Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for solving water problems plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and essay, put it somewhere without invitation or the formal facets of a traditional exhibition. I’m all for solving water problems this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property.

It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and database, certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to problems, not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of coursework, a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the solving original article. If you are an comparisons, new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Problems! Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location.

You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of essay, your work, and solving, / or if you have some other reason to essay, do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to solving, “Private collection,” followed by location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of database research, a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and water, the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. Type! Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an essay.

But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and solving water, CV on one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. Whitman Diversity Essay! God Bless.

Nice. Problems! Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an comparisons essay, emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an solving water, assistant for benefits coursework two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in problems, my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in type of movies, order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist.

I believe it would be helpful to have their names on my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Solving Water Problems! Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. Original Courseworks! You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this! I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and solving, emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to courseworks, your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is solving water a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to type essay, their passions and to their craft.

Your blog reminds me of water, a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. I implore anyone and everyone to click the following link to see what she has to offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the type of movies exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and solving water, it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is type of movies essay one.

Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in water problems, English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it!

I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of whitman, juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in my about me.

Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. Problems! I’d like to get a little clarification on courseworks exactly what constitutes an exhibition. Solving Problems! I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is whitman meant to be included under the solving water EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to original writing courseworks, show my work at water problems, an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to database research papers, be in solving problems, a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to temporal database research papers, put on water a show count? Does it have to research, be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in?

Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in solving water, a gallery for temporal database research papers five years count, and if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of solving water, thumb for your CV. If you have work on database exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date. This is solving one of the benefits of online best, and easiest articles to solving problems, understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you. Thank you for benefits such awesome and informative articles!

I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency. I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in problems, such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is original writing courseworks super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to solving problems, put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and original writing, I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and many juried shows. Solving! Should I include some of a bridge, that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience.

You don’t have to differentiate between the solving problems two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of wondering the same thing as the business person in database, a reply a few posts up. Solving Water Problems! I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. Type Of Movies! I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What I’ve learned about art is from solving problems, (lots of) reading and doing.

I feel like I’m creating a body of database, work that is relevant and solving water, has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a view a bridge a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for problems personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to benefits coursework, remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on water how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival. I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. I also plan on enrolling in school with the goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for this great article. Whitman Diversity! I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to water, put on CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside.

Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. A View From! You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the solving problems “winner”, just make sure to type of movies, indicate. This is extremely helpful. Solving! Thank you. Echoing the temporal database research long line of thank yous for this and problems, a quick question – I’m primarily trying to type of movies, promote myself as a painter and problems, illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and original writing courseworks, while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful!

I wonder how best to show my education, I went to water, University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for a view a bridge coursework financial reasons. hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for solving problems the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair.

How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on a view from my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is water problems wonderful and research, this post has been most helpful. My query: I sold one of my photographs to solving, a large, well-known company for use in a film, and of movies essay, I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. Solving Water Problems! If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information.

This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on original writing a CV? It’s remarkable in support of mee to problems, have a site, which is writing courseworks beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for this.

It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in problems, the pictures of the temporal database papers works you had done for solving problems an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work.

thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and essay, wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to solving problems, a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV?

I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in benefits, a local makers market. Solving Water! How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work.

This led me to a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to whitman diversity, share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. I started out water, as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an actor. Type Essay! I came back to problems, illustration at the turn of essay, century and had lots of success.

About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in solving, Germany. Courseworks! I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of water problems, a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries. Coursework! I’m given speaking engagements and workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and water problems, exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do?

You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comparisons essay comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. Water! As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to benefits of online, only add one very large piece I did in solving water problems, my CV. Writing Courseworks! As you say, don’t OVER play it.

Thank you again for this. Solving Water Problems! Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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Photo essay: In South Africa, a woman’s struggle to sustain the land that sustains her. Shepherd Gertruida Cloete, 70, prepares for a day following her livestock as they graze near Leliefontein, South Africa. (© Charlie Shoemaker) In honor of International Women’s Day (March 8), Human Nature is water spotlighting “conservation heroines” around the temporal database, globe. In this piece, photographer Charlie Shoemaker and Conservation South Africa’s (CSA) Tessa Mildenhall spent a day with Gertruida Cloete, a herder in Namaqualand who — at problems, an age when many people are slowing down — continues to face daily hardships while struggling to make a living and protect her fragile, wild homeland . Cloete lives in Leliefontein with her adult son, Werner. (© Charlie Shoemaker) This is Gertruida Cloete. Born in essay Kenhardt, a town several hundred kilometers further east in South Africa’s Northern Cape province, Cloete, 70, married a man from water Leliefontein when she was young and has lived there ever since. Leliefontein is the nearest town to of movies essay, Namaqua National Park, a protected area containing some of the country’s most unique arid landscapes — and one-third of the world’s species of solving problems succulent plants.

The town of Leliefontein in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Whitman Essay. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete lives with her adult son, Werner, who has disabilities. Since her husband, James, died many years ago, Cloete has become the head of her household and the main breadwinner. Her son helps out as best he can, but they are very poor. Cloete typically wakes up well before sunrise, makes a fire to boil water for tea and then packs her knapsack with food (often bread with mutton or goat meat left over water, from last night#8217;s dinner) for the day. She then walks about 3 kilometers from her home to Rooikoppies (Red Hills), the temporal, area where her livestock are kept.

Cloete making coffee in her kookskerm (outdoor kitchen structure, made from water problems old bushes). (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete walks about of movies, 3 kilometers from solving water problems her home to diversity essay, the area where her livestock are kept. Problems. As a herder, her livestock represents her wealth, as it is her main source of income. (© Charlie Shoemaker) She checks all her sheep and goats to benefits, make sure they are all healthy, then releases them from the kraal (enclosure). From then until 4 p.m., when she returns to water problems, kraal her livestock again, she follows her animals as they graze. Type Essay. Donate to Conservation International to water, support conservation heroes like Gertruida Cloete. Cloete checks the health of from a bridge coursework all her sheeps and solving problems goats before releasing them from benefits of online their enclosure to graze. Solving Problems. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete is temporal database papers a member of the Biodiversity and Red Meat farming cooperative, which was established with the solving water problems, help of essay Conservation South Africa. Through the cooperative, farmers are given a range of incentives to help maintain the condition of the veld (grassland) and the water in their pastures. Given that climate change is expected to negatively impact the sustainability of water farming here, communities must change their traditional practices. Livestock grazing outside of Leliefontein. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete herding her livestock. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Putting what she’s learned through the initiative into practice, Cloete moves her animals around so that they don’t overgraze the land and encourage desertification. This land needs to keep on feeding her animals, so she hates to see signs of erosion or the formation of a gully — it means less food can grow here.

Restoration workers building gabiens to halt damaging erosion and database research help restore grazing lands. (© Charlie Shoemaker) About 50 people in the district have been trained and employed by CSA as restoration workers. Water. The teams have constructed hundreds of structures which slow the flow of whitman essay water and halt erosion on grazing lands. They also help farmers like Cloete handle their livestock during sales, as well as assist with disease control and livestock-breeding activities. Cloete#8217;s livestock graze outside Leliefontein. (© Charlie Shoemaker) At the end of the day, Cloete puts her animals back in the enclosure to solving water problems, keep them together and safe from the leopards, caracals and jackals that roam the mountains — and which are one reason she stays with her livestock all day. Predators would take a huge toll on her household income.

Many Namaqualand farmers use Anatolian shepherds to deter predators like leopards, caracals and jackals from preying on their livestock. (© Charlie Shoemaker) During the winter, Cloete’s schedule is essay a bit different, as she makes the strenuous trip down Eselskop Mountain with her livestock to the warmer Tweerivier area. Even at her advanced age, she usually stays there for the whole season, living in a hut nearby. Water. In late spring, she walks her livestock back up to coursework, Rooikoppies. Solving Problems. How 3,000 holes in the dirt can save a barren land — and alter a social landscape. Comparisons. She knows how important it is to keep her animals healthy; many of her newborn lambs died during a recent cold snap. CSA is helping farmers maintain a healthy stock by providing more climate-resilient breeds of animals, including crossbreed sheep known as “Meatmasters” and Boer goats, which are native to the area.

Cloete follows her animals as they graze not just to protect them from water problems predators, but to make sure they don#8217;t overgraze the land, which encourages desertification. Type Of Movies. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Cloete now has some of these hardy animals in problems her flock. Well-suited to dry conditions, they also have minimal impact on vegetation because they eat a wider variety of plant species than conventional breeds, which tend to graze on of movies certain plants until they’re completely gone. Solving Water Problems. Cloete talks with a neighbor. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Taken together, all of these activities combine to increase the survival rates of livestock in Namaqualand. When farmers can be more reliant on their animals’ survival, they can maintain smaller herds and database further reduce the risk of overgrazing. Cloete reports that she doesn’t get bored with her job. She says she loves to look after her animals — after all, they are her money, and she likes to solving water, watch her wealth grow before her eyes.

At the end of the day, Cloete usually makes her own bread from scratch, using yeast from potatoes. (© Charlie Shoemaker) Farming is the only life she has known, and she’s very self-sufficient. She is equally adept at a bridge coursework, making veldskoene (shoes) and fixing fences. During the solving problems, rare times when she’s not working, she loves to comparisons, sing in solving water the church choir; according to her neighbors Cloete has a beautiful singing voice. Research has shown that climate change will disproportionately affect women, as they make up 70% of the world’s poor and often have less capacity to adapt to environmental changes than men. By helping them make their livelihoods more sustainable, Conservation International is helping women like Cloete to get on equal footing. The women will undoubtedly take it from there. Succulents inside the Namaqua National Park, South Africa. The park contains one-third of the world’s species of succulent plants. (© Charlie Shoemaker)

Tessa Mildenhall is the communications and fundraising director of Conservation South Africa, an affiliate organization of CI. Want to read more stories like this? Sign up for email updates here. Donate to Conservation International here. What a woman! I admire her very much and am inspired by original writing her! We have it sooo easy here in England. Tough lady. That looks like a lot of work for you.

Funny I see it just the opposite she doesn#8217;t have car payments, insurance, she works for herself I think it#8217;s a beautiful way to live as God intended us to.

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essay hotel ruanda Hollywood and the Holocaust in Central Africa. keith harmon snow. Reprinting permitted with proper attribution to: Text corrected, 1 November 2007 (see note [36-a]). W hat happened in Rwanda in 1994? The standard line is that a calculated genocide occurred because of deep-seated tribal animosity between the solving problems, majority Hutu tribe in power and the minority Tutsis. According to research this story, at least 500,000 and problems perhaps 1.2 million Tutsis—and some ‘moderate’ Hutus—were ruthlessly eliminated in a few months, and most of them were killed with machetes.

The killers in this story were Hutu hard-liners from the Forces Armees Rwandais , the from coursework, Hutu army, backed by the more ominous and inhuman civilian militias—the Interahamwe—“ those who kill together.” “In three short, cruel months, between April and July 1994,” wrote genocide expert Samantha Power on the 10 th anniversary of the genocide, “Rwanda experienced a genocide more efficient than that carried out by the Nazis in World War II. The killers were a varied bunch: drunk extremists chanting ‘Hutu power, Hutu power’; uniformed soldiers and militia men intent on wiping out the Tutsi Inyenzi , or ‘cockroaches’; ordinary villagers who had never themselves contemplated killing before but who decided to join the frenzy.” [1] The award-winning film Hotel Rwanda offers a Hollywood version and solving water problems the latest depiction of this cataclysm. Is the film accurate? It is billed as a true story.

Did genocide occur in Rwanda as it is research, widely portrayed and universally imagined? With thousands of Hutus fleeing Rwanda in 2005, in solving, fear of the Tutsi government and its now operational village genocide courts, is another reading of whitman events needed? [2] Is Samantha Power—a Pulitzer Prize winning journalist—telling it straight? [3] Is it possible, as evidence confirms, that the now canonized United Nations peacekeeper Lt. General Romo Dallaire was at the time an agent of the Tutsi army? Or that the funding for Hotel Rwanda came from a company with powerful mining interests in solving, Congo—where access is insured by the Rwanda government? Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, that’s clear. There was large-scale butchery of Tutsis. And Hutus. Type Essay. Children and old women were killed. There was mass rape.

There were many acts of genocide. But was it genocide or civil war? “I think that’s a very good question and it is not adequately answered,” says Howard W. French, former East Africa Bureau Chief for the New York Times and author of Africa: A Continent for the Taking . [4] Howard W. French operated on the ground in Central Africa (1993-1999) and his reportage of the solving water problems, RPF Tutsi rebel army hunting down and massacring hundreds of thousands of Hutus in Congo is exceptional. [5] “A minority of fifteen percent [RPF Tutsis] wages a determined effort to a view from take over problems a country and of movies essay rule in an ethnic way, by force of arms, and solving water problems has been doing this for years. Two presidents are assassinated.” Howard W. French is adamant. Temporal Database Research Papers. “These are not excuses for butchery . But these are things that lead one in the direction of civil war, as a descriptor, as opposed to the one-sided tale that we have been given, of problems these sweet, innocent Tutsis who remind us of Israel, versus the savage Hutus who cold-heartedly butcher people hand-to-hand for benefits of online three months.” [6] From the very first words and frames, where the image has yet to appear and the screen is completely black, the film Hotel Rwanda sets up viewers to think a certain way about what happened in Rwanda in 1994. Problems. Here is a story about good versus evil.

An ominous African voice is heard, clearly the announcer on a Rwandan radio program, and he is describing the Tutsis as ‘ cockrrrRRROACHES .’ The voice is black and the cataclysm unfathomable, as anyone will tell you, and the black screen underscores the type, evil darkness of Africa. Solving Water Problems. This voice of terror returns throughout the film to type of movies essay haunt the innocent but terrified Tutsis, on screen, and the viewers gripping their seats. The good guys are the Tutsis, the water, victims of genocide. They are not killers in the movie: they are never killers. At the end of the film, when a well-attired guerrilla force is original writing, shown—the ‘rebels’ of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)—they are rescuers.

They are disciplined, organized. They keep a tidy United Nations camp safely behind their lines. They don’t kill Red Cross nurses, or orphaned children, in the film: they reconnect children to their families. The Hutus in the standard Rwanda genocide stories are always the bad guys, and they are all bad guys. Problems. Every Hutu is a genocidaire —to use the benefits of online coursework, ominous French term deployed in English contexts to further underscore the horror, the horror (sic). The Hutus are the devil incarnate. The Tutsis are saintly.

Indeed, they are beyond reproach, because they are the victims of genocide. The Hotel manager’s wife bears an obvious cross around her neck, to remind us that the Tutsis are the chosen people. Water. When the now celebrated United Nations hero Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire shakes hands with the devil—as his own popular book and the subsequent film Shake Hands With the Devil concur—he is shaking hands with Hutu. [7] That is the ideological framework of the Hotel Rwanda film. There is, today, an industry behind it. The Tutsis are dehumanized by the Hutus and by the Hutu media, in the film, and there was plenty of truth in this in real life. But the RPF pro-Tutsi media that operated in Rwanda after 1991, for example, was equally dehumanizing, and equally vicious, but the film does not tell us this. Tutsi guerrilla forces—prior to 1970—were the first to describe themselves as Inyenzi or cockroaches: they were not equated with the insects that everyone loathes, they were well trained, secretive and temporal database coordinated military forces who attacked at night and withdrew by day. [8] The RPF would hit and run and kill with efficiency.

It was not a pejorative usage, as it has been used in water problems, the film Hotel Rwanda , although it was bastardized and turned against the Tutsis by media outlets in Rwanda. Radio Mille Collines and from a bridge coursework the other anti-RPF media outlets of the President’s party, the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND), [9] were not the only ones to incite hatred and murder. Indeed, RPF-controlled Radio Muhabura spread ethnic hatred and incited widespread killings, but this was—according to Hollywood—a war with only one army, the ruthless Hutus. [10] The Pillars of Hotel Rwanda. When Human Rights Watch investigated the genocide, they sent Alison des Forges to tell the story, and the product of her long investigations was the fat treatise on genocide in Rwanda titled Leave None to water problems Tell the Story . Irony is heaped upon comparisons irony when we consider that those who are left to tell the story are silenced by the authorized storytellers like Alison des Forges. “Alison des Forges is a liar,” Cameroonian journalist Charles Onana, author of the book The Secrets of the Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on solving problems, the Mysteries of a President , published in a view from a bridge, French in 2001, is solving water problems, adamant. Original. “She is a LIAR.” [11] Paul Kagame, RPF General and solving water problems President of benefits coursework Rwanda, sued Charles Onana for water problems defamation in a French court: Kagame lost. [12] “Des Forges has written a book which has become the bible regarding Rwanda,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, former Director of the Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) who fled the killing, with his family, in early April 1994. “Everyone points to her book even though some of what she has produced is fiction. I don’t think she is an intentional liar, but I don’t know why she investigated Hutu human rights abuses but no RPF human rights abuses.” Hotel Rwanda is built on the pillars of selective human rights reporting, but it really takes off from the celebrated text, We Regret To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families, by Philip Gourevitch, the New Yorker magazine’s premier Africa expert. “Gourevitch's short book should be compulsory reading for Heads of State and Ministers of Defence all over Africa,” wrote Guardian reporter Victoria Brittain, “as well as for all U.N. officials involved in peacekeeping operations and humanitarian aid, from the Secretary General on down, and the heads of missionary orders in the US, France and coursework Belgium.” Victoria Brittain is a Nation magazine contributor on genocide in Rwanda. [68] The International human Rights Law Clinic at water problems, American University for whitman diversity several years (at least) asked students to read Philip Gourevitch on genocide in Rwanda, in preparation for legal work with the International Criminal Tribunal on water problems, Rwanda.

Professor Melissa Crow, who worked with the whitman diversity essay, Law Clinic, followed her term at problems, Human Rights Watch (1994-1995) by benefits of online working in water, Kigali, Rwanda, under the RPF government, working for benefits of online coursework the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. Following this she joined Foley, Hoag and Elliot, the influential Washington D.C. law firm closely aligned with the U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council, which is closely tied to ChevronTexaco, Coca-Cola, the William Jefferson Clinton Foundation and solving water the Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation. The latter foundations are also deeply involved in Rwanda [69]. Notably, a U.S. immigration judge in St. Paul Minnesota imposed Gourevitch’s book as compulsory reading for all attorneys dealing with Rwandan refugees requesting political asylum.

But this is a dangerous and irresponsible precedent. [13] Funding for Gourevitch’s book came from the diversity essay, United States Institute for Peace, a State Department offshoot (with an Orwellian name). [14] What we never learn about Philip Gourevitch is that his brother-in-law, Jamie Rubin, was Madeleine Albright’s leading man and, through him, Gourevitch planted in water, the public mind a narrow perspective on type essay, Rwanda. [15] Philip Gourevitch is an intimate pal of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. I regret to water inform you that Philip Gourevitch is not an impartial journalist, regardless of how much you may have liked his book, or have been moved by it, because he has taken sides, and he has told only one side of the story, and he has told it badly, and he has been rewarded for original writing courseworks his fine job in telling it badly. [16] “Gourevitch begins the story with the water, Tutsi as these saintly victims,” the Times ’ Howard W. French says. “And I don’t think Gourevitch is a stupid guy.

I think that it’s just sheer intellectual dishonesty… Gourevitch was coming out in research papers, the New Yorker every other month with this very well written and—if you don’t know the facts—very compelling picture about Rwanda… as the water problems, Israel of Central Africa and the Tutsis as the original writing, Jews of Central Africa. That’s powerful stuff. But I’m on the ground in Central Africa seeing that the reality is very, very different.” [17] The theme of problems genocide in type of movies, Rwanda—whether true or false—has birthed an industry that revolves around a standard, simplified plot. The appearance of the film Hotel Rwanda marks the coup de grace in the long process whereby the facts, the ugly realities and dirty details of what really happened in Rwanda have been distilled into a neat and tidy story that proliferates in water problems, the media, in film, in literature, at seminars on genocide and workshops on writing, reconciliation, and it is the predominant discourse in academia. Quebecois journalist Robin Philpot calls it “the right and proper tale.” [18] The Falsification of solving Amerikan Consciousness. It has become a mythology: the of movies, Rwanda genocide mythology or, better, the Tutsi Holocaust mythology . But as African scholar Amos Wilson puts it so simply in The Falsification of Afrikan Consciousness , “you cannot understand the present unless you first understand the water problems, past.”

To understand the growth of the mythology on comparisons, genocide in Rwanda, consider first the solving water problems, text of Hotel Rwanda—The Official Companion Book , which describes the process of “bringing the temporal research papers, true story of an African hero to film.” [19] The book deletes the solving water, most basic facts about the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its backers’ roles in writing, the ongoing war for the Great Lakes region of Africa, war that has led to at least seven million people dead since the initial RPF invasion from Uganda in October 1990. [20] Instead the book offers an abbreviated timeline of events that accentuate or exaggerate those points that serve the predominant Hotel Rwanda mythology, and it excludes those facts that would undermine this mythology: the entire framework of the brutal, bloody war for solving problems control of Rwanda is obscured. October 1990 : Guerrillas from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda; the RPF is mostly made up of Tutsis. A ceasefire is signed on March 29, 1991.

First: the above statement uses the definitive term for the RPF action: invaded. The Rwandan Patriotic Army invaded Rwanda from Uganda. Temporal Database Papers. However, the solving problems, context of the of online, RPF ascension to power is obliterated. RPF infiltration of Rwanda began around 1986 after Yoweri Museveni, with powerful western backers, shot his way to power in Uganda. Solving Water. Paul Kagame, current president of Rwanda, was head of Museveni’s Directorate of Military Intelligence, and later commanded the Rwandan Patriotic Front. But the RPF invasion was a gross violation of international law against a sovereign nation—a point the Hotel Rwanda industry ignores. Never condemned by the international ‘community,’ the RPF ‘struggle’ was supported by powerful western agents and institutions, including the World Bank and the IMF, who shackled Rwanda with austerity programs in temporal database research papers, perfect synchronization with the RPF assault. This led to the heightened inculcation of structural violence throughout Rwanda. Combined with the crash of solving water problems coffee prices on the world market, millions of Rwandans found it impossible to make ends meet as the 1990’s began. Suffering hit new lows not seen in Rwanda for decades. The majority of people in Rwanda, besieged by the propaganda of competing factions—a spectrum of type of movies essay political interests aligned with or against the RPF or the Rwanda government of Juvenal Habyarimana—found scapegoats according to their positions in society.

Economic interests predominated as a few elites increasingly controlled the water problems, life or death of the many. The rising insurgency and structural violence provoked hostility amongst and essay between groups, and elites controlling media outlets of all stripes began to use their venues to solving sow ethnic rivalry as the veneer for the deeper agenda: class warfare. Hutus were dehumanized as often as Tutsis. “Pro-opposition newspapers represented MRND [Hutu government] leaders as essentially evil and corrupt,” writes Jean-Marie Higiro. They were “liars, idiots, animals, bloodthirsty murderers and type of movies essay warmongers. Some of these newspapers published drawings of President Habyarimana covered with blood.” [21] The RPF and Rwandan Tutsi Diaspora had their own publications.

The best known of solving water these is Impuruza , published in the United States (1984-1994). Tutsi refugees joined Roger Winter, the Director of the United States Committee for Refugees, to help fund the publication. The editor, Alexander Kimenyi, is a Rwandan national and essay a professor at California State University. Like most RPF publications Impuruza circulated clandestinely in Rwanda amongst Hutu and Tutsi elite. “A nation in water problems, exile, a people without leadership, ‘the Jews of Africa’, a stateless nation,” wrote Festo Habimana, the president of the Association of Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , in the premier issue of Impuruza . Essay. Habimana called for the unity of solving Tutsi refugees. “But our success will depend entirely upon our own effort and unity, not through world community as some perceive… As long as we are scattered, with no leadership, business as usual on their part shall always be their policy. A View. We are a very able and capable people with abundant blessings. What are we waiting for? Genocide?” [22] The Association of Banyarwanda in Diaspora USA , assisted by Roger Winter, organized the International Conference on the Status of Banyarwanda [Tutsi] Refugees in water, Washington, DC in 1988, and of online coursework this is where a military solution to the Tutsi problem was chosen. The U.S.

Committee for solving water problems Refugees reportedly provided accommodation and temporal database research transportation. [23] Winter is intimate with USAID, and a long-time ally of solving Susan Rice, former Assistant Secretary of State on African Affairs (1997-2001), Special Assistant to original writing President Clinton (1995-1997), and National Security Council insider (1993-1997). Roger Winter is also a staunch supporter of U.S. Rep. Water Problems. Donald Payne. Winter acted as a spokesman for the RPF and type of movies their allies, and he appeared as a guest on solving problems, major US television networks such as PBS and CNN . Philip Gourevitch and Roger Winter made contacts on behalf of the RPF with American media, particularly the Washington Post , New York Times and Time magazine. Roger Winter and U.S. Rep. Donald Payne continue to manipulate African affairs: most notable are there recent exaggerations about genocide in Darfur, Sudan, for which Donald Payne sponsored the Darfur Genocide Accountability Act. Second: the language of the above October 1990 timeline entry underscores the equally discrepant point that the RPF was “mostly made up of Tutsis.” According to the genocide mythology, the cataclysm in of movies essay, Rwanda was a tribal struggle between Hutus and Tutsis, with some involvement of solving problems France.

Who were the non-Tutsi elements of the “mostly” Tutsi RPF? What is the implication? They were Hutus? How could Hutus be fighting alongside Tutsis if Hutus were exterminating all Tutsis based on an organized, premeditated plan? The term “moderate Hutu” invites a similar conundrum: what is a “moderate Hutu” in type essay, the international legal framework of genocide? Jean-Marie Higiro says it best: “Academics and journalists divide Hutus into solving two categories: moderates and courseworks extremists following the myths of Hollywood. Solving Water Problems. They never suggest that there were Hutu who did not belong to either category.

There were those who were terrified by both sides and who just fled for from their lives. Academics and journalists never do the same [segregating] for Tutsis and of course never for solving water the RPF even though the RPF was a conglomerate of Tutsi supremacists, Republicans and monarchists. Benefits. These supremacists are highly placed in the current government. Tito Rutaremara, one of the ideologues of the RPF is problems, one of them, and General Ibingira, the butcher of Kibeho [is another] of them.” The very definition of genocide would be called into question if it turned out that there were political, economic or class—as opposed to ethnic —motives behind the hundreds of thousands (or 1.2 million) of deaths that have been unequivocally attributed to whitman diversity essay Hutu genocidaires. A deeper examination of “genocide” in Rwanda raises just such inconvenient questions.

The determination of what constitutes genocide is not so cut and dry as Hutus versus Tutsis, or lists of solving targeted Tutsis versus no lists, no matter the terror now invoked in benefits of online, one’s soul on hearing the word Interahamwe . After the October 1990 entry, the timeline in the companion book omits any reference to solving problems the RPF until February 1993, as if the temporal database papers, supposed ‘heroic’ Tutsi rebels were patiently sitting out the solving, war from the Ugandan sidelines. Writing Courseworks. But massacres occurred in northern Rwanda after the October 1990 invasion and after the solving water, 1991 ceasefire and whitman essay they were committed by the RPF. Solving Problems. Tens of thousands of original writing courseworks refugees fled the border districts in fear of ongoing RPF atrocities. (This author remembers well the traumatized tourist who disembarked from the bed of solving a small pick-up truck that crossed the a view from coursework, border from solving water, Rwanda to Uganda in 1991. I was in Kasindi, in southwest Uganda. The Rwandan man sitting next to this western woman was shot by an RPF sniper as the truck drove down the road; the truck was then stopped, searched by the RPF, and the dead man taken.) From 1990 on, RPF terror cells began infiltrating Kigali, the capital, and type all other areas of Rwanda, and with them came atrocities that were frequently blamed on solving, the Habyarimana government, including assassinations, massacres and disappearances. By March 1993, Rwanda’s internally displaced persons (IDPs) had reached one million people. The RPF practiced a scorched earth policy: they did not want to have to administer a territory or deal with local populations. The RPF displaced people, shelled the IDP camps, and marched on.

They killed some captives, buried them in mass graves or burned corpses, and used survivors as porters to transport ammunition, dig trenches or cook their meals. According to one Rwandan now in the US: prior to 1994, most Tutsis who had a job in Rwanda collected contributions for the RPF political and military program; people were afraid to refuse to pay the compulsory tax levied by benefits of online coursework a ruthless military institution, the RPF. The Habyarimana government responded to terror with repression in problems, kind, but the original, international human rights “community” had already taken sides in the war: the Hutu government of Habyarimana was accused of “genocide” against Tutsis as early as 1993; the RPF atrocities were ignored or explained away. “There were many RPF killings in Rwanda between 1990 and 1994,” says Jean-Marie Higiro, “but these were not investigated; they were automatically attributed to Habyarimana’s [MRND] party by the international community. Even so, we know that the RPF used that kind of strategy to tarnish the water problems, image of temporal their opponents.” [24]

Jean-Marie Higiro also cites the Tutsi newspaper Impuruza , the publication edited by Professor Alexandre Kimenyi, with accusing the Habyarimana government of committing genocide against the Tutsis, and this was prior to 1993. February 1993 : The RPF again invades Rwanda. Hutu extremists cite the solving water problems, invasion as proof the Tutsis aim to original eliminate them, and begin calling for preemptive measures. To begin with, the RPF never left Rwanda, and they never stopped killing. Following the reasonable questions by journalist Robin Philpot, how would U.S. citizens respond if Canadian guerrillas—arguing that their parents were born or once lived in the U.S.—invaded from Toronto? Would we call Americans who complained “extremists”? What if a few Islamic militants purportedly invading the U.S. took out the World Trade Center? Would the U.S. government call for preemptive measures? Would we call the invaders a “rebel army”?

Extremists? Would we call them terrorists ? “Is it normal in water problems, the search for justice to condemn one side in a war for essay human rights violations,” writes Robin Philpot, “and not even question the morality of the water, aggressors, those who violated the writing, principles of all the charters of rights humanity has ever drafted? Is it right to shout about how a government violates rights and turn a blind eye to water the launching of an papers, aggressive war?” [25] Like the film, the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers a gross and distorted simplification of events in Rwanda. Trained by the U.S.

Army at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA, the RPF soldier and now President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, is a regular visitor at the Pentagon, and he was not the only officer in Rwanda with ties to the U.S. military. Under the solving water, Pentagon’s International Military Education Training Program (IMET), some $769,000 trained 35 Rwandan officers at U.S. military schools from coursework, 1980 to water problems 1992, and $120,000 was earmarked for type of movies essay Rwanda for both 1994 and 1995. Further military assistance was provided by the U.S. to 1994, while the bulk of the arms and logistical support came from U.S. Water Problems. client states (France, South Africa, Egypt, Uganda and Zaire). The Pentagon has also trained large numbers of Rwandan soldiers under the Extended-IMET (E-IMET) and Joint Command Exchange and Training (JCET) programs. One of those trained was Bangladeshi Colonel Moen, the benefits of online coursework, Chief Operations Officer for solving water the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), and another graduate of the U.S.

Army Command and General Staff College in Leavenworth, Kansas (USA). [26] From 1993 onwards the RPF continued to stick its bloody foot in the door of Rwanda, and the “international community” continued to tighten the screws on a bridge coursework, the Habyarimana government. Water. Ever vigilant and inflammatory in advertising the governments’ human rights abuses—whether manufactured, exaggerated or real—the human rights community continued to close its eyes to RPF atrocities, terrorist infiltrations and bloodied land grabbing. Backed by powerful factions from the United States, England and Belgium, the RPF maneuvered and manipulated its way to the very seat of power, in Kigali itself, where—under the Arusha Peace Accords negotiated in Arusha Tanzania in 1993—a battalion of RPF soldiers was based at a strategic site within the city center. The RPF immediately fortified its defenses under the watch of Lt.

General Romo Dallaire—now universally regarded as a hero—the Canadian Force Commander of UNAMIR. The Hotel Rwanda Companion Book offers only the following tidy summary which, as popular mythology now holds, credits the RPF with the imperative of coursework ‘stopping the genocide’ against Tutsis. Mid-July 1994 : The Tutsi RPF forces capture Kigali and the genocide is over. Over a period of water 100 days, almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered. While it is alleged that “almost 1,000,000 Rwandans were murdered” in those 100 days, a claim that is certainly exaggerated, it is also true that the RPF slaughtered, bombed, massacred, assassinated or tortured hundreds of thousands of database research people—including Hutu and Tutsi soldiers, politicians and government officials, and innocent civilians. “All U.N. Water Problems. compounds were sheltering thousands of fearful Rwandans,” wrote the former UNAMIR commander, Lt. General Romo Dallaire, “How could I possibly keep them safe?” Dallaire’s admission subsequent to the previous statement is very insightful, especially given his pro-RPF position: “We protected these citizens from certain death at the hands of the extremists or the RPF…” In this [previous] quote, Dallaire openly confirms the RPF’s role in of online, killing, and his book repeatedly describes firefights he witnessed between the solving water, RPF and various government factions. [27] There were no firefights shown in Hotel Rwanda , there was none of the whitman diversity, ongoing warfare that rocked Kigali before and solving problems after 06 April 2004: there were only coursework ruthless, savage, Hutu killers and rapists, and solving water the dead bodies that—by inference and innuendo—the Hutus slaughtered with machetes, pangas, axes and hoes. The RPF employed state-of-the-art information control and psychological operations tactics practiced by the US military: international reporters were embedded; access to battle zones was restricted; evidence of RPF massacres was erased, or massacres were blamed on database papers, Hutu extremists, Interahamwe militias or the solving, government Forces Armee Rwandaise . Temporal Research Papers. British journalist Nick Gordon reported crematoriums where the RPF incinerated bodies.

CNN’s only problems journalist on the ground in Rwanda at type essay, the time, Gary Streiker, has admitted that he worked behind the RPF lines and solving water problems followed RPF directives on reporting. [27a] After the April 6, 1994 double presidential assassination the western press—including Joshua Hammer ( Newsweek ), and Raymond Bonner, James C. McKinley Jr. and Donatella Lorch ( New York Times )—went out of their way to cite ‘professionalism’ and ‘discipline’ and ‘remarkable self-control’ exercised by the invading rebel RPF forces. The western press turned the double Presidential assassinations into ‘a mysterious plane crash,’ but this was a smoldering wreckage of the truth. [28] “In conjunction with the original courseworks, military build-up by the RPF and its allies—including the infiltration into Kigali, the water, capital city, of up to 10,000 RPF soldiers,” writes ICTR barrister Chris Black, “western journalists and western intelligence services masquerading as “human rights” organizations began a concerted propaganda campaign against the [Habyarimana] Government and through it the Hutu people, accusing it of various human rights abuses, none of which were substantiated.” [29] U.N. High Commission for Refugees investigator Robert Gersony reported in September 1994 on the RPF’s killing of more than 30,000 ethnic Hutus—in a period of database research papers two months—and gave a detailed account of problems locations, dates and nature of crimes, as well as the methods used to kill and to make the type essay, bodies disappear. Gersony also identified RPF leaders responsible for the killings. The classified U.N. report has never been released. Interested moviegoers might want to hack through the perception management of Hotel Rwanda to get to United Artists parent company Metro Goldwyn Meyer. [30] MGM directors, unsurprisingly, given what the film does not tell you about the water problems, true U.S. Essay. role in Rwanda, include current United Technologies director and U.S. General (Ret.) Alexander Haig.

United Technologies is in the business of war and “I’m in solving water, charge here!” Al Haig served as secretary of state under a Hollywood actor named Ronald Reagan. The other producers of Hotel Rwanda include an unknown company called Kigali Releasing Ltd., and another called the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa Ltd. The latter is essay, a major shareholder of, and mining partner with, Iscor Ltd., one of the companies named by the U.N. Panel of solving problems Experts Report (2002) for the illegal exploitation of resources from the Congo. [70]. U.S. military involvement in Rwanda has included ‘counterinsurgency’ training, ‘psychological operations’ and research papers tactical Special Forces: Special Operations Command oversees Navy Seals, Army Rangers and Delta Force: elite units deployed as special operatives in covert operations. [31] The hotel in the film is not the real Hotel des Mille Collines. The Tutsi RPF rebels did not enter Kigali, Rwanda’s capital city, and save the day, they were in Kigali all along.

The RPF gained a foothold in solving problems, Kigali through their constant deceptions and temporal database papers manipulations of the “peace process,” and with the support of water their international backers, especially the United States. The RPF ‘rebels’ were better trained, better equipped, better organized than any and all other combatants in temporal research papers, Rwanda and, notably, numerous sources claim that the RPF had the capacity to stop the killings. Sources also report that the Forces Armees Rwandais —the Rwandan government army—didn’t have the resources to fight both the RPF and solving the Interahamwe . Professors Christian Davenport (U. Maryland) and Allan Stam (Dartmouth) published research in 2004 that showed that the from a bridge, killings began with a small, dedicated cadre of Hutu militiamen, but quickly cascaded in an ever-widening circle, with Hutu and Tutsi playing the roles of both attackers and victims. Their team of researchers also found that only solving water problems 250,000 people were killed, not the 800,000 plus advanced by the RPF, and that for every Tutsi killed two Hutus were killed. The research unleashed a firestorm: the media jumped on them for denying genocide. “Our research suggests that many of the victims, possibly even a majority, were Hutus—there weren’t enough Tutsis in Rwanda at the time to account for all the reported deaths… When you add it all up it looks a lot more like politically motivated mass killing than genocide. A wide diversity of individuals, both Hutu and Tutsi, systematically used the mass killing to settle political, economic and personal scores.” [32] “When you look at the motivations of the Interahamwe leadership and young people in from, the Interahamwe they were motivated by money,” notes former ORINFOR director Jean-Marie Higiro. Some Hutu businessmen were giving out loans, contributing to water problems political parties of both the Rwandan government and the RPF rebels. “These guys wanted to do business: people were motivated by different interests.” “Many Hutu and benefits of online Tutsi businessmen prospered under the Habyarimana regime,” Jean-Marie Higiro notes. Water Problems. “They received government contracts and loans from government banks and suddenly became rich. During this period of uncertainty they contributed money to the RPF, MRND, and opposition parties—always speculating on the winner.

That is comparisons essay, why, after the war, very few Hutu businessmen who had contributed to the RPF reopened their business immediately. Solving Water Problems. That is why some Tutsi businessmen who contributed to the RPF made an excellent calculation. After the war they reaped off the benefits.” [33] Some facts in the film are true. To begin with, in whitman diversity, every sense of the terms “human rights” and “humanitarianism,” the western powers betrayed the people of Rwanda. The whites were rapidly evacuated, the blacks abandoned, including the many African staffers of international agencies. The French armed the Hutu side, and they evacuated key Hutu elite at the first opportunity, but the water, United States, U.K. and Belgium armed the essay, Tutsis. There was a Rwandan man named Paul Rusesabagina and he would, one day, be working at the Hotel des Mille Collines, but he was the manager of the Hotel des Diplomats. The Tutsi rebels were blamed with the assassination of the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, but the solving, film convinces us they didn’t do it, when everything suggests they did.

And it is certainly true that hundreds of thousands of Rwandans died. Hotel Rwanda is a work of fiction. Diversity Essay. As a cultural artifact produced by solving water an affluent entertainment industry in the West, and for affluent western consumers, but focused on a distant and exoticized culture about which the affluent western consumers know very little, or nothing at all, it serves to consolidate the ideological pillars of disinformation that came before it, and upon which it was built. According to many and varied knowledgeable sources, including hotel insiders: Rwanda was not abandoned by the western powers: Belgium, France, Canada, England and original courseworks the United States were all militarily involved in solving, the 1994 conflict. Because there are Israeli connections to coursework the current government, it is likely that Israeli military agents were also involved. These were no bystanders to genocide, as Samantha Power and the Atlantic Monthly and others would like us to think, but active participants in solving water problems, a ruthless international military conflagration. Note that amongst Atlantic Monthly’s primary advertisers [read: sponsors] is courseworks, Lockheed Martin [aerospace and defense] Corporation. The hotel was not under a state of water problems siege early on as the movie suggests—an elegant wedding took place there during the fray, and it married the sister of the Tutsi businessman Kamana Claver, who had contracts with the Hutu government. According to temporal papers one guest, powerful Hutus and Tutsis regularly came and went. When the water to the hotel was shut off, forcing the ‘refugees’ to drink the water from the swimming pool, it was not shut off by the Hutu genocidaires , as implied in solving water, the film, but by the Tutsi RPF army, who cut power to the city.

General Bizimungu appears in the very first scenes of the film, prior to the double presidential assassination: yet when the plane was shot down on April 6, 1994, General Bizimungu was still a Colonel, and he was far from database research papers, Kigali. According to solving one hotel guest, who remains unnamed for coursework fear of retribution, Paul Rusesabagina, the film’s hero, in no way wielded the kind of influence as depicted throughout the solving water, film: “Paul was a very simple man like me in front of the Interahamwe . If he succeeded to save some Tutsi from his home he was most probably helped by some influential Interahamwe friend, say Georges Rutaganda. He was as vulnerable as I was and research papers could not oppose any action against water problems, the will of the militia and much less of the army. Whitman Diversity Essay. He lies when he feints to call General Bizimungu for help, because the Hotel des Mille Collines was under the jurisdiction of Colonel Renzaho. Bizimungu lived at the northern war front lines, and solving he only came to Kigali four days after the original, plane was shot down and I never saw him at solving problems, the hotel.” [34] “There is overwhelming evidence,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in whitman diversity essay, an opinion piece titled “Paul Rusesabagina Not a Hero!” that appeared in Rwanda’s The New Times state-owned newspaper on November 5, 2005, “that Paul Rusesabagina did not particularly go out of his way to bring the solving water, people, who were being hunted, to the Mille Collines Hotel haven, to protect them once they were in the hotel, to procure them food or even water when they were unable to pay for them, or to devise any uncommon means to fend off the killer gangs outside the hotel. It is highly apparent that he only fulfilled his duty, as directed by a view from a bridge coursework his Sabena bosses, to run the hotel well and cater for solving water all its occupants.” [35] Georges Rutaganda, the Rwandan man misportrayed as the devil beer salesman and erstwhile murderer of Tutsis in Hotel Rwanda , writes that Paul Rusesabagina was no disinterested, apolitical hotel manager, but an important activist member of a national political party. On 12 April 1994, Rusesabagina shifted to the Htel des Mille Collines where he acted as its new director because the other, the Htel des Diplomats where Rusesabagina was working, had been evacuated by foreign troops. Hotel Rwanda depicts Rusesabagina at essay, the Htel des Mille Collines prior to the double presidential assassinations of 6 April 2004. Rutaganda claims to solving problems have visited the hotel and seen guests from both Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups, including: Rubangura Vedaste; Mutalikanwa Flicien; Dr. Gasasira Jean Baptiste; Kamana Claver; Kajuga Wicklif; Rwigema Celestin; Kamilindi Thomas; and others.

Rutaganda claims that very few UNAMIR soldiers were around, and they were incidental to security: the Hutu Gendarmes of the FAR army were manning a roadblock at the main entrance. He also claims that the “refugees” in the U.N. convoy that were turned back at a roadblock “were the real elite cream of benefits coursework Tutsi ethnic tribe. Had one been really spurred by bad intentions this would have been a great occasion to decapitate the Tutsi ethnic group. Families of former ministers, of doctors, of lawyers, of big business men, of highly educated men, of professors, etc, were among them.” If the ‘genocide’ were so organized and calculated, and quick to strike, then Rutaganda has a very interesting point: how did it happen that the elite of the Tutsi tribe were protected and evacuated by UNAMIR troops and Hutu Gendarmes? Of course, all Hutus are killers, and no one will believe a genocidaire : Georges Rutaganda was sentenced to life in water problems, prison by the ICTR.

Can George Rutaganda’s claims be corroborated? “Georges Rutaganda cooperated with the U.N. to save all those people.” ICTR investigator Phil Taylor offers a compelling portrait of the Hotel Rwanda ’s supposed devil himself: Rutaganda didn’t incite hate crimes, he called for diversity essay calm and respect for the Red Cross; Rutaganda was never accused of the rape and sexual slavery depicted in the film; and Rutaganda never traded in machetes. Indeed, Human Rights Watch in January 1994 identified an English businessman who had imported tens of thousands of machetes into Rwanda.[36] More importantly, virtually everyone in Rwanda (and Congo) owns a machete and solving problems they use it for essay farming; what would be unusual is if someone did not have a machete. Anyways, it was not machetes that did the problems, most killing. Rape was off the agenda at the ICTR until Hillary Clinton showed up in Arusha and pledged $600,000 to be paid after the first ICTR rape conviction, and that’s where the essay, Tutsi women collected in the fictitious Rutaganda compound in solving, Hotel Rwanda come from. Hillary Clinton visited the ICTR and bribed the court, and the issue of rape was immediately elevated and of movies a perpetrator needed to be found to problems satisfy the court, no matter their innocence or guilt, and meet Hillary Clinton’s conditions for $600,000 bribe. “I was Georges Anderson Nderubumwe Rutaganda's lead trial counsel,” said Attorney Tiphaine Dickson, “and [I] was present in Arusha, in the courtroom, in fact, the a bridge coursework, very day Hillary Clinton paid her visit. There were no ‘pinning’ charges of rape against my client.

No such allegation ever appeared on any indictment against him, so naturally, he was not convicted of any such offense. Water. Jean-Paul Akayesu, however, also on trial at essay, that time (the trials were heard concurrently, and by solving problems the same panel of type of movies judges) did see his indictment amended, after the Prosecution had rested, to include rape, and he was convicted in what the ICTR trumpeted was a ‘landmark’ decision on solving problems, September 2nd, 1998.” [36-a] The Hollywood Rwanda film offers a fictitious U.N. Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte) as a substitute for the Canadian Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire, who is a view a bridge coursework, absent from the film. (It is believed that Dallaire asked too much money from the filmmakers for the use of his name or character.) Romo Dallaire allegedly worked not as an impartial United Nations commander, but as an agent for the invading RPF army. Dallaire reportedly approached Hutu military commanders to convince them to follow the winds of change and embrace the RPF program. Solving. Dallaire was rarely present at the hotel, according to witnesses, but his substitute (Nick Nolte) is always there, and he is painted as a sympathetic and original neutral humanitarian. Dallaire mentions in his book how he passed by the Htel des Mille Collines, but in water, his own meticulously detailed recounting of the daily events and travels around Kigali from original writing courseworks, 06 April to 10 April, 1994, for example, Dallaire stops at problems, the Htel des Mille Collines only once. Whitman Diversity. [37]

According to Chris Black, a lead counsel at the International Criminal Tribunal on solving water, Rwanda (ICTR) since 2000, U.N. Database. documents brought into testimony at the ICTR in October 2005 clearly establish that UNAMIR’s Lt. Gen. Romo Dallaire: was an agent of the RPF; helped shoot down the plane in the double presidential assassination; covered up the preparation of the water problems, final RPF offensive assisted by benefits of online Uganda, the U.S. and U.K.; lied to his United Nations boss Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh about solving water, it. Contrary to type of movies essay the caring, humanitarian character of Colonel Oliver—as presented by Nick Nolte in the film—in real-life General Dallaire allegedly arranged for the closure of the western approach to the Kigali runway at the request of the RPF. This made it easier for solving water the RPF and whitman others to track the presidential plane as it came in water problems, from the east. Comparisons Essay. The Belgian contingent of the U.N. force was in control of the airport area and the area from which the missiles were fired, and a Belgian military unit (the “peacekeepers” killed later) were the only people caught by the Hutu army coming out of the firing area after the plane was shot down, after the army threw up a cordon to try to catch the culprits. “All of water problems Dallaire’s actions only make sense in this light,” lawyer Chris Black explains. “Dallaire admits in essay, his book that he was close to Paul Kagame and admired him. He helped Kagame by solving water covering up the RPF build-up for an offensive in violation of the coursework, Arusha Accords, while at the same time helping with the anti-government propaganda of the RPF. The Belgian’s actively engaged on the side of the RPF and once the plane was shot down they attacked FAR army and gendarme positions alongside the RPF. We have radio intercepts of the RPF talking about their help from the solving problems, Belgians and others.

By saying Dallaire was an RPF agent I am of course really saying he worked for the Americans under the orders of of movies essay Ottawa.” [38] Lt. General Romo Dallaire was no peacekeeper: he was an active military strategist—a war-maker. The Political Economy of Genocide. Prior to the cataclysm of 1994, the RPF set up its political base in Belgium. When Belgian “peacekeepers” are murdered by “Hutus” in water, Hotel Rwanda —the blue helmets are scattered on the ground in front of our horrified U.N. hero, Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte)—the false inference is that the genocidaires’ calculated killing of the Belgians would provoke a UNAMIR withdrawal from comparisons essay, Rwanda. This is a central pillar of the genocide theory: with the Belgian ‘peacekeepers’ out of the way, the Hutu killing machine had free reign to shift into high gear. I n reality, the water, Belgians were immediately killed because they were the political accomplices of a ruthless bunch of terrorists, the invading RPF army. Substantial evidence entered into public record in the ICTR’s so-called ‘Military I’ and ‘Military II’ trials (both began in 2005) contradicts the diversity essay, fundamental premise above—and the central theory of the ICTR prosecution—by showing that Hutu officers charged by the ICTR with complicity in the Belgians’ murder actually risked their lives trying to save the Belgian soldiers.

The U.N. Force Commission—set up immediately after the attack on the Belgians by U.N. Force Commander General Dallaire—concluded the same. Solving Water. Eyewitness testimony by a U.N. Military Observer also states that there were not ten Belgian soldiers killed, but thirteen. “This is a point of some interest in Belgium,” writes Chris Black, “where the government claims to have lost only ten men.” [39] So who were those three Belgian soldiers and what was their mission? Hotel Rwanda dares not introduce such questions: to do so would be heresy. But the United States knows, and the RPF knows and the legal ‘experts’ at the ICTR all know that the genocide theory would crumble under the admission of the comparisons, truth. According to ICTR lawyers, U.N. documents show that Lt. General Romo Dallaire was aware, at least from December 1993, and probably before, that the RPF, with the support of the Ugandan Army, was daily violating the Arusha Accords by sending into Rwanda men, materiel, and light and heavy weapons.

That is how the problems, U.S., Belgians and essay Canadians assisted the RPF/A in preparing for the final solution in Rwanda—total military victory over the Hutus. Water Problems. [40] “The RPF engaged in assassinations of officials, politicians and a view a bridge coursework civilians, and attempted to cast the blame on the government,” writes Chris Black. “Dallaire assisted in this campaign by suppressing facts concerning these crimes and problems openly siding with the RPF propaganda statements.” [41] It was not UNAMIR soldiers who guarded the H otel but Gendarmes (paramilitary police) dispatched by the Hutu government. This fact flies in the face of the “genocide” mythology. If the hotel was full of Tutsis targeted by genocide, why was it being protected by the very same architects of that supposed genocide? The Hotel was not filled only original writing courseworks with Tutsis (refugees from genocide): it was full of powerful Tutsis and Hutus (with Tutsis in the majority) with political and solving water problems economic connections to powerful factions both inside and outside of Rwanda. Questions about the composition of the ‘mostly Tutsi’ RPF invaders provoke questions about the ethnic composition of the Interahamwe militias and commercial relationships that transcended ethnicity. Such details are overlooked in from, the western reductionism on Rwanda—because they contradict the official and burgeoning Rwanda holocaust industry and the U.S.

State Department fictions. The following ethnic inconsistencies are very revealing: Robert Kajuga, was the Tutsi President of the solving, notorious “genocidal” Rwandan Interahamwe ; Kamana Claver was a Tutsi businessman and from frequent recipient of large government-awarded contracts from the “genocidal” Hutu government; Celestin Sebulikoko was a Tutsi businessman and strong supporter of the main Hutu political party (MRND); he is believed disappeared by the RPF; A Tutsi named Mpangaza, who worked for the Rwandan government firm TRANSINTRA, reportedly manned a powerful machine gun at an Interahamwe roadblock in downtown Kigali in 1994; he was a well-known Interahamwe ; he lives peacefully in solving, Rwanda today; The son of Juvenal Gatorano, a Tutsi customs agent with the Habyarimana government’s Ministry of Finance, was always seen at Interahamwe rallies. These facts, if true, provide compelling evidence that it was not a coordinated genocide that occurred in Rwanda in 1994, but a civil war, and a western proxy war, with deep political, economic and military motivations behind the atrocities. Acts of comparisons essay genocide certainly occurred, as did crimes against humanity, but “acts” of genocide do not constitute genocide as defined by the international legal frameworks on genocide. An entire ethnic group could be wiped out, say the last 100 Penan nomads in Sarawak, for example, but if they are incidentally eliminated in the calculated and racist process of logging their forests—which is exactly what has happened to the Penan—it is not necessarily “genocide” according to solving problems the narrow international legal frameworks of the Genocide Convention. Equally troublesome, the U.S. might have annihilated every last Japanese citizen in 1945, but few today would characterize the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as genocidal in nature or intent. The calculated nature upheld as the essay, basis for water genocide in Rwanda has always revolved around the supposed “lists” created by Hutu genocidaires : lists of Tutsis who were subsequently eliminated because, first and foremost, they were Tutsis; such “lists” were purportedly created by the Hutu genocide machine. “Any army would have lists of whitman diversity their political enemies,” notes ICTR investigator Phil Taylor. “This is not unusual.” The Rwandan government likely had its lists, the RPF had their own lists, and both went about assassinating their enemies. Phil Taylor notes that the prosecution at the ICTR has not produced any lists—of any kind—as evidence subsequently used for Rwanda genocide convictions.

In the aftermath of the World Trade towers attack the solving, intelligence armies of the United States generated an extensive list of “enemies of the state”—a list they maintain today—most of whom were/are of Islamic ethnicity. Do the existence of these lists constitute genocidal intent? “There is a stunning lack of documentary evidence of a government plan to commit genocide,” write lawyer Chris Black. “There are no orders, minutes of meetings, notes, cables, faxes, radio intercepts or any other type of courseworks documentation that such a plan ever existed. Solving Water Problems. In fact, the documentary evidence establishes just the opposite.” [42] U.S.

Pentagon lawyers imported to the ICTR from the Judge Advocacy General (JAG) Corps have heavily skewed the ICTR in favor of the of movies essay, U.S.-supported RPF. Also, the ICTR has not returned a single verdict against water, RPF Tutsi soldiers or Tutsi leadership; former ICTR prosecutor Carla Del Ponte was removed for her attempts to prosecute Tutsis. [43] “The ICTR risks being a part of the problem rather than the solution,” wrote Filip Reyntjens, Belgian historian and expert witness on genocide in Rwanda, in 2004. “I cannot any longer be involved in this process.” [44] The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), the sister of the Hague Tribunal, consolidates the popular mythology on genocide in Rwanda by playing its role as an international judicial body which, by default, must be beyond reproach or bias. Database Papers. While demonizing the Hutu leadership and justifying the RPF dictatorship now in control of Rwanda, writes Chris Black, it also serves as a means of presenting a completely false history of the events in Rwanda, and covering up the solving water, murder of the two Hutu heads of state and the massacres of type essay hundreds of thousands of innocent people by the RPF and its allies. [45] In Hotel Rwanda , the genocidal Hutus blame the Tutsi RPF rebels for shooting down the plane that killed the water, two presidents, and coursework because the film demonizes every Hutu, the viewer is convinced that the Hutu’s are lying, deflecting attention from their own nasty deeds. However, evidence suggests that an solving water, RPF terror cell in Kigali shot down the Presidential airplane. Also on the plane was a Forces Armee Rwandais general, a pivotal target for the RPF. Original Writing Courseworks. Former U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali offered journalist Robin Philpot the claim that the solving water, Central Intelligence Agency was almost certainly involved. “As early as 1997,” writes a Spanish legal team that in 2005 filed suit against Paul Kagame and his RPF cadre, “a team of investigators appointed by the ICTR—Michael Hourigan, Alphonse Breau and James Lyons—released reports, then held as classified, which revealed that the attack was masterminded by high-ranking RPF military and not by Hutu extremists as had been believed until then. These disclosures were corroborated in 2004 by courseworks the remarkable testimony of problems Abdul Ruzibiza, a member of the RPF commando unit which perpetrated the attack on the presidential plane.”[46]

I am an eye witness to what took place when the benefits, SA-16 was fired because I was present, writes Ruzibiza in his recently released book, Rwanda: L'histoire Secrete ( The Secret History of Rwanda ). Ruzibiza alleges that after the solving water, missile attack on the plane, soldiers of the RPF who had been readied in advance were assembled to immediately launch attacks that culminated in the fall of Kigali on July 4, 1994. Diversity. [47] There is solving water problems, also the coursework, definitive statement by Paul Mugabe, a Former Intelligence Officer of the RPA, titled: Declaration on the Shooting Down of the Aircraft Carrying Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6, 1994 . Paul Mugabe alleges that two weeks before the crash of the water problems, Presidential aircraft, [then] Major General Kagame sent [then] Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe to bring the SA-7 surface-to-air missiles to the RPA detachment in writing, Kigali, and to give final instructions for attacking Rwandese Army forces (FAR) and shooting down the plane. Two RPF leaders, Colonels Kanyarengwe Alexis and Lizinde Theoneste, who had earlier served in the Habyarimana Government, gave information and instructions as to where the missiles should be placed. (Col. Lizinde Theoneste, who later defected, was subsequently assassinated in 1998 by water problems RPF operatives in Nairobi, Kenya, in order to ensure the secrecy of the missile operation.) Two weeks before the original courseworks, double presidential assassination, 12 artillery systems were brought from Uganda, and arrived at RPA headquarters. Other RPF defectors also credit the RPF with shooting down the plane carrying the Rwandan and Burundian leadership. Solving Water Problems. Long-time RPF officer Lt.

Aloys Ruyenzi claims that the assassination plan was hatched at an RPF meeting on 31 March 1994: “The Chairman of the meeting was Major General Paul Kagame, and the following officers were present: Colonel Kayumba Nyamwasa; Colonel Thoneste Lizinde; Lt. Colonel James Kabarebe; Major Jacob Tumwine; and Captain Charles Karamba. From A Bridge. I heard Paul Kagame asking Colonel Lizinde to report about his investigations and solving problems I have seen Colonel Lizinde giving to benefits Paul Kagame a map of the selected place for the plane shooting etc.” [48] Lt. Solving. Aloys Ruyenzi also accuses General Paul Kagame and (now) General James Kabarebe of writing overseeing the massacres of Hutu and solving water problems Tutsi civilians, both in the field and at crematoriums set up to benefits of online coursework dispose of the evidence. Ruyenzi is just one defector with a compelling story. He claims he has witnessed helicopter gunships shelling villages, and massacres, tortures and summary executions as policy. Many of the human rights atrocities committed by the Kagame regime have been documented by human rights organizations. “Gen. James Kabarebe was the solving, commander of the reverse-genocide army,” says Howard W. A View From A Bridge Coursework. French, referring to the military campaign where hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees were hunted down and slaughtered by the Tutsi RPA and water problems their western allies in Congo. [49] Eighty percent of these Rwandan refugees were women and children; 50% were under 15 years old. [50]

This genocidal reign of terror to hunt down and massacre non-combatant Hutu men, women and children was spearheaded by the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and Ugandan People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), who were running the show for Laurent Kabila’s Allied Front for the Democratic Liberation of Congo (AFDL)—and it was backed by government and private factions from the United States, the U.K., Canada and Belgium. One eyewitness to the skeletons piling up pinpoints mass graves that were later sanitized in advance of the United Nations mission to investigate the RPF/UPDF/AFDL massacres of whitman diversity essay hundreds of thousands of unarmed Hutu civilians. [51] The contra- genocide against Hutus continues today: at this writing the forces are aligned to exterminate the remaining 40,000 Hutus in Congo: they are all written off as genocidaires who fled Rwanda in 1994, even though most surviving FDLR were too young to solving have participated in type of movies, genocide. [52] Sabena officials were not surprised and horrified to be getting a call from solving problems, some hotel manager in Rwanda, as depicted in the film: one week prior to the October 1990 invasion of whitman essay Rwanda by the RPF, Sabena Airlines rerouted its airline crews (pilots, hostesses) away from the Hotel des Mille Collines and off to Burundi for their overnights. This was no random decision: it was a calculated policy action meant to insure the water, safety of company employees in the face of a coming war. Sabena was well informed. A Belgian firm born out type essay of the post-Leopold aviation era in Congo, Sabena was later used to ship diamonds, and probably coltan (columbium-tantalite), out of Kigali by the RPF elites, whose base, again, was in Brussels. It is solving water, believed that Sabena’s eventual “bankruptcy” was intended to a view from a bridge cover their tracks and shield principals from any possible future legal actions stemming from their pillage in the Congo.

What about the elusive American diamond magnate Maurice Tempelsman and his connection to Bill and Hillary Clinton and the diamonds coming out of Kigali? “I don’t think that’s ever been written about in solving problems, the New York Times ,” said Howard W. French. [53] Howard W. French conferred that Maurice Tempelsman employed Lawrence Devlin, former CIA station chief from of online, Mobutu’s Zaire, and that he maintains close ties with the CIA. Tempelsman is also on the board of directors of the solving water problems, Harvard AIDS Institute and the Africa-America Institute (Donald Payne is also deeply involved, as is Gayle Smith, formerly Bill Clinton’s National Security Council advisor on African Affairs). Maurice Tempelsman was Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis’s lover, he was reported to be Madeleine Albright’s lover, and type essay he was one of the solving water, 99 people who accompanied Bill Clinton on benefits of online coursework, his 1998 Africa victory tour. Tempelsman is one of the water, many untouchables behind the quagmire in essay, Central Africa. [54] Why has the United States blocked all attempts to investigate the shooting down of the solving water, plane and the double presidential assassination that sparked the cataclysm on temporal database papers, April 6, 1994? Why hasn’t the United Nations pursued an inquiry? It is a very mysterious scandal,” wrote author Robin Philpot. “Four reports have been made on Rwanda: the French Parliament Report, the water problems, Belgian Senate Report, Kofi Annan's U.N. report, and comparisons the Organization of African Unity report. Solving Water. All four say absolutely nothing about the shooting down of the Rwandan President's plane. That just goes to show the temporal database research papers, power of the intelligence services that can force people to be quiet.”

Philpot continues: “The only solving water problems partial exception is the seven year investigation conducted by the French anti-terrorist judge Jean-Louis Bruguire. That investigation has implicated current Rwandan President Paul Kagame and database research the Rwandan Patriotic Front for having planned, ordered and carried out the April 6 assassination.” [55] Says ICTR lawyer Chris Black: “President Mobutu’s chief of intelligence, Honore Ngambo, in solving water problems, his book published in France a few months ago [ Western Crimes in Central Africa , 2005] relates the meeting between Habyarimana and Mobutu two days before Habyaramana was murdered. The Hutu President told Mobutu that he had been warned by Herman Cohen—the U.S. African Affairs man—that unless he ceded all power to the RPF his body would be dragged through the streets and whitman diversity essay his government tried before an international tribunal. Habyarimana received the same threats from the Belgians, and the Canadian General Dallaire was involved. Habyarimana was informed by his agents in the RPF camp at Mulindi that his plane would be shot down. He didn’t know the exact date.” [56] The RPF opposed any military intervention in Rwanda after 6 April 1994.

The RPF knew the military situation of the Rwandan army (morale and solving water problems ammunition) and it did not want any military intervention to snatch its victory from it. The RPF’s official sponsors in Washington, London and whitman Brussels told whoever would listen that any international force would be met with RPF military resistance. The RPF was the only force that had the capacity to problems stop the killing, but they didn’t. ICTR lawyer Chris Black verifies that U.N. documents entered in the ICTR record establish that the courseworks, Gendarmerie did all it could with the resources it had to restore calm, but could not, and that the solving problems, FAR army could not both fight the RPF and restore calm among the civilians. This following statement comes from an temporal database papers, unnamed survivor who was in Kigali in April, 1994, where he lost his entire family to the killings: some of his family were Hutus, some Tutsis, and he began by solving problems stating he does not support the ideologies that align themselves along ethnic fault lines. The interview took place in diversity, Bukavu, DRC, in August 2005: “Many Hutus lost family members on the border with Uganda after the RPA invaded in 1990. This is where Hutu hatred of Tutsis started. The Tutsi continued to perpetrate crimes to weaken the government of Habyarimana even while the government was being forced to negotiate with the problems, RPF.

Each Tutsi family had sent one or two boys to of online coursework the RPF army in Uganda. We knew these boys – they used to say, ‘O.K. Solving Problems. goodbye. We are going to Uganda.’ “ “Hutus saw this. The Tutsis [RPF] were pushing the hatred higher and higher every day. Even Hutus knew that all Tutsis had to attend meetings at the end of the month to raise money for of online the RPF. Solving Water. I heard Habyarimana every day saying on the radio, ‘Don’t kill Tutsis: if you do you will lose everything.’ Even as the Arusha Peace Accords were going on [1993] the whitman essay, RPF were starting to kill the intellectuals, the Hutu leaders, in Rwanda.” “They [RPF] were putting bombs in public places, in water, markets and gare routieres [roundabouts], and in night clubs—I almost died in one night club attack.

The Tutsis [RPF] knew what they were doing but the Hutus didn’t know what was happening. Type Of Movies Essay. The RPF waited until the solving water, fruit was really ripe—when there was deep hatred of Tutsis by of online coursework Hutus—and then they [RPA] killed President Habyarimana.” “They killed Habyarimana because they knew he was the only one who could stop the Hutus from killing Tutsis. That is why, every day, I say that: the genocide was not planned by problems Hutus, it was planned by Tutsis: it was planned by the RPF . Even after the Interahamwe killed my wife, even after all the horrible things that have happened to me, I believe the Tutsis created the whitman diversity essay, genocide. Problems. And for me it was a war between brothers: the essay, Hutus had an army and the Tutsis had an army and there was fighting at every level.” [57] Notably, the source for solving the Hotel Rwanda Companion Book timeline chapter is the Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook 2004 (the previous chapter is filled with the whitman diversity, standard deceptions, and it appears without attribution). [58]

It is not surprising then that the roles of the U.S. and other outside Western powers and multinational corporations are hidden. The most egregious omissions revolve around the Democratic Republic of Congo: the ongoing destruction and depopulation of Congo receives remarkably little press coverage in contrast to the Darfur region of neighboring Sudan, despite the obvious evidence that the solving water problems, scale and nature of comparisons atrocities against innocent civilians in Congo has been far worse, over a longer period of time, and with profound but unnecessary human suffering. After consolidating power in Rwanda in 1994, and following on massive crimes against humanity there, the solving water problems, RPF shelled and dismantled refugee camps in eastern Congo (then Zaire) in the summer of 1996, in further massive and egregious violations of international law and the Geneva Convention. The new RPF government has never wavered in its efficacious crusade of calling attention to an ongoing genocide against the Tutsis —the Jews of Africa—who were “abandoned by database the United States and Europe” to ostensibly suffer the fate of solving problems genocide, but this is an essay, affront to the Jewish people and, in particular, to solving problems the Holocaust victims and survivors of World War II. The pretext of ongoing ‘genocide’ against the Tutsis has been used by the RPF over and over to justify the most egregious and hostile violations of international law and human rights. Continuing to implement what is now clearly a well-coordinated and premeditated plan, and with complete logistical and tactical military support from the Pentagon and its outsourced private military companies—including Halliburton, Ronco, and Military Professional Resources Incorporated—the RPF followed its Rwanda victory by from invading the sovereign territory of Congo (Zaire), its huge western neighbor. Water Problems. [59]

Drawing on its previous military alliance, training and essay rear bases in Uganda, the RPF allied with Yoweri Museveni and solving water the Ugandan Peoples Defense Forces (UPDF) to march across the Congo, unseat Habyarimana’s close friend, Congo’s (Zaire’s) President Mobutu Sese Seko, and conquer the vast, mineral rich Congo. “The international community has refused to database research papers bring effective pressure to bear on Rwanda to create conditions of security,” wrote Rwanda scholar David Newbury, in 1996. [60] Marginalized groups like the Rally for the Return of Refugees and Democracy in solving water, Rwanda have repeatedly echoed this obvious truth. “The continuous prevalence of impunity has encouraged the leaders of the RPF/RPA to perpetrate crimes against type of movies, humanity, war crimes and acts of genocide in Rwanda and DRC without fear of prosecution. It has consolidated the power and the wealth of criminal elements within the RPF-led dictatorial regime.” [61] And so it continues today. Paul Kagame and James Kabarebe and the Tutsi RPF-dominated government of Rwanda continue to solving problems destabilize the Great Lakes Region of Africa, with infiltration of terror cells throughout the neighboring Congo, just as they did in coursework, Rwanda (1985-1994). They are appeased or courted, the saintly victims of genocide, and water problems they enjoy total impunity and all the benefits of an elite club. Similarly, the Human Rights Watch press alert of July 1, 2005, for example, targeting the Congolese government, is database, a veiled defense of Rwandan-US interests in DRC: it is written by Alison Des Forges, from Kigali. [62] Both the Hotel Rwanda film and companion book neatly encapsulate the entire mythology of genocide in Rwanda and the invented heroism of now president Paul Kagame and the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). The true and deeper facts that receive little attention, if any at all, are: the RPF’s illegal invasion of water Rwanda from Uganda in 1990; its record of war crimes committed from benefits of online, 1990-1994; the RPF double assassination of the Hutu presidents of Burundi and solving problems Rwanda on of online, April 6, 1994; the RPF’s massive contre -genocide of hundreds of thousands of Hutu refugees in Congo (Zaire), of solving refugees returning to Rwanda from a view coursework, Congo, and of Hutus in Rwanda itself; 5 the RPF’s repeated invasions and solving water continuing looting and benefits devastation of the Congo, with the involvement and sanction of RPF officials at the highest level, that continues today; and the collaborating roles of Western institutions, individuals and corporations, and the economic and political benefits that accrue to them, at the expense of Africa and problems her people. What has motivated Paul Rusesabagina?

It is interesting to note that Rusesabagina has been widely lauded and financially rewarded for his story, the rights to his story, and for his alignment with U.S. government and military officials in service to various political and military agendas. In 2000 he was awarded the Immortal Chaplain’s prize, and received the type essay, award with a handshake from U.S. Solving Water Problems. Republican Senator Bob Dole. Research. [63] “As for Paul Rusesabagina,” wrote Rutigita Macumu, in Rwanda’s The New Times newspaper, “he will go down in the annals of water history as a man who sold the soul of the Rwandan Genocide to temporal amass medals, including, among others, the Amnesty International's Enduring Spirit, the Immortal Chaplain Foundation's Prize for Humanity, the Tigar Center's Human Rights Award, the problems, National Civil Rights Museum's Freedom Award, and now the prestigious Presidential Model of Freedom Award from the writing, sitting American president, George W. Bush.” [64] In 2004, Paul Rusesabagina traveled with a Pentagon escort and his namesake actor Don Cheadle to Darfur, Sudan, to water draw attention to the popularized, officially accredited ‘genocide’ occurring there. [65] This author had a chance to interview Paul Rusesabagina in 2007. The interview, and this story, both stand uniquely alone, developed as they were in a certain chronological order. (See: THE GRINDING MACHINE: TERROR AND GENOCIDE IN RWANDA , interview with Paul Rusesabagina, April 15, 2007 http://www.allthingspass.com/journalism.php?catid=47). Rwandan Defense Forces were dispatched to Darfur where, along with the papers, African Union and some U.S. military, they serve as U.S. proxy warriors: these are troops responsible for some of the most egregious acts of water problems genocide and essay crimes against problems, humanity committed in comparisons essay, Rwanda and Congo. [66] Hotel Rwanda is merely the latest production in a protracted campaign of psychological warfare. It is solving problems, a dangerous work of agitation propaganda because it wets the wide and naive eyes and touches the original courseworks, open and water caring hearts of comparisons Western viewers. It is deceptive and when viewers depart the cinema with popcorn and solving water chocolate stuck between their teeth they leave thinking they know something about what happened in Rwanda.

We as viewers enjoy the idea that we are being educated, when instead we are being indoctrinated, and the insidious effects of the indoctrination are unappreciated. Hotel Rwanda exemplifies the careless, simplistic reductionism that is universally manifest in original writing, the West’s representations of Africa. Phil Taylor, former investigator for water problems the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR) says it aptly. “For anyone who followed closely the 1994 crisis in whitman essay, Rwanda the water, highly touted film Hotel Rwanda is whitman diversity, merely propaganda statements interrupted by bouts of acting.” [67] The racism and segregation that played out in the Rwanda cataclysm of water problems 1994, where there were very different conditions and outcomes between whites and blacks, continues to be played out today. The telling and a view from re-telling of the Rwanda ‘genocide’ story by its very nature revolves around a system of institutionalized segregation. Powerful whites in powerful ‘gatekeeper’ positions in the West hold a virtual monopoly over the information. Water. Alongside of them are the of movies, select voices of non-whites who validate the predominant discourse.

These ‘experts’ include Alison des Forges; Romo Dallaire; Philip Gourevitch; Victoria Brittain; Samantha Power; Mahmood Mamdani; and many, many others. “They believe Alison des Forges because she is white and solving water problems they don’t believe me because I am black and I don’t speak English so well,” says Jean-Marie Higiro. “She is the expert, even though she was an observer and I was a participant.” We can’t intimately know the hardships of Paul Rusesabagina, or the trauma of Romo Dallaire, or the sorrows of Jean-Marie Higiro, or the suffering of the other survivors of the cataclysm in Rwanda, and we must search our own souls on their behalf: the struggle of essay good versus evil reigns within us all. Indeed, there is a certain arrogance behind this writing, because neither was I a participant in solving water problems, Rwanda. Type. But any hesitation I have in challenging the ‘right and proper tale’ is overwhelmed by the obscenity of the obvious injustice and the machinations of empire behind it. If truth is the first casualty in war, then those of us who are lucky observers must endlessly work to resurrect it. In Central Africa, today, truth mingles with the water problems, souls of the dead, forsaken amidst the unheard cries of some seven million—mostly innocent people—whose life on this earth ground to a gruesome, meaningless conclusion. keith harmon snow. First published: 04 July 2005; Text Modified: 05 November 2005;

Final Version: 04 December 2005; Updated Final: 10 January 2006. Corrected: 18 July 2007. Corrected: 1 November 2007. [1] Samantha Power, “Remember the Blood Frenzy of whitman diversity Rwanda,” Los Angeles Times , April 4, 2004. [2] Village genocide courts, or Gacaca tribunals, began operating in Rwanda in March 2005.

See: Edras Ndikumana, “Rwanda’s Hutus Flee Genocide Courts,” 19 April 2005; and “Rwandan President asks Fleeing Residents to Return,” Reuters , June 3, 2005. [3] Samantha Power, A Problem from problems, Hell: America in the Age of Genocide , HarperCollins, 2002. [4] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [5] Howard W. Database Research. French, “In Zaire Forest Hutu Refugees Near the solving water, End of the Road,” New York Times , March 13, 1997; see also Howard W. French, Africa: A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and original courseworks Hope of water problems Africa . [6] Private interview: Howard W. Original Writing Courseworks. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [7] Lt. Problems. General Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003. [8] Rene ¢ Lemarchand noted in original courseworks, his authoritative text Rwanda and Burundi (Pall Mall Press, 1970) that “the term Inyenzi is currently used within and outside Rwanda to refer to small-scale Tutsi-led guerilla units trained and solving organized outside Rwanda and varying in size from about six to ten men.” [9] Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND).

[10] The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for a view a bridge the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of water problems Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [11] Private communication: Charles Onana, Paris, France, February 2004. [12] The Book published in November 2001 entitled, Les Secrets Du Gnocide Rwandais, Enqute Sur les Mystres D’un Prsident [ The Secrets of the comparisons essay, Rwandan Genocide, Investigations on the Mysteries of a President ], was the subject of water problems President Kagame’s initial law suit that was heard in the 17th chamber of the French High court against Cameroonian Journalist Charles Onana. [15] On James Rubin: see Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in papers, Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellen Press, 1999. [16] See: Pierre-Damien Mvuyekure, Philip Gourevitch's Platonic and Conradian Eyes on the Genocide in Rwanda,” in Ishmael Reed’s Konch . [17] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.

[18] Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in solving water, Kigali), published in English on-line by temporal papers the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ . [19] Terry George, Ed., Hotel Rwanda – The Official Companion Book , Newmarket Press, 2005. [20] The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against Those Responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [21] A paper scheduled for publication, Spring 2006, by Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro. [22] Some of solving water problems them are: Alliance edited by Alliance National Unity (RANU), an organization that later changed its name into Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); Congo Nil , edited in type, Belgium by Francois Rutanga; Impuruza, edited by Alexander Kimenyi in problems, the United States; Inkotanyi, edited by the RPF; Intego, edited by whitman Jose Kagabo in France; Munyarwanda , edited by the Association of water Concerned Banyarwanda in a view a bridge coursework, Canada; Avant Garde ; Le Patriote ; Huguka ; and Umulinzi . [23] The term Banyarwanda refers to ethnic Tutsis, and has been most often used to describe Tutsi refugees in Congo (Zaire). [24] Mouvement Republicain National pour la Dmocratie et le Dveloppement or National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND). [25] Robin Philpot, Rwanda: Colonialism Dies Hard , the English translation of a ne s’est pas pass comme a Kigali (That’s Not How It Happened in Kigali), published in English on-line by the Taylor Report, http://www.taylor-report.com/Rwanda_1994/ . [26] See US Department of Defense, Foreign Military Sales, Foreign Military Construction Sales, and water problems Military Assistance Facts , (US Doc D1.2, F76, 996) 1997; see also: Lt. Gen. Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: p. 273. [27] Lt. Gen.

Romo A. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the benefits of online coursework, Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , Arrow Books, 2003: pp. 263-265. [27a] Private telephone interview, Gary Streiker. See King Kong: The Curious Activities of the International Monkey Business in Central Africa , keith harmon snow and Georgianne Nienaber. [28] See, e.g.: “Donatella Lorch: Rwanda Rebels: Army of Exiles Fights for a Home, New York Times , 09 June 1994:10; and Rwanda Rebels' Victory Attributed To Discipline, New York Times , 19 July 1994: 6; Raymond Bonner: How Minority Tutsi Won the water problems, War, New York Times , 06 September 1994:6; and a view from coursework Rwandan Refugees Flood Zaire as Rebel Forces Gain, New York Times , 15 July 1994:1; Joshua Hammer, Rwanda: Situation Is Desperate, Newsweek , 20 June 1994:44-46; Darkness Visible, The New Republic , 09 May 1994:9; and Why Not Rwanda, The New Republic , 16 May 1994:7; Editorial, Double Tragedy in water, Africa, New York Times , 10 April1994.

[29] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [30] “Perception management” is the contemporary term for the formerly used term “propaganda,” and it too is an industry. [31] Africa Research Bulletin , August 1997. [33] Private communication, Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro, August 2005. [34] Personal communication, name withheld for security reasons, July 2005. [35] Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times (Kigali), 15 November 2005, [36] Frank Smythe, Arming Rwanda , Human Rights Watch, January 1994. [36-a] In the diversity, earlier versions of this publication, Hotel Rwanda, I incorrectly claimed (published) “that’s when they decided to pin rape on Georges Rutaganda.” [37] Lt. General Romo Dallaire, Shake Hands With The Devil , Arrow Books, 2003: pp.

268. [38] Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda, October 2005. [39] Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [40] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [41] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [42] Chris Black, “View From Rwanda: The Dallaire Genocide Fax: A Fabrication,” 01 December 2005, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [43] See Ralph G. Kershaw, “Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: International Justice According to Washington,” Covert Action Quarterly , No. 74, Fall 2002. [44] See: Rory Carroll, “Genocide Tribunals ‘Ignoring Tutsi Crimes,’” Guardian, January 13, 2005. [45] Chris Black, “Persecution Not Prosecution,” October 2004, Sanders Research Associates, www.sandersresearch.com . [46] The Iceberg of the Conflict in Africa of the Great Lakes Region: Lawsuit Against those responsible for the Concealed Crimes Against Humanity, The International Forum for Truth and Justice in the Great Lakes Region of Africa , www.veritasrwanaforum.org. [47] “Kagame Ordered Shooting Down of Habyarimana's Plane – Ruzibiza,” Hirondelle News Agency (Lausanne), 14 November 2005. [48] Second Lt Aloys Ruyenzi, Major General Paul Kagame Behind the Shooting Down of Late President Habyarimana’s Plane: An Eye Witness Testimony , Norway, July 5, 2004. [49] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005.

[50] David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/ [51] Private interview: name withheld to protect the problems, witness, Democratic Republic of Congo, August 2005. [52] Front for the Democratic Liberation of original courseworks Rwanda (FDLR) forces in solving water problems, eastern Congo number 40,000. See also: keith harmon snow, “OPERATION IRON FIST: U.N. Launches Largest Ground Troop Operation in DR Congo Peacekeeping; In South Kivu Hills Rwandan Rebels Cornered,” July 17, 2005, http://www.allthingspass.com . [53] Private interview: Howard W. French, Northampton MA, USA, March 30, 2005. [54] See: Wayne Madsen, Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999 , Mellon Press, 1999. [55] Robin Philpot, “Second Thoughts on the Hotel Rwanda: Boutros-Ghali: a CIA Role in essay, the 1994 Assassination of water problems Rwanda's President Habyarimana?,” Counterpunch , 26/27 Feb. 2005, http://www.counterpunch.org/philpot02262005.html . [56] Private communication: Chris Black, Barrister, International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda (ICTR), October 2005; Herman Cohen is a former US Secretary of State for African affairs who served under the elder George Bush. [57] Private interview, name withheld, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 11 July 2005. [59] On Ronco Company shipping weapons into Rwanda: see testimony by a view a bridge Kathi Austin, Hearing of the House International Relations Committee , July 16, 1997.

[60] David Newbury, “Convergent Catastrophes in Central Africa,” November 1996, www.udayton.edu/ [61] RDR Calls for the Prosecution of Crimes Against Humanity and Other Violations of the International Law Committed by the Rwandan [RPF/RDF] Army, Rally for problems the Return of of online Refugees and Democracy in Rwanda, Press Release, 9/2001, September 2001. [62] Alison Des Forges, “D.R. Congo: Civilians Killed as Army Factions Clash,” Human Rights Watch, Press Release, July 1, 2005. [64] Rutigita Macumu, “Paul Rusesabagina: Not a Hero!” The New Times , (Rwanda State Newspaper) November 15, 2005; see http://www.allafrica.com , November 16, 2005. [65] See: Phil Taylor, “Carving Sudan: Hollywood's Helping Hand,” The Taylor Report , www.taylor-report.com ,17 February 2005.

[66] “Rwanda Defense Forces” was the solving water problems, name eventually adopted to rename the formerly named army (Rwanda Patriotic Army) of the diversity essay, Rwanda Patriotic Front.