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Biographical Sources in the Sciences -- General Works and National Sources. This guide, a revision of Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet 88-3, offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and multimedia dissertation women of in descriptive, science and technology. Both historical and contemporary scientists are covered, with emphasis on Americans. While citations to many new works have been added, quite a few of the previous listings have been retained, to allow consideration of evolving styles in scientific biography. Among the changes adopted in this revision are the indication of illustrations, particularly portraits, and the inclusion of preliminary pagination extending to more than 13 pages and dissertation unnumbered as well as numbered series notes. Departing from the usual Tracer Bullet format, where one subject is treated per publication, Biographical Resources in the Sciences instead is being issued in three parts, General Works; Life, Earth and Physical Sciences ; and Technology and Computer Science . Lake? Each Tracer Bullet contains an introduction to the topic that includes basic works on biography and a general listing of subject headings. This part, TB06-7 includes General Works--Comprehensive; General Works--Limited; Bibliographies and Indexes; National Sources--United States; National and dissertation Regional Source--Selected Other Countries; Abstracting and Indexing Services; Journals; and Internet Resources. Other biographical titles in the Science Tracer Bullet series are African American Women in the Sciences and Related Disciplines (TB93-4), Blacks in aqa english Science and Related Disciplines (TB89-9), and Women in the Sciences (TB90-6). On Searching for Biographical Information. In seeking biographical information about scientists, one is apt to encounter contrary difficulties, most easily described as feast or famine. Dozens of book-length biographies may be available for multimedia dissertation, the great figures, such as Newton or Darwin, while little or nothing is ready to hand for less well known or obscure individuals.

A few suggestions may be in order for philosophy contests, searchers confronted with the latter situation. Look for dissertation, journal articles; nowadays, authors' affiliations are usually given, and these can provide a useful starting point. Check membership directories of societies in the scientist's field where varying amounts of biographical information can often be found--at the wallenpaupack, very least, an address. If the individual is no longer living, a death date will facilitate the multimedia dissertation, search for newspaper obituaries. Listening? If only the year of death is known, an obituary may be found by browsing journals and/or society newsletters in the scientist's field. The organization or institution that last employed the multimedia dissertation, scientist may be able to offer advice or assistance. If the location of the person's home at the time of death is known, consider addressing a query to the local library. Many libraries keep clipping files devoted to noteworthy local residents, and may even be able to supply addresses of surviving family members. Published genealogies and local histories can be consulted as well. If the scientist's educational background is known, examination of skills, college and university alumni magazines may produce information; if these are not readily available, one can try contacting the institution's alumni office. Chen, Ching-chih.

Biographical sources. Multimedia Dissertation? In Scientific and vocabulary used essays technical information sources . 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1987. p. 448-464. Z7401.C48 1987 SciRR Desk Elliott, Clark A. Models of the American scientist: a look at collective biography. Isis , v. 73, Mar. 1982: 77-93. This note has a twofold aim: to identify some of the chief quantitative works relating to the lives and careers of scientists in America, and to give a preliminary outline of what seem to have been the chief characteristics of the multimedia dissertation, scientific population at various times prior to World War II.

Hankins, Thomas L. In defense of vocabulary, biography: the multimedia, use of biography in the history of science. History of aqa english percentage, science , v. 17, Mar. 1979: 1-16. Q125.H63, v. 17, pt. 1. References (41): p. Dissertation? 14-16. . history of science places peculiar demands on the biographer, and it is these demands that I should like to discuss in this paper. Lederberg, Joshua. Bp Oil Crisis? Introduction: reflections on scientific biography. In The Excitement and fascination of science; reflections by eminent scientists . Multimedia Dissertation? v. 3, pt. 1. Compiled by Joshua Lederberg. Palo Alto, CA, Annual Reviews, 1990. p. xvii-xxiv. illus. Q171.E98, v. 3, pt.

1. References (22): p. xxiii-xxiv. Williams, L. Pearce. The life of science and scientific lives. Physis, rivista internazionale di storia della scienza , nuova ser., v. Essays Skills? 28, fasc. Multimedia? 1, 1991: 199-213. illus.

I would urge that until the biographical history of the giants is listening reasonably complete, we shall not know much of importance about the multimedia dissertation, history of essays listening, science. Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which biographical materials on scientists and engineers can be located in multimedia dissertation most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following: See also subdivision BIOGRAPHY under groups of scientists, e.g., AFRO-AMERICAN MATHEMATICIANS; AFRO-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS; WOMEN ASTRONOMERS; WOMEN SCIENTISTS; SCIENTISTS, PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED; SCIENTISTS, JEWISH; CATHOLIC SCIENTISTS; SCIENTISTS, MUSLIM. See also other countries or geographic areas, e.g., SCIENTISTS--CHINA--BIOGRAPHY; SCIENTISTS--INDIA--BIOGRAPHY; SCIENTISTS--EUROPE--BIOGRAPHY; SCIENTISTS--LATIN AMERICA--BIOGRAPHY. See also subdivision BIOGRAPHY under other scientific disciplines, e.g., AERONAUTICS; ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING; PHOTOGRAPHY. Note: these headings are used for collective biography only. See also subdivision BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY under other scientific disciplines, e.g., GEOLOGY; MEDICINE; SCIENCE. See also other occupational subject headings, with or without geographic area subdivisions, e.g., ANATOMISTS; ASTRONOMERS; BIOCHEMISTS; BIOLOGISTS; BOTANISTS; CHEMISTS; COMPUTER ENGINEERS; CONSERVATIONISTS; EARTH SCIENTISTS; ECOLOGISTS; ENGINEERS; ENTOMOLOGISTS; GEOLOGISTS; INVENTORS; INDUSTRIALISTS; MALACOLOGISTS; MATHEMATICIANS; METEOROLOGISTS; MICROBIOLOGISTS; MINERALOGISTS; MOLECULAR BIOLOGISTS; MYCOLOGISTS; NATURALISTS; OCEANOGRAPHERS; ORNITHOLOGISTS; PALEONTOLOGISTS; PHYSICIANS; PHYSICISTS; PSYCHIATRISTS; PSYCHOLOGISTS; TECHNOLOGISTS; VETERINARIANS. See also subdivisions ANECDOTES; ANECDOTES, FACETIAE, SATIRE, ETC.; CORRESPONDENCE; CORRESPONDENCE, REMINISCENCES, ETC.; INTERVIEWS; and PORTRAITS under groups of scientists, e.g., ENGINEERS; PHYSICISTS; TECHNOLOGISTS, with or without geographic area subdivisions. Alic, Margaret.

Hypatia#8217;s heritage: a history of women in science from antiquity to the late nineteenth century. London, Women#8217;s Press, 1986. 230 p., [8] p. of plates. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 210-224. Q130.A48 1986 SciRR Asimov, Isaac.

Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of essays, science and technology. The lives and achievements of 1510 great scientists from ancient times to the present, chronologically arranged . Dissertation? 2nd rev. ed. Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1982. Creation Myth Essay? xxxv, 941 p. [24] p. of plates. ports. Q141.A74 1982 SciRR Alphabetical list of biographical entries: p. xvii-xxxv. The index lists subjects, as well as the names of individuals other than those whose biographies are included in the book.

A Biographical dictionary of scientists . 3rd ed. Edited by multimedia, Trevor I. Williams. Assistant editor: Sonia Withers. Essay? New York, Wiley, 1982. xiv, 674 p. Q141.B528 1982 SciRR Desk A list entitled Anniversaries (p. 617-649) is a chronological arrangement of birth and death dates of scientists through 1981. The Biographical dictionary of scientists. 3rd ed.

Consultant editors, Roy Porter, Marilyn Ogilvie. New York, Oxford University Press, 2000. 2 v. (1196 p.) illus., ports. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.B528 2000 SciRR Desk The Biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century . Marilyn Ogilvie and multimedia Joy Harvey, editors. New York, Routledge, 2000. 2 v. Used In Descriptive Essays? (xxxviii, 1499 p.) Includes bibliographical references. Q141.B5285 2000 SciRR Indexes of scientists by multimedia, occupation, time period, and country. Biographical encyclopedia of bp oil spill study management, scientists . Multimedia? 2nd ed. Edited by wallenpaupack, John Daintith and others.

Bristol, Philadelphia, Institute of Physics Pub., 1994 2 v. (1075 p.) illus., ports. Q141.B53 1994 SciRR Desk Includes a chronology of scientific discoveries and publications (p. 989-1130) and a section #8220;giving accounts of the history and work of major scientific centers#8221; (p. Multimedia? 1031-1037). A list of essays, books on p. Dissertation? 1039-1053 is arranged by used in descriptive essays, title; initial articles in any language are treated as filing words. Dissertation? Biographical encyclopedia of skills, scientists . Editor, Richard Olson, associate editor, Roger Smith. Multimedia? New York, Marshall Cavendish, c1998. 5 v. (lv, 1460 p., lxxx p.) illus. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.B532 1998 SciRR Bol#8217;shaia sovetskaia entsiklopediia.

Biograficheskii slovar#8217;deiatelei estestvoznaniia i tekhniki . Otv. redaktor, A. A. Zvorykin. Moskva, 1958-59. 2 v. ports. Includes bibliographic references. #8220;Spravochnaia biograficheskaia literatura#8221;: v. 2, p. Creation Essay? 443-467. Includes lists of foreign publications with biographical information about scientists and engineers. Multimedia Dissertation? Bunch, Bryan H. Appendix A. Obituaries: 1992-1994. In Handbook of current science and technology . Detroit, Gale, 1996. p. Vocabulary In Descriptive? 761-785.

Q158.B84 1996 SciRR The Cambridge dictionary of scientists. 2nd ed. By David Millar and others. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002. 428 p. illus., ports. Q141.C128 2002 MRR Biog Darmstaedter, Ludwig. Naturforscher und Erfinder; biographische Miniaturen. New York, Johnson Reprint Corp., 1966. 182 p., [16] leaves of multimedia dissertation, plates. illus., facsims., ports. (The Sources of science, no. 26) Reprint of a work first published in 1926 by bp oil spill crisis management, Velhagen Klasing in multimedia dissertation Bielefeld.

Dictionary of scientific biography . Charles Coulston Gillispie, editor in chief. New York, C. Scribner#8217;s Sons, 1970-1980. Apache Creation Myth Essay? 16 v. Q141.D5 SciRR Desk Vol. 15, Supplement; v. 16, Index.

Dictionary of scientific biography . Supplement II. Adams-Zwicky. Multimedia? Frederic L. Holmes, editor in chief. New York, C. Scribner#8217;s Sons, 1990. 2 v. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.D5 1981 SciRR Desk

The first supplement (v. 15) contains, in addition to the biographies, seven topical essays #8220;on the philosophy essay contests, scientific outlook and accomplishments of certain ancient civilizations.#8221; The index volume (v. 16) includes separate listings of dissertation, periodicals and societies, as well as lists of scientists by field. The second volume (v. 18) of the second supplement also includes a comprehensive index and lists of scientists by field. Vocabulary In Descriptive Essays? Gascoigne, Robert Mortimer. A chronology of the history of science, 1450-1900 . New York, Garland Pub., 1987. 585 p. (Garland reference library of the humanities, v. 714) Includes bibliographical references.

Q125.G39 1987 SciRR Contents: pt. 1. The cognitive dimension. Arrangement by subjects.-- pt. 2. The social dimension. Arrangement by multimedia dissertation, countries or regions. Sketches of #8220;the thousand most important scientists of the period#8221; are chronologically arranged in pt. 2. The index identifies these by bold entry numbers. Apache Creation Myth Essay? The Great scientists . Dissertation? Edited by myth, Frank N. Magill. Danbury, CT, Grolier Education Corp., 1989. 12 v. illus., ports. Includes bibliographical references.

Q141.G767 1989 SciRR Complete contents of the set is listed in each volume. An index by areas of achievement is provided at the end of v. 12. Grosse Naturwissenschaftler; biographisches Lexikon mit einer Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Hrsg. von Fritz Krafft. 2., neubearb. und erw. Aufl. Dusseldorf, VDI, 1986.

456 p. Bibliography: p. 365-435. Q141.G85 1986 SciRR Includes a chronological list of the scientists covered in the dictionary, as well as a six-page diagram of their life span and a name index. Howard, Arthur V. Chambers's dictionary of scientists . London, W. Multimedia? R. Chambers, 1951. 500 columns. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.H69 1951a SciRR A six-column supplement with updates through early 1955 is laid in.

Lists of Nobel Prize winners in philosophy contests physics, chemistry, and medicine, 1901-54, appear on the lining papers at the end of the volume. Les Inventeurs célèbres: sciences physiques et applications. Publié sous la direction de Louis Leprince-Ringuet. Dissertation? Paris, L. Mazenod, 1950. 403 p., [168] p. of plates. illus. Creation? (some col.), ports. (some col.) (La Galerie des hommes célèbres, v. 6) A German edition, entitled Die Berühmten Erfinder: Physiker und Ingenieure , was published in Geneva in 1951 (Q141.B43). Jöcher, Christian Gottlieb. Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexicon. Leipzig, J. F. Gleditsch, 1750-51. 4 v. port.

Z1010.J63 MRR Biog Larousse dictionary of scientists . Editor, Hazel Muir. Edinburgh, New York, Larousse, 1994. 595 p. Includes bibliographical references. Multimedia? Q141.L36 1994 SciRR Provides a list of Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine, 1901-93. The index lists names under narrow topics. Lenard, Philipp E. A. Great men of science; a history of scientific progress. Wallenpaupack? Translated from the 2nd German ed. by H. Stafford Hatfield. With a pref. by E. Multimedia? N. da C. Andrade.

Freeport, NY, Books for Libraries Press, 1970. xx, 389 p., [48] p. of plates. Contests? ports. (Essay index reprint series) Q141.L62 1970 SciRR Reprint of a work first published in New York by Macmillan Co. in multimedia dissertation 1933. Lexikon der Naturwissenschaftler: Astronomen, Biologen, Chemiker, Geologen, Mediziner, Physiker. Heidelberg, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 1996. 505 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 440. Q141.L66 1996 SciRR Provides brief sketches of more than 3,000 scientists. Concepts named for listening, scientists are described in marginal notes. Includes lists of Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine, 1901-95, both chronologically in each field and in a single alphabet by name, and a comprehensive subject index. McGraw-Hill modern scientists and engineers.

New York, McGraw-Hill, 1980. 3 v. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.M15 1980 SciRR Previous ed. published under title McGraw-Hill modern men of dissertation, science (1966-68. 2 v.). The third volume provides a list of names arranged by field of specialization and an analytical index. Membership directory, Sigma XI, the Scientific Research Society . 1998. White Plains, NY, B. C. Harris Pub.

Co., 1998. xviii, 1363 p. Q11.S67a 1998 SciRR Includes a brief history of the society, answers to questions about membership, a description of the society's programs, and a listing of Nobel Prize winners who were or are members. Biographical entries are supplemented by lists of members grouped by primary area of specialization and by geographic location. There is also a separate listing of skills, members' e-mail addresses. The New York times biographical service . v. 1 1970- v. 32 Dec. 2001. New York, New York Times; Ann Arbor, MI, University Microfilms International. monthly. Multimedia Dissertation? CT120.N45 MRR Biog BRS Biog Indexes cumulated annually. Dissertation Lake Wallenpaupack? Cumulated indexes 1970-1990 and 1980-1990. Multimedia? Ceased with v. 32, no.

12 (Dec. 2001). Title, 1970-1974: New York times biographical edition. Newsmakers. 1985+ Detroit, Gale Research. Dissertation Lake Wallenpaupack? ports. CT120.C663 MRR Biog BRS Biog 3 no. a year, with annual cumulation. Title, 1985-88: Contemporary newsmakers. Indexes by nationality, occupation, subject, and name in the annual volumes are cumulative. Notable scientists from dissertation 1900 to philosophy contests, the present. Updated 2nd ed. Brigham Narins, editor.

Farmington Hills, MI, Gale Group, c2001. 5 v. (xxxix, 2633 p.) ports. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.N728 2001 SciRR Desk Rev. ed of: Notable twentieth-century scientists . 1995; and Notable twentieth-century scientists. Multimedia? Supplement.

1998. Indexes by field of specialization, gender, nationality/ethnicity, and subject. Poggendorff, J. C. Biographisch-literarisches Handwörterbuch zur Geschichte der exakten Wissenschaften . Leipzig, Barth, 1863-1904; Verlag Chemie, 1925-40. 6 v. in 11. Contents: v. 1-2. To 1857.--v. 3. 1858-83.--v. 4. 1883-1904.--v.

5. 1904-22.--v. 6. 1923-31. Poggendorff, J. C. Biographisch-literarisches Handwörterbuch der exakten Naturwissenschaften . Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, 1955+ Beginning with v. 7, the series is subdivided into two parts: v. 7a covers scientists from Germany, Austria, and vocabulary in descriptive Switzerland, 1932-53, and v. 7b, scientists from other countries, 1932-62. SciRR set is incomplete. Scientists: the lives and works of 150 scientists. Peggy Saari and Stephen Allison, editors. Detroit, U·X·L, 1996-2003.

7 v. illus., ports. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.S3717 1996 SciRR Vols. Multimedia Dissertation? 4-6 edited by Marie C. Ellavich; v. 7 edited by Tanya Lee Stone. Vols. 4-7 have subtitle: Their lives and works . Gcse Percentage? Vols. 4-7 each contain a cumulative index. Scienziati e tecnologi dalle origini al 1875. v. 1+ Milano, A. Mondadori, 1975+ + illus. (some col.), facsims. (some col.), ports. (some col.) Contents: v. 1. Da Abano, Pietro d' a Gibbs, Josiah Willard.-- Turkevich, John, and Ludmilla B. Multimedia? Turkevich. Prominent scientists of continental Europe . New York, American Elsevier, 1968.

204 p. Apache Myth Essay? Brief entries are alphabetically listed for each of 23 countries. Who's who in European research and development . 1995+ London, New Jersey, Bowker-Saur. Q141.W56 2003 SciRR Desk Who#8217;s who in dissertation science and engineering. 8th ed. 2005-2006. Wilmette, IL, Marquis Who#8217;s Who, 2004. 2374 p. Q141.W576 SciRR Desk and Electronic format. Who's who in science in Europe: a biographical guide in science, technology, agriculture, and medicine . 9th ed. London, Cartermill International; New York, Stockton, 1995. 2 v. (2084 p.) Q141.W59 1995 SciRR Desk A subject index (p.

2029-2084) lists names under professional fields for spill case study crisis management, each of the 36 countries included. World of scientific discovery . 1994+ Detroit, Gale Research Inc. Q121.W676 SciRR Latest edition in Science Reading Room. World who's who in science; a biographical dictionary of notable scientists from antiquity to the present . Multimedia Dissertation? Editor: Allen G. In Descriptive? Debus. Chicago, Marquis-Who's Who, 1968. xvi, 1855 p. Multimedia Dissertation? Bibliography: p. xi. Dissertation? Q141.W7 SciRR Desk Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine, 1901-67, are listed on the lining papers. UXL newsmakers.

2005+ Detroit, Thomson Gale. Each annual ed. is published in multiple. Multimedia? Zahm, John Augustine. Woman in science; with an introductory chapter on woman's long struggle for things of the mind . Listening Skills? By H. J. Mozans [psued.] Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1974. xvii, 452 p. Bibliography: p. 419-426. Q147.Z26 1974 SciRR Reprint, with a new introduction by Mildred S. Dresselhaus, of a work first published in 1913 by D. Appleton in New York. Contents: 1. Woman's long struggle for things of the mind.--2. Woman's capacity for scientific pursuits.--3.

Women in mathematics.--4. Women in astronomy.--5. Women in dissertation physics.--6. Women in chemistry.--7. Women in the natural sciences.--8. Women in medicine and surgery.--9. Women in archaeology.--10. Women as inventors.--11. Women as inspirers and collaborators in bp oil spill management science.--12. The future of women in science: summary and epilogue. Die 100 des Jahrhunderts: Naturwissenschaftler.

Reinbek bei Hamburg, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1994. 208 p. ports. (Rororo Handbuch) Arago, Dominique François Jean. Biographies of distinguished scientific men. Dissertation? Translated by W. Essays? H. Smyth, Baden Powell, and Robert Grant. Freeport, NY, Books for Libraries Press, 1972. 2 v. Dissertation? (Essay index reprint series) Reprint of a work first published in 1859 by bp oil study management, Ticknor and Fields in dissertation Boston. Essays Listening Skills? Arago's autobiography (to 1830) is followed by memoirs of Bailly, William Herschel, Laplace, Fourier, Lazare Carnot, Malus, Fresnel, Thomas Young, and James Watt. Bailey, Brooke. The remarkable lives of 100 women healers and scientists . Holbrook, MA, B. Multimedia? Adams, 1994. 208 p. (20th century women)

Includes bibliographical references. R692.B35 1994 SciRR Index by occupation: p. 205-208. Bass, Thomas A. Reinventing the future: conversations with the world's leading scientists. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1994. 249 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 245-248.

Sarah Hrdy, Luc Montagnier, James Black, Thomas Adeoye Lambo, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Richard Dawkins, Farouk El-Baz, Bert Sakmann, Jonathan Mann, Norman Packard, and Mary-Claire King. Bildnisse zeitgenössischer Physiker Herrn Viktor von Lang zu seinem 70. Geburtstag (2. März 1908) gewidmet. [Wien? 1908] 341 ports. on percentage 44 leaves. Biographical studies. Multimedia Dissertation? In Despite the odds; essays on Canadian women and science. Edited by Marianne Gosztonyi Ainley. Montreal, Véhicule Press; U.S. distribution, University of Toronto Press, Buffalo, NY, 1990. p. 179-262. illus., ports. Essays Listening? Bibliography: p. 419-431. Essays on Maude Abbott, Harriet Brooks, Alice Wilson, Isabella Preston, Margaret Newton, Cypra Cecilia Krieger, and Blossom Wigdor.

Biographical studies. In Uneasy careers and intimate lives: women in science, 1789-1979 . Edited by Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram. With a foreword by Margaret W. Rossiter. New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1987. p. 129-280. ports. Bibliography: p. 314-354.

Essays on Maria Mitchell, Clémence Royer, Sofia Kovalevskaia, Marie Curie, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, and Dorothy Wrinch. Brian, Denis. Genius talk: conversations with Nobel scientists and other luminaries . New York, Plenum Press, 1995. 423 p. ports. Bibliography: p. Dissertation? 407-413. Gcse Coursework? Bridges, Thomas C., and H. Hessell Tiltman. Multimedia Dissertation? Master minds of modern science.

London, G. G. Harrap, 1930. 278 p., [32] leaves of plates. illus., ports. Cohen, Harry, and Itzhak J. Carmin, eds. Jews in aqa english gcse coursework percentage the world of science; a biographical dictionary of Jews eminent in the natural and social sciences . New York, Monde Publishers, 1956. xxiv, 264 p. ports. Creese, Mary R. S. Ladies in the laboratory? American and British women in science, 1800-1900; a survey of their contributions to research . Multimedia? With contributions by Thomas M. Creese. Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 1998. 452 p. illus. Bibliography: p. 439-441. Q141.C69 1998 SciRR

Bibliography of papers by American and British women in dissertation scientific periodicals, 1800-1900: p. Multimedia Dissertation? 371-437. Creese, Mary R. S. Ladies in the laboratory II: West European women in science, 1800-1900; a survey of their contributions to dissertation, research . With contributions by Thomas M. Creese. Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 2004. 290 p. illus. Bibliography: p. Dissertation? 283-285. Q141.C693 2004 SciRR #8220;Bibliography of aqa english, papers by West European Women (excluding the British) in scientific periodicals, 1800-1900: p. 237-274. Crowther, J. G. Scientific types . London, Barrie Rockliff, the Cresset Press, 1968. 408 p., [12] leaves of plates. Multimedia Dissertation? ports.

Bibliography: p. 393-399. Contents: Individual investigators. Charles Thomson Rees Wilson. John William Strutt, Third Lord Rayleigh. Vocabulary Used? Thomas Young.--Teachers. Thomas Henry Huxley. Multimedia? John Tyndall. Augustus De Morgan.--Scientist inventors.

James Dewar. Essays Skills? Osborne Reynolds. Charles Babbage.--Organizers. Walter Morley Fletcher. Arthur Schuster. George Biddell Airy. Downs, Robert Bingham. Multimedia? Landmarks in science: Hippocrates to Carson. Littleton, CO, Libraries Unlimited, 1982. 305 p. Bibliography: p. 291-299.

Q125.D68 1982 SciRR A survey of 74 masterworks in science from bp oil study management ancient to modern times and their authors. The Excitement and fascination of science . Palo Alto, CA, Annual Reviews, 1965-1995. 4 v. Includes bibliographical references. Vol. 2, with subtitle Reflections by eminent scientists, compiled by dissertation, W. C. Gibson. Apache Myth Essay? Reprinted from the multimedia, Annual review of bp oil crisis, biochemistry , the dissertation, Annual review of pharmacology , the Annual review of physical chemistry , and the Annual review of physiology . -Vol. 3 has subtitle Reflections by eminent scientists , compiled by Joshua Lederberg. Spill Case Study Management? Reprinted from the dissertation, Annual review of anthropology . [et al.] Vol. 4, has subtitle Reflections by eminent scientists , compiled by Robert H. Essays Listening Skills? Haynes and William Kaufmann. Dissertation? Feldman, Anthony, and Peter Ford.

Scientists inventors . Update editor, Graham Yost. New York, Facts on File, 1986. 352 p. illus. (some col.), facsims. (some col.), ports. (some col.) T39.F37 1986 SciRR Sketches of more than 150 inventors and scientists are presented in chronological order. Haber, Louis. Women pioneers of aqa english gcse, science . New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. xvii, 171 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 159-165. Dissertation? Alice Hamilton, Florence Rena Sabin, Lise Meitner, Leta S. Hollingworth, Rachel Fuller Brown, Gladys Anderson Emerson, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Myra Adele Logan, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Jane C. Wright, Rosalyn S. Yalow, and Sylvia Earle Mead.

Halacy, D. S. They gave their names to creation myth essay, science . New York, Putnam's Sons, 1967. 159 p.facsims., ports. Chapters are devoted to dissertation, Mach, Mendel, Doppler, Geiger, Sadi Carnot, Coriolis, Mohorovicic, Van Allen, Mössbauer, and Nobel. An epilogue (p. 149-156) lists 165 scientists, including those mentioned above, along with the theories, laws, effects, objects, constants, diseases, instruments, and units of measurement to which their names have been attached. Essays Skills? Harré, Rom, ed. Early seventeenth century scientists . Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1965. 188 p., [4] leaves of plates. illus., ports. (The Commonwealth and international library.

Liberal studies division. Science and society, v. 1) Includes bibliographical references. Essays on William Gilbert, Francis Bacon, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, William Harvey, Johann van Helmont, and René Descartes. Jones, Bessie Zaban., ed. The golden age of science; thirty portraits of the multimedia dissertation, giants of essays, 19th-century science, by their scientific contemporaries. New York, Simon and Schuster, in dissertation cooperation with the dissertation wallenpaupack, Smithsonian Institution, 1966. Multimedia Dissertation? xxxii, 659 p. Includes bibliographical references. Lang, Harry G., and Bonnie Meath-Lang. Deaf persons in the arts and sciences, a biographical dictionary. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1995. xvii, 424 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 411.

Arrangement is alphabetical, with names listed by field in an appendix. Another appendix provides brief notes on additional individuals. Late seventeenth century scientists . Editor: Donald Hutchings. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1969. 183 p. illus. (The Commonwealth and international library.

Education and education research) Includes bibliographical references. Includes: Robert Boyle, Marcello Malpighi, Christopher Wren, Christiaan Huygens, Robert Hooke, and Isaac Newton. Lindop, Laurie. Scientists and doctors. New York, Twenty-First Century Books, 1997. 128 p. ports. (some col.) (Dynamic modern women) Bibliography: p. 125-126.

Mildred Dresselhaus, Biruté Galdikas, Mae Jemison, Mary-Claire King, Mary Leakey, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Susan Love, Helen Taussig, Chien-Shiung Wu, and Rosalyn Yalow. Nobel Prize winners: an H. W. Wilson biographical dictionary. Editor, Tyler Wasson; consultants, Gert H. Brieger and others. New York, H. Aqa English Coursework? W. Wilson, 1987. xxxiv, 1165 p. ports. Includes bibliographical references. Multimedia? AS911.N9N59 1987 SciRR Biographies of laureates through 1986 are alphabetically arranged. A list of the winners by category and year is given on dissertation lake p. xiii-xix. Other introductory matter includes a biography of Alfred Nobel and an essay on the Nobel Prizes and Nobel institutions. Nobel Prize winners.

Supplement 1987-1991: an dissertation, H. W. Wilson biographical dictionary. Editor, Paula McGuire. New York, H. Creation Myth? W. Wilson Co., 1992. 143 p. ports. Includes bibliographical references. AS911.N9N59 1987 Suppl. SciRR Provides lists of laureates by category and year, and by country of residence, 1901-1990, and multimedia dissertation a list of those who have died since 1986. Nobel Prize winners. Supplement 1992-1996: an gcse coursework percentage, H. W. Wilson biographical dictionary . Editor, Clifford Thompson. Multimedia Dissertation? New York, H. W. Wilson Co., 1997. 165 p. ports.

Includes bibliographical references. AS911.N9N59 1992 Suppl. SciRR Provides lists of laureates by category and year, and by apache myth, country of residence, 1901-1996, and multimedia a list of those who have died since 1991. Nobel Prize winners. 1997-2001, supplement: an H. W. Wilson biographical dictionary. Editor, Mari Rich. New York, H. W. Wilson, 2002. xl, 155 p. illus.

Includes bibliographical references. AS911.N9N59 2002 Suppl. SciRR Provides lists of laureates by category and year, and by country of aqa english coursework, residence, 1901-2001, and a list of those who have died since 1996. Oakes, Elizabeth H. Encyclopedia of world scientists. New York, Facts on File, 2001. Multimedia? 450 p. Study Crisis Management? ports. Q141.O25 2001 SciRR Includes indexes of entries by field, country of birth, country of major scientific activity, and year of birth. Oakes, Elizabeth H. International encyclopedia of women scientists. New York, Facts on File, 2002. xiv, 448 p. ports. Q141.O27 2002 SciRR Bibliography: p. 399-400. Oesper, Ralph E. The human side of scientists.

Cincinnati, University Publications, University of Cincinnati, 1975. xiv, 218 p. Bibliography: p. 211-218. Anecdotes involving 133 scientists are preceded by brief summaries of their lives and accomplishments. Dissertation? Olby, Robert C., ed. Early nineteenth century European scientists . In Descriptive? Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1967. 179 p. illus., ports. (The Commonwealth and international library. Liberal studies division) Includes bibliographical references. Includes: Humphry Davy, Jons Jacob Berzelius, Thomas Young, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre and dissertation William Henry Fox Talbot, Charles Lyell, and vocabulary essays Adolphe Quetelet.

Olby, Robert C., ed. Late eighteenth century European scientists. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1966. 209 p ., [3] leaves of plates. illus. (The Commonwealth and international library. Liberal studies division. Science and society, v. 2) Includes bibliographical references. Includes: Jean Lamarck, Joseph Koelreuter, Antoine Lavoisier, Henry Cavendish, Alessandro Volta, James Watt, and William Herschel. A Passion to know; 20 profiles in science . Allen L. Hammond, editor. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1984. 240 p. ports.

Bibliography: p. 225-234. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Carleton Gajdusek, Sheldon Glashow, Margaret Mead, Gerald Wasserburg, Robert Trivers, Kurt Gödel, Bernd Heinrich, Frank Oppenheimer, Michael McElroy, Barbara McClintock, Charles Darwin, Robert Wilson, Herbert Simon, James Lovelock, Birgit Zipser, John Wheeler, Tuzo Wilson, Mark Ptashne, and Albert Einstein. Scientific American. Multimedia Dissertation? Lives in science . New York, Simon and used in descriptive Schuster, 1957. 274 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 271-274.

Galileo, Newton, Hooke, Laplace, Sir William Rowan Hamilton, G. F. Fitzgerald, Priestley, Lavoisier, Franklin, Faraday, Joseph Henry, Maxwell, Harvey, Darwin, Pavlov, Babbage, Lewis Carroll, and Ramanujan. Scientific genius and creativity; readings from Scientific American. Multimedia? With an introd. by Owen Gingerich. New York, W. H. Freeman, 1987. 110 p. illus. (some col.), facsims. (some col.), maps (some col.), ports. (some col.). Bibliography: p. 107-108. Includes essays on William Harvey, Newton, Boyle, Lavoisier, Gauss, Galois, Joseph Henry, Darwin, Wegener, and Millikan.

Simmons, John G. The scientific 100: a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present. Secaucus, NJ, Carol Pub. Group, 1996. xix, 504 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 487-495. Q148.S55 1996 SciRR Stille, Darlene R. Extraordinary women scientists.

Chicago, Childrens Press, 1995. 208 p. ports. Bibliography: p. Bp Oil Crisis Management? 199-200. Q130.S75 1995 SciRR Biographies of 49 individuals and four groups: Women scientists from multimedia ancient times to dissertation, the Age of Reason, A Legacy of women doctors, Women mathematicians, and Women inventors and engineers. Walsh, James Joseph. Catholic churchmen in science; sketches of the lives of Catholic ecclesiastics who were among the great founders in multimedia dissertation science Philadelphia, American Ecclesiastical Review, Dolphin Press, 1906-17. 3 v. Aqa English? Weisgerber, Robert A. The challenged scientists: disabilities and the triumph of excellence . New York, Praeger, 1991. 193 p. Dissertation? ports. Bibliography: p. 189-190. Includes profiles of eight students and 13 working professionals.

The Who's who of Nobel Prize winners, 1901-2000. 4th ed. Edited by study, Louise S. Sherby. Westport, CT, Oryx Press, 2002. xxiii, 277 p. Includes bibliographical references. Wilson, Grove.

The human side of science . . Multimedia Dissertation? New York, Cosmopolitan Book Corp., 1929. Listening? 397 p., [12] leaves of plates. Multimedia? ports. Bibliography: p. 391-397. Wolpert, L., and Alison Richards. A passion for science.

Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1988. 206 p. ports. Interviews with Abdus Salam, Martin Rees, Michael Berry, Christopher Zeeman, Dorothy Hodgkin, Francis Crick, Sydney Brenner, Gunther Stent, John Maynard Smith, Stephen Jay Gould, Anthony Epstein, Walter Bodmer, and Richard Gregory. Wolpert, L., and Alison Richards. Apache Myth? Passionate minds: the inner world of scientists. A companion volume to A Passion for Science. Oxford, New York, Oxford University Press, 1997. 240 p. ports. Interviews with Carl Djerassi, Roald Hoffmann, Jared Diamond, Leroy Hood, David Weatherall, James Lighthill, James Lovelock, Peter Mitchell, John Cairns, Richard Lewontin, Antonio Garcia Bellido, James Black, Gerald Edelman, Michael Berridge, Elwyn Simons, Murray Gell-Mann, Sheldon Glashow, Nicole Le Douarin, Gerald Holton, Carlo Rubbia, David Pilbeam, Anne McLaren, and Avrion Mitchison. Yost, Edna.

Women of modern science. Multimedia Dissertation? New York, Dodd, Mead, 1959. 176 p., [8] p. of listening, plates. ports. Gerty Theresa Cori, Lise Meitner, Helen Sawyer Hogg, Elizabeth Shull Russell, Rachel Fuller Brown, Chien Shiung Wu, Edith Hinkley Quimby, Jocelyn Crane, Florence van Straten, Gladys Anderson Emerson, and Dorothea Rudnick. Multimedia Dissertation? Yount, Lisa. Twentieth-century women scientists. New York, Facts on File, 1996. Aqa English Gcse Coursework? xvii, 123 p. illus., ports. (Global profiles) Includes bibliographical references.

Lise Meitner, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, E. Margaret Burbidge, Katsuko Saruhashi, Rosalind Elsie Franklin, R. Multimedia? Rajalakshmi, Lydia Phindile Makhubu, Biruté M. F. Galdikas, and Kutlu Aslihan Yener. American biographical index. Compiled by Laureen Baillie. 2nd cumulated and bp oil study crisis enl. ed. München, K. G. Dissertation? Saur, 1998. 10 v. (xxiv, 4200 p.) CT213.A64 1998 MRR and Electronic format.

Alternative title: Amerikanischer biographischer Index. Dissertation? Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and dissertation frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled American biographical archive (Microfiche 90/7009 (C)) and American biographical archive, ser. II (Microfiche 97/15 (C)), which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in the microfiche sets. Australasian biographical index . Essay Contests? Edited and compiled by multimedia dissertation, Victor Herrero Mediavilla. Aqa English Gcse Percentage? München, New Providence, NJ, K. G. Saur, 1996. 3 v. (xv, 1326 p.) CT2775.A87 1996 MRR and Electronic format. Alternative title: Australasiatischer biographischer Index . Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche set, entitled Australasian biographical archive (Microfiche 96/154 (C)), which is multimedia also held in MicRR.

Texts of the cited references are reproduced in essays the microfiche set. Barr, E. Dissertation? Scott. An index to biographical fragments in unspecialized scientific journals . University, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1973. 294 p. This index covers about listening, 7700 individuals, providing about 15,000 citations and about 1500 portrait locations found in seven journals. Biografische index van de Benelux.

Samengesteld door Willemena van der Meer. München, K. G. Saur, 1997. 4 v. (1604 p.) CT1139.B56 1997 Benelux EuRR and Electronic format. Alternative titles: Index biographique de pays du Bénélux; Biographischer Index der Benelux-Länder. Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche set, entitled Biografisch archief van de Benelux (94/2001 (C)), which is held in MicRR. (2003 ed. Multimedia Dissertation? not in LC) Biographischer Index der Antike . Bearb. von Hilmar Schmuck. München, K. G. Saur, 2001.

3 v. (1034 p.) Alternative title: Biographical index of the classical world. Alphabetical listing of 50,821 biographies contained in the Biographisches Archiv der Antike (97/358 (P)), held in essays listening skills MiCRR, which consists of articles extracted from multimedia 87 titles originally published between 1820 and 1994. Contents: 1. A-E--2. Apache? F-0--3. P-Z. Biography and genealogy master index; a consolidated index to more than 3,200,000 biographical sketches in multimedia dissertation over 350 current and retrospective biographical dictionaries . 2nd ed. Edited by essay contests, Miranda C. Herbert and Barbara McNeil. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1980- 2005. (Gale biographical index series, no.

1) Z5305.U5B57 1980 MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format. Kept up to date by annual supplements (some in dissertation more than one part), and by quinquennial cumulations of the annual supplements: 1981-85 (5 v.), 1986-1990 (3 v.), 1991-1995 (3 v.), 1996-2000 (4 v.) Biography index; a cumulative index to biographical material in essay contests books and magazines . v. 1+ Jan. 1946+ New York, H. W. Wilson Co. Z5301.B5 SSRR MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format. Quarterly, with cumulations--triennial, Jan.

1946-Aug. 1982; biennial, Sept. 1982-Aug. Multimedia Dissertation? 1992; annual, Sept. 1992+. Each issue includes an index to professions and occupations. British biographical index. 2nd cumulated and enl. ed. Edited by David Bank and Theresa McDonald. München, K.G.

Saur, 1998. 7 v. Dissertation Lake Wallenpaupack? (xxviii, 3179 p.) CT773.B75 1998 MRR and Electronic format. Alternative title: Britischer biographischer Index. Each entry in the index cites references to multimedia, biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled British biographical archive (86/901 (C)) and British biographical archive, ser. 2 (97/1 (C) ), which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in the microfiche sets. Chinese biographical index . Compiled by Stephan von Minden. München, K.G. Saur, 2000.

3 v. (xiii, 1197 p.) CT1821.C45 2000 MRR Alternative title: Chinesischer biographischer Index. Index to the microfiche collection entitled Chinese biographical archive (97/359 (C)) also held in MicRR. Philosophy Essay Contests? Contents: 1. A-K--2. L-V--3. W-Z. Deutscher biographischer Index . 2. kumulierte und erw.

Ausg. München, K. G. Saur, 1998. Multimedia Dissertation? 8 v. (xxiv, 4017 p.) Z5305.G3K63 1998 MRR and Electronic format. Alternative title: German biographical index . Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled Deutsches biographisches Archiv (86/900 (C)) and Deutsches biographisches Archiv, N.F., (90/8113 (C)) which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in dissertation lake the microfiche sets. (2004 ed. not in LC.) Herrero Mediavilla, Victor. African biographical index. München, K.G. Saur, 1999. 3 v. (xviii, 1134 p.) Z5305.A38H47 1999 MRR Bibliography: p. xiii-xviii.

Alternative titles: Index biographique Africain; Afrikanischer biographischer Index. Contents: 1. A-Gebru--2. Dissertation? Gecaga-Mzozoyana--3. Apache Creation Essay? Na Abba-Z. Index to African biographical archive (99/42), which is also held in MicRR, a microfiche reprint of multimedia, 233 biographical reference works published between 1807 and 1993. (Library of Congress michrofiche set is incomplete). Philosophy? Herzenberg, Caroline L. Women scientists from antiquity to the present, an index; an international reference listing and biographical directory of some notable women scientists from ancient to modern times. West Cornwall, Conn., Locust Hill Press, 1986. xxxix, 200 p. Q141.H475 1986 SciRR Includes an introductory essay, Early women scientists and engineers (p. xi-xxviii).

References: bibliography and source abbreviation key: p. xxix-xxxvii. Names of women for whom references are provided are listed alphabetically. This is multimedia followed by a section entitled Women scientists listed by field. Howsam, Leslie. Scientists since 1660; a bibliography of biographies. Aldershot, Hants, Brookfield, VT, Ashgate, 1997. 150 p. Z7401.H66 1997 SciRR Lists 1,106 book-length biographies in English for 565 men and women of science whose careers began during or after the burgeoning of modern science around 1660 . Lake Wallenpaupack? Appendices list the names of scientists by field of specialization, by names of multimedia, major publishers of the biographies, and by names of any series in which the biographies were issued. Index biographique français . 2ème éd. cumulée et augm. Compilé par Tommaso Nappo. München, K. G. Saur, 1998.

7 v. (xxiii, 3310 p.) CT1003.I53 1998 MRR and Electronic format. Creation? Alternative titles: French biographical index; Franzosischer biographischer Index. Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled Archives biographiques françaises (90/7007 (C)) and Archives biographiques françaises, 2 sér. Multimedia? (97/13 (C)), which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in the microfiche sets. (2004 ed. not in LC) Indice biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica . 3. ed., corr. y ampliada. Editado e dirigado por Victor Herrero Mediavilla.

München, New Providence, NJ, K. G. Saur, 2000. 10 v. (3586 p.) CT1345.I53 2000 MRR and Electronic format. Alternative titles: Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American biographical index; Indice biográfico de Espanha, Portugal e Ibero-América; Spanischer, Portugiesischer und Iberoamerikanischer Biographischer Index. Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and apache supplies fiche and frame numbers to dissertation, the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled Archivo biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica (90/12 (C)); Archivo biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica, nueva serie (97/5); and Archivo biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica, (1960-1995) (97/6 (C)), which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in the microfiche sets. Indice biografico italiano. Listening Skills? 2a ed., corr. ed ampliata.

A cura di Tommaso Nappo. München, K. G. Multimedia Dissertation? Saur, 1997. 7 v. (xxxii, 2650 p.) CT1123.I53 1997 MRR and Electronic format. Each entry in listening skills the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche sets, entitled Archivio biografico italiano (90/8108 (D)) and Archivio biografico italiano, nuova serie (96/158 (C)), which are also held in MicRR. Texts of the multimedia, cited references are reproduced in the microfiche sets. Vocabulary Essays? (2001 ed. not in multimedia LC) Ireland, Norma Olin.

Index to scientists of the crisis management, world, from ancient to modern times; biographies and portraits. Boston, Mass., F. W. Faxon Co., 1962. xliii, 662 p. (Useful reference series, no. 90) List of collections analyzed in this work and key to symbols used: p. xvii-xliii. ISIS cumulative bibliography; a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 1-90, 1913-65. Edited by Magda Whitrow. Chairman of editorial committee, I. Bernard Cohen.

London, Mansell in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 1971-84. 6 v. Contents: v. 1. Multimedia? Personalities, A-J.--v. 2. Personalities, K-Z. Institutions.--v. 3. Subjects.--v. 4. Civilizations and periods, prehistory to Middle Ages.--v. 5. Civilizations and periods, 15th to 19th centuries.--v. 6. Aqa English Percentage? Author index. ISIS cumulative bibliography, 1966-1975; a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 91-100 indexing literature published from 1965 through 1974 . Edited by John Neu. London, Mansell in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 198085. 2v.

Z7405.H6I2 Suppl. SciRR Contents: v. 1. Personalities and institutions.--v. 2. Subjects, periods and civilizations. ISIS cumulative bibliography, 1976-1985; a bibliography of the history of science formed from ISIS critical bibliographies 101-110 indexing literature published from 1975 through 1984. Edited by John Neu. Boston, G. K. Hall in conjunction with the History of Science Society, 1989. 2 v. Z7405.H6I2 Suppl. 2 SciRR Contents: v. 1. Persons and institutions.--v. 2. Subjects, periods and civilizations.

ISIS cumulative bibliography, 1986-1995; a bibliography of the history of science formed from the multimedia dissertation, annual ISIS current bibliographies . Bp Oil Spill? Edited by John Neu. Canton, MA, Published for the History of Science Society by Science History Publications/USA, 1997. 4 v. (xxx, 1362 p.) Z7405.H6I2 Suppl. Dissertation? 3 SciRR Contents: v. 1. Persons, A-L.--v. 2. Persons, M-Z. Institutions.--3. Essays Listening? Subjects. Time periods, antiquity through 18th century.--v. 4. Time periods, 19th and 20th centuries. In all likelihood, this will be the final printed cumulation of the ISIS bibliographies, since the material is now available also electronically through the Research Libraries Information Network.--Editor's introduction.

Jüdischer biographischer Index . Opracowany przez Hilmar Schmuck. München, K. G. Saur, 1998. 4 v. (xiii, 1491 p.) DS115.J84 1998 MRR Alternative title: Jewish biographical index. Multimedia? Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche set, entitled Jüdisches biographisches Archiv (97/2 (D)), which is also held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in dissertation lake wallenpaupack the microfiche set. There is also an index listing names under occupational headings (p. 1099-1491). Dissertation? (2000/2005 ed. In Descriptive? not in multimedia dissertation LC) Levy, Felice D. Obituaries on file. New York, Facts on File, 1979. 2 v. (1010 p.) CT120.L43 MRR Biog . a compilation of the obituaries that have appeared in Facts on File from . late 1940 through 1978.

A chronology index (p. 657-760) arranges the names by date of death; the subject index (p. Dissertation Lake? 761-1010) includes names of professions and multimedia dissertation occupations. The New York times obituaries index. New York, New York Times, 1970-80. 2 v. CT213.N47 SSRR MRR Biog BRS Biog Contents: v. 1. 1858-1968.--v. 2. Philosophy? 1969-1978. Ogilvie, Marilyn Bailey, and multimedia Kerry Lynne Meek. Used? Women and science, an annotated bibliography . New York, Garland Pub., 1996.

556 p. (Garland reference library of dissertation, social science, v. 859) Z7963.S3O35 1996 SciRR Includes indexes by field, nationality, period, persons and institutions, type of reference source, and themes. Pelletier, Paul A. Prominent scientists; an philosophy, index to collective biographies. 3rd ed. Multimedia Dissertation? New York, Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1994. xxxix, 353 p. Bp Oil Study Management? Q141.P398 1994 SciRR Desk Key to books indexed: p. xi-xxxv. List of scientists by field: p. 305-353. Polski indeks biograficzny. Compiled by, Gabriele Baumgartner. München, K.G.

Saur, 1998. 4 v. (1467 p.) CT1230.P653 1998. Multimedia? Alternative title: Polnischer Biographischer Index; Polish biographical index. May serve as an essay contests, index to the microfiche collections, entitled Polski archiwum biograficzne (94/2008 (C)) and Polski archiwum biograficzne . Suplement (98/9 (C)), held in MRR. Dissertation? Contents: v. 1. Aaczek-Glixelli--v. 2. Philosophy Essay? Glizenstein-Lasocki--v. 3. Lason´-Pusch--v. 4. Puschko-Zyzys. (2004 ed. not in LC) Scandinavian biographical index . Edited by multimedia dissertation, Laureen Baillie.

London, New Jersey, K. G. Philosophy Essay? Saur, 1994. 4 v. Multimedia Dissertation? (2432 p.) CT1243.S25 1994 Scandinavia EuRR and Electronic format. Alternative title: Skandinavischer biographischer Index. Each entry in the index cites references to biographical sources and essays listening supplies fiche and frame numbers to the accompanying microfiche set, entitled Scandinavian biographical archive , (94/2000 (C)), which is held in MicRR. Texts of the cited references are reproduced in the microfiche set. Slocum, Robert B. Biographical dictionaries and dissertation related works, an aqa english gcse percentage, international bibliography . 2nd ed. Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1986. 2 v. (1319 p.) Z530l.S55 1986 SciRR Contents: v. Multimedia Dissertation? 1. Universal biography; national or area biography.--v.

2. Biography by vocation; author index, title index, subject index. See particularly, in v. 2, sections on medicine and dentistry (p. 900-929), science (p. 1006-1024), and technology and applied science (p. 1046-1059). Smith, Roger. Biographies of scientists, an annotated bibliography . Lanham, MD, Scarecrow Press, 1998. 291 p. (Magill bibliographies) Z7404.S64 1998 SciRR A first chapter on multidisciplinary sources is creation followed by eight chapters devoted to various fields such as chemistry and life sciences; collected works and individual biographies are included, as are series for young readers in two of the chapters. A list of websites is given on p. 6-7, and there are indexes of names and subjects. Stuckey, Ronald L. Index to biographical sketches and obituaries in dissertation publications of the Ohio Academy of Science, 1900-1970. Ohio journal of science, v. Essay Contests? 70, July 1970: 246-255. (The freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view and print this resource.) Biographical Archives and Indexes by K. G. Saur.

Biographical archives in microfiche format by K. G. Saur which are in multimedia dissertation the collections of the the Library of essays skills, Congress are listed in multimedia dissertation this Tracer Bullet as note information with the printed index title; otherwise archives with no printed index are listed below. Philosophy Essay? Each archive is a microfiche compilation of entries appearing in a large number of biographical reference works, including many highly specialized titles. The earliest reference work included was originally published in 1646, and the most recent in the 1990's. The biographies are arranged alphabetically with various types of indexing to the content. The electronic database World Biographical Information Service provides indexing for the content of several of the biographical archives and more archives are added yearly. (For more detailed information see the entry listing for multimedia dissertation, World Biographical Information Service in Abstracting and Indexing Services section of this bibliography)./p Biographical Archives listed below are held in microfiche format in the Microform Reading Room MicRR (with some exceptions): Arabisch-Islamisches Biographisches Archiv (AIBA)/Arab-Islamic Biographical Archive (1994-2002) Microfiche 97/3 (D) MicRR Archivio Biografico Italiano sino al 2001 (ABI IV)/Italienisches Biographisches Archiv bis 2001/Italian Biographical Archive to 2001 (2002-2004) Microfiche 2000/1 MicRR

Biographisches Archiv der Antike (BAA)/Biographical Archive of the Classical World (1997-1999) Microfiche 97/358 (P) MicRR Biographisches Archiv der Sowjetunion (1917-1991) (BASU)/Biographical Archive of the Soviet Union (1917-1991) (2000-2003) Microfiche 2004/4 MicRR Ceský Biografický archív a Slovenský biografický archív (CSBA)/Tschechisches und Slowakisches Biographisches Archiv/Czech and Slovakian Biographical Archive (1992-1997) Microfiche 97/16 (C) MicRR Chinese Biographical Archive (CBA)/Chinesisches Biographisches Archiv (1996-1999) Microfiche 97/359 (C) MicRR Deutsches Biographisches Archiv 1960-1999 (DBA III)/German Biographical Archive 1960-1999 (1999-2001) Microfiche 2001/20 MicRR Deutsches Biographisches Archiv. Neue Folge bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts (DBA II)/German Biographical Archive. A Sequel up to the Mid-Twentieth Century. Microfiche 90/8113 (C) MicRR Griechisches Biographisches Archiv (GBA)/Greek Biographical Archive (1998-2001) Microfiche 99/45 MicRR Indian Biographical Archive (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka) (InBA)/Indisches Biographisches Archiv (Indien, Pakistan, Bangladesch, Sri Lanka) (1997-2000) Microfiche 97/361 (C) MicRR Japanese Biographical Archive (JaBA)/Japanisches Biographisches Archiv (2000-2003) Microfiche 2004/7 MicRR Korean Biographical Archive (KBA)/Koreanisches Biographisches Archiv (2000-2004) Microfiche 2003/48 Korea Asian RR Russisches Biographisches Archiv (RBA)/Russian Biographical Archive (1997-2000) Microfiche 98/4 (C) MicRR South-East Asian Biographical Archive (SEABA)/Südostasiastisches Biographisches Archiv (1997-2000) Microfiche 98/5 (C) MicRR Südosteuropäisches Biographisches Archiv (SOBA)/South-East European Biographical Archive (1998-2004) Microfiche 98/40 (D) MicRR Türkisches Biographisches Archiv (TBA)/Turkish Biographical Archive (1999-2002) Microfiche 2000/4 MicRR Ungarisches Biographisches Archiv (UBA)/Magyar Életrajzi Archivum/Hungarian Biographical Archive (1994-1999) Microfiche 96/166 MicRR National Sources--United States. American men and women of science . Gcse Coursework Percentage? 12th+ ed.; 1970+ New Providence, NJ, R. R. Bowker.

Continues American men of science , 1st-11th ed., 1906-70, also in SciRR. Most recent edition is kept at SciRR Desk. With 16th ed., call no. changed to Q141.A474. American men and women of science. Dissertation? Editions 1-14. Cumulative index. Compiled by Jaques Cattell Press. New York, R. R. Bowker, 1983. 847 p. Q141.A47 1983 SciRR Desk American national biography General editors, John A. Garraty, Mark C. Carnes. New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.

24 v. Includes bibliographical references. CT213.A68 1999 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Includes indexes by subject, contributor, place of birth, and occupation. Contents: v. 1. Aarons-Baird--v. 2. Baker-Blatch--v.

3. Blatchford-Burnet--v. Essays? 4. Burnett-Clarke, Lewis--v. Multimedia? 5. Clarke, Mary-DaCosta--v. 6. Dafora-Dubuclet--v. Apache Creation Myth? 7. Multimedia? Dubuque-Fishbein--v. 8. Fishberg-Gihon--v. 9. Gilbert-Hand--v. 10. Handerson-Hofmann--v.

11. Hofstadter-Jepson--v. 12. Jeremiah-Kurtz--v. 13. Kurtzman-Lovecraft--v. 14. Lovejoy-McCurdy--v. 15. McCutcheon-Moskowitz--v. 16. Mosler-Parish--v. 17. Park-Pushmataha--v. 18. Philosophy Essay? Putman-Roush--v. 19. Rousseau-Simmons--v. 20. Multimedia? Simms-Stratemeyer--v. 21. Stratton-Tunney--v. 22. Tunnicliff-Welk--v. 23. Wellek-Wrenn--v. 24. Wright-Zworykin. American national biography. Supplement. Editors, Paul Betz, Mark C. Vocabulary In Descriptive? Carnes.

New York, Oxford University Press, 2002-2005. 2 v. Includes bibliographical references. CT213.A68 2002 MRR Biog and Electronic format. #8220;Cumulative index by multimedia, occupations and realms of renown.#8221; Bailey, Martha J. American women in science: 1950 to the present; a biographical dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, c1998.

455 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 429-431. Vocabulary In Descriptive? Q141.B254 1998 SciRR Bell, Whitfield J. Patriot-improvers: biographical sketches of members of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia, The Society, 1997-1999. 2 v. (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, v. 226-227.) Includes bibliographical references. Q11.P612 Vol.

226, etc. SciRR v. 1. 1743-1768. -- v. 2. Dissertation? 1768. Carwell, Hattie. Blacks in science: astrophysicist to zoologist . Hicksville, NY, Exposition Press, 1977. 95 p., [8] p. of plates. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 93-34. Appendix: List of Black inventors and inventions: p. 75-91. Crowther, J. Essays Listening? G. Famous American men of science. Freeport, NY, Books for Libraries Press, 1969. 414 p. Reprint of the 1937 ed.

Includes: Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Henry, Josiah Willard Gibbs, and Thomas A. Edison. Dissertation? Directory of experts and consultants in dissertation wallenpaupack science and engineering. 2nd ed. Woodbridge, CT., Research Publications, 1987. 2 v. (xxviii, 1990 p.) Contents: v. 1. Professional listings.--v. 2. Indexes. Distinguished African American scientists of the multimedia dissertation, 20th century. James H. Kessler, and others. With Sigrid Berge, portrait artist, and Alyce Neukirk, computer graphics artist.

Phoenix, AZ, Oryx Press, 1996. 382 p. ports. Gcse? Q141.D535 1996 SciRR Includes a chronological listing and one arranged by research area, as well as an index of names and subjects. Dissertation? Elliott, Clark A. Essays Skills? Biographical dictionary of American science; the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Westport, CT., Greenwood Press, 1979. xvii, 360 p. Includes bibliographical references.

Q141.E37 SciRR Desk Intended as a retrospective companion to American Men of Science , the multimedia dissertation, book provides major entries for nearly 600 scientists never included in AMS, and minor entries for some 300 others that were included. Appendices list names of the scientists by year of birth, place of birth, education, occupation, and field of science; in the last of bp oil spill study, these, an individual may be listed under more than one field. Elliott, Clark A. Biographical index to American science, the multimedia, seventeenth century to 1920. New York, Greenwood Press, 1990. xliii, 300 p. (Bibliographies and indexes in skills American history, no. 16) Q141.E373 1990 SciRR Desk Key to biographical sources: p. xix-xliii. Index of names by scientific field: p. 261-300. An individual may be listed under more than one field. Multimedia Dissertation? Supplements his earlier work with leads to information about some 2850 American scientists who died prior to 1921. Elliott, Clark A. Collective lives of American scientists: an introductory essay and a bibliography. In Beyond history of science; essays in honor of Robert E. Schofield.

Edited by Elizabeth Garber. Bethlehem, Lehigh University Press, 1990. Myth? p. Dissertation? 81-104. References (37): p. 88-90. Bibliography of bibliographies, indexes and collective lives of American scientists deceased before 1941: p. 90-104. Fortune. Great American scientists: America's rise to the forefront of world science.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1961. 144 p. Presents the principal advances in each of four fields--physics, chemistry, astronomy, and biology--over the bp oil spill case management, last four decades and provides brief sketches of 39 scientists (p. 119-130). Haber, Louis. Black pioneers of science and invention. New York, Harcourt, Brace World, 1970. 181 p. illus., facsims., ports.

Bibliography: p. 168-176. Benjamin Banneker, Norbert Rillieux, Jan Ernst Matzeliger, Elijah McCoy, Granville T. Woods, Lewis Howard Latimer, Garrett A. Morgan, George Washington Carver, Percy Lavon Julian, Lloyd A. Hall, Ernest Everett Just, Daniel Hale Williams, Louis Tompkins Wright, and Charles Richard Drew. Harris, Jonathan. Multimedia? Scientists in the shaping of America. Menlo Park, CA, Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1971.

142 p. illus., ports. (Specialized studies in bp oil spill case management American history series) Bibliography: p. 127-130. Cotton Mather, Benjamin Franklin, Louis Agassiz, Asa Gray, George Washington Carver, and J. Robert Oppenheimer and their participation in the forefront of the battles for an enlightened society. Hayden, Robert C. Multimedia Dissertation? 7 African American scientists. Dissertation Wallenpaupack? Rev. and expanded ed. Frederick, MD, Twenty-First Century Books, 1992. 171 p. illus., ports. (Achievers: African Americans in science and technology) Benjamin Banneker, Charles Henry Turner, Ernest E. Just, Matthew A. Henson, George Washington Carver, Percy L. Julian, and Shirley A. Jackson. Multimedia Dissertation? Herman, Kali.

Women in particular; an index to American women. Phoenix, AZ, Oryx Press, 1984. xviii, 740 p. illus. HQ1412.H47 1984 MRR Biog Includes sections on Medicine and Life Sciences (p. 291-321) and Physics, Mathematics, and Earth Sciences (p. 379-382). Jaffe, Bernard. Men of science in America; the story of essay, American science told through the lives and achievements of twenty outstanding men from earliest colonial times to the present day. Multimedia Dissertation? Rev. ed. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1958. xli, 715p., [16] p. of plates. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 654-670. Jenkins, Edward Sidney.

To fathom more: African American scientists and lake inventors . Multimedia Dissertation? With contributions by Patricia Stohr-Hunt, Exyie C. Listening? Ryder, S. Maxwell Hines. Multimedia? Lanham, MD, University Press of America, 1996. 399 p. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.J46 1996 SciRR Jordan, David Starr. Leading American men of science . New York, H. Holt, 1910. 471 p., [17] leaves of plates. ports. (Biographies of leading Americans) Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford), Alexander Wilson, John James Audubon, Benjamin Silliman, Joseph Henry, Louis Agassiz, Jeffries Wyman, Asa Gray, James Dwight Dana, Spencer Fullerton Baird, Othniel Charles Marsh, Edward Drinker Cope, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Simon Newcomb, George Brown Goode, Henry Augustus Rowland, and William Keith Brooks. Kohlstedt, Sally G. Appendix: biographical directory of the AAAS, 1848-60. In The formation of the American scientific community; the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1848-60. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1976. p. 267-330. The first section, Leadership, provides biographical sketches, with bibliographic references, for 337 men. The lists of in descriptive essays, members and participating nonmembers which follow indicate only years of multimedia, activity in the AAAS and place of residence during all or most of that period.

Leaders in American science. 1st-8th ed.; 1953/54-1968/69. Essays Skills? Hattiesburg, MS., Who's Who in American Education, 1968. 681 p. National Academy of Sciences. Biographical memoirs . v.1+ 1877+ Washington, National Academy Press. ports. Includes bibliographical references. Each issue also has distinct title. LC set is incomplete. Noble, Iris. Contemporary women scientists of America. New York, J. Messner, 1979.

158 p. The first chapter, 20th century pioneers: seven scientists, summarizes the careers of Annie Jump Cannon, Gerty Theresa Cori, Florence Rena Sabin, Helen Brooke Taussig, Alice Hamilton, Edith Hinkley Quimby, and Rachel Carson, and dissertation is followed by essays on Margaret Mead, Joanne Simpson, Estelle Ramey, Charlotte Friend, Chien Shiung Wu, Dixie Lee Ray, Isabella Karle, Elizabeth Shull Russell, and Mildred Dresselhaus.. Oleksy, Walter G. In Descriptive Essays? Hispanic-American scientists . New York, Facts on File, 1998. 120 p. (American profiles) Includes bibliographical references. Q141.O42 1998 SciRR Sammons, Vivian O. Blacks in science and medicine. New York, Hemisphere Pub. Corp., 1990. 293 p. Bibliography: p. Multimedia? 26l-268. Q141.B58 1990 SciRR Desk Includes a list of names arranged by scientific field. Sherrow, Victoria. Great scientists.

New York, Facts on File, 1992. 148 p. illus., ports. (American profiles) Includes bibliographical references. Thomas Hunt Morgan, Albert Einstein, Robert Hutchings Goddard, Arthur Holly Compton, Linus Carl Pauling, Enrico Fermi, Robert Oppenheimer, and philosophy essay James Dewey Watson. Multimedia Dissertation? Siegel, Patricia Joan, and Kay Thomas Finley. Women in the scientific search: an American bio-bibliography, 1724-1979. Metuchen, NJ, Scarecrow Press, 1985. xvii, 399 p. Essays Skills? Z7404.S57 1985 SciRR Arrangement is by profession or occupation. Names of individual women are included in the index. Spangenburg, Ray, and multimedia Diane Moser. Apache Essay? African Americans in science, math, and invention.

New York, Facts on File, 2003. xviii, 254 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references. Q141.S6285 2003 SciRR Special Libraries Association. Science-Technology Division. Handbook of scientific and technical awards in the United States and Canada, 1900-1952. Edited by Margaret A. Dissertation? Firth. Philosophy Essay? New York, Special Libraries Association, 1956. xxiv, 491 p. Includes bibliographical references. For persons receiving awards during the years 1929-52, references to published biographical information are provided to the extent possible.

Who was who in American history--science and technology. A component of Who's who in American history. 76 bicentennial ed. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who, 1976. 688 p. Q149.U5W5 SciRR Desk Yost, Edna. American women of science. Rev. ed. Multimedia? Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1955. Lake Wallenpaupack? xviii, 232 p. Ellen H. Richards, Annie Jump Cannon, Alice Hamilton, Florence Rena Sabin, Mary Engle Pennington, Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Libbie Henrietta Hyman, Wanda K. Multimedia? Farr, Hazel K. Stiebeling, Florence B. Seibert, Katharine Burr Blodgett, and Margaret Mead. Yost, Edna. Modern Americans in in descriptive essays science and invention.

Drawings by Margaret Ayer. New York, F. A. Multimedia Dissertation? Stokes Co., 1941. 270 p. illus. Ezra Cornell, John Francis Appleby, Stephen Smith, Samuel F. Aqa English Gcse? Langley, John Brashear, Ambrose Swasey, William Crawford Gorgas, Harvey Washington Wiley, Elmer A. Sperry, George Washington Carver, Leo Hendrik Baekeland, Willis H. Carrier, Charles F. Kettering, Frederick G. Cottrell, Robert R. Williams, Vladimir K. Zworykin, and Emil Truog. Yost, Edna. Modern Americans in science and technology . New York, Dodd, Mead, 1962. 175 p., [8] p. of plates. ports. (Makers of multimedia, our modern world) Includes chapters on all but the first eight of the men treated in the earlier work and adds Enrico Fermi, Paul Allman Siple, Robert Hutchings Goddard, and John P. Hagen. Dissertation Lake Wallenpaupack? Yount, Lisa. Asian-American scientists . New York, Facts on multimedia File, 1998. Case Study Crisis Management? 112 p. (American profiles). Includes bibliographical references.

Q141.Y678 1998 SciRR Profiles twelve Asian-American scientists, including Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Paul Chung-wu Chu, and Constance Tom Noguchi. Yount, Lisa. Dissertation? Black scientists. New York, Facts on File, 1991. Myth Essay? 111 p. Dissertation? illus., ports. (American profiles) Includes bibliographical references. Daniel Hale Williams, George Washington Carver, Ernest Everett Just, Percy Lavon Julian, Charles Richard Drew, Jane Cooke Wright, Bertram O. Fraser-Reid, and John P. Spill Case? Moon. Yount, Lisa. Contemporary women scientists . New York, Facts on File, 1994. xv, 124 p. illus., ports. (American profiles) Includes bibliographical references. Helen Brooke Taussig, Maria Goeppert Mayer, Grace Murray Hopper, Chien Shiung Wu, Gertrude Belle Elion, Eugenie Clark, Jewel Plummer Cobb, Vera Cooper Rubin, Candace Beebe Pert, and Flossie Wong-Staal.

National and Regional Sources -- Other Countries (Selected) Académie des sciences, (France). Index biographique de l'Academie Des science,s du 22 décembre 1666 au 1er octobre 1978. Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1979. 513 p. Bibliography: p. 33-34. Includes chronological listings of the various categories of dissertation, members, foreign associates, and correspondents during the lake wallenpaupack, period 1795-1976. The biographical sketches indicate whether manuscripts and/or portraits can be found in the academy's archives. Arabisch-islamisches biographisches Archiv [microform]: AIBA.

München, K.G. Saur Verlag, 1995-2002. 63, 453, 44 microfiches. Alternative title: Arab-Islamic biographical archive. Dissertation? Reproduces a one-alphabet cumulation of the most important biographical reference works on the Arab world published between 1858 and 1993. A separate name index provides identifying information to individuals contained in the works. Australia#8217;s Nobel Laureates: adventures in innovation. Editor in chief, John Keeney. Roseville, N.S.W., ETN Communications for ABIE, 2004. 310 p. illus. (chiefly col.) Australian men and women of science, engineering and technology.

Port Melbourne, Vic., Reed Reference Australia; New Providence, NJ, R. R. Bowker, distributor, 1995. xxvi, 661 p. map. Q141.A78 1995 SciRR Produced in association with the Australian Academy of Science and the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. Includes an index to fields of specialization and an index to location, which is subdivided by gcse coursework, discipline. Bartke, Wolfgang. Who's who in the People's Republic of China . 2nd ed. München, New York, K. G. Saur, 1987. 786 p. ports. DS779.28.B37 1987 MRR Biog Includes a detailed index of occupations.

The list under the multimedia dissertation, heading Scientists also indicates the specialized field for each individual. The 3rd ed. (1991. 2 v.), also in MRR Biog, has no index. Beek, Leo. Dutch pioneers of science. Assen, Netherlands, Van Gorcum, 1985. 181 p. illus. (some col.), maps (some col.), ports. (some col.) Bibliography: p. 177-179. Bhatnagar laureates, 1958-91 . Compiled by Sushil Kumar and others. New Delhi, Human Resource Development Group, Council of Scientific Industrial Research, 1992. xxiii, 492 p. ports. Includes bibliographical references.

Biographies of 259 recipients of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, awarded annually to Indian scientists under 45 years of age for outstanding contributions in various fields. Contests? Capparoni, P. Profili bio-bibliografici di medici e naturalisti celebri italiani dal sec. XV al sec. XVIII . Dissertation? Roma, Istituto naz. medico farmacologico Serono, 1928-32. 2 v. ports. Includes bibliographical references. LC copy of v. 1 published in aqa english gcse percentage 1932 con correzioni ed aggiunte. Chattopadhyay, Anjana. Encyclopaedia of Indian scientists (from ancient to contemporary). New Delhi, Reliance Pub.

House, 1995. 272 p. Multimedia? ports. Crowther, J. G. British scientists of the nineteenth century. Essay? London, K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1935. Multimedia? 332 p., [13] leaves of plates. ports. Includes bibliographical references. Contents: Humphry Davy.--Michael Faraday.--James Prescott Joule.--William Thomson.--James Clerk Maxwell.

Crowther, J. G. British scientists of the twentieth century . Used? London, Routledge K. Paul, 1952. xiv, 320 p., [8] leaves of plates. ports. Includes bibliographical references. Multimedia Dissertation? Joseph John Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, James Hopwood Jeans, Arthur Stanley Eddington, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, and William Bateson. Deutsche Forscher aus sechs Jahrhunderten; Lebensbilder von Ärzten, Naturwissenschaftlern und Technikern. Leipzig, Bibliographisches Institut, 1965. 440 p., [20] p. of plates. ports. Diccionario histórico de la ciencia moderna en España . Por José M. López Piñero and essays others. Barcelona, Península, 1983. 2 v. (Historia, ciencia, sociedad, 180-181) Includes bibliographical references. Multimedia? Q141.D48 1983 SciRR There are indexes of names, organizations, and disciplines. The Dictionary of nineteenth-century British scientists.

General editor, Bernard Lightman. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2004. 4 v. (xxxix, 2256 p.) Includes bibliographical references. Florilège des sciences en Belgique . Apache? Bruxelles, Académie royale de Belgique, Classe des sciences, 1968-80. 2 v. illus., facsims., ports. (1 col.) Includes bibliographical references. Contents: v. 1. Pendant de XIXe siècle et le début du XXe.--v. 2. 1920-1980. Biographies in both volumes are grouped by scientific field. The second volume includes a section on Belgian winners of the Nobel Prize, as well as sections on the development of various sciences in Belgium. Multimedia Dissertation? Fondation Francqui, Brussels. Lauréats des prix Francqui, 1934-1968.

Bruxelles, Fondation Francqui, 1969. 239 p. ports. Entries for the 35 winners are alphabetically arranged and provide brief biographical data, as well as the text of the vocabulary essays, presentation of the prize. Dissertation? Published also in Flemish. France. Délégation générale à la recherche scientifique et technique.

Répertoire Des scientifiques franéais. Paris, Office national Des universites et écoles françaises, 1962-67. Vocabulary Used In Descriptive Essays? 5 v. Includes bibliographical references. Q145.F7 Cat Ref ASCD Contents: t. 1. Multimedia Dissertation? Mathmatiques pures.--t. 2. Mathmatiques appliques, mcanique, physique thorique.--t. 3. Biologie.--t. 4. Chimie.--t.

5. Physique. Gerrits, G. Listening Skills? C. Grote Nederlanders, bij de opbouw der natuurwetenschappen. Leiden, E. J. Dissertation? Brill, 1948. 518 p. illus., ports. Includes bibliographical references.

Hall, Alfred R. The Abbey scientists. London, R. Vocabulary In Descriptive? R. Nicholson, 1966. 72 p. Dissertation? illus., plan, ports. (The Memorials of Westminster Abbey) The 56 scientists buried or represented by memorials in the Abbey are discussed in a chronological narrative. A plan shows the location of their sites, and there is a name index. Histoire des sciences en Belgique de l'antiquité à 1815. Direction scientifique, Robert Halleux and others. Bruxelles: Crédit Communal, 1998.

463 p. illus. Spill Case Study Management? (some col.) Bibliography: p. Dissertation? 433-446. Histoire des sciences en Belgique, 1815-2000. Direction scientifique, Robert Halleux and others. Tournai, Renaissance du livre; Brussels, Dexia, 2001. 2 v. illus. (some col.) maps (some col.) Bibliography: v 2, p. 275-294. In celebration of Canadian scientists: a decade of Killam laureates. Editors: G. A. Aqa English Gcse Coursework? Kenney-Wallace, M. C. MacLeod, R. G. Stanton.

Winnipeg, Charles Babbage Research Centre, 1990. 319 p. Dissertation? ports. Introductory matter in English and French. Biographies of the 25 winners are in lake English or French. Indian National Science Academy. Biographical memoirs of fellows of the Indian National Science Academy. v. Multimedia? 1+ New Delhi, 1966+ Includes bibliographical references.

Continues Biographical memoirs of fellows of the National Institute of in descriptive essays, Sciences of India. Indian National Science Academy. Fellows of the Indian National Science Academy, 1935-1993 . Biographical notes. 2nd, updated ed. New Delhi, 1994. 2 v. (1020 p.) ports. Diamond Jubilee compendium. Arrangement is alphabetical, with chronological and broad subject indices. Irish innovators in science and multimedia technology. Essay? Edited by Charles Mollan, William Davis, and Brendan Finucane. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, Enterprise Ireland, 2002. xv, 256 p. ports.

Includes bibliographical references. Knoll, Fritz, ed. Österreichische Naturforscher, Ärzte und Techniker. Hrsg. Dissertation? im Auftrage der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wien, Im Verlag der Gesellschaft für Natur und Technik, 1957. 238 p. illus., ports. Dissertation Lake? Bibliography: p. 223-232. In three parts: Naturforscher, Mathematiker und Forschungsreisende, Ärzte und medizinische Forscher, and Techniker, Erfinder und Industrielle. Korotki narysy pro zhyttia i naukovu diial'nist' akademikiv ta chleniv-korespondentiv Akademiï nauk ukraïns'koï RSR.

In Istoriia Akademiï nauk Ukraïns'koï RSR. kn. 2. Kyïv, Akademiia nauk Ukraïns'koï RSR, 1967. p. 173-673. Includes bibliographical references. Kürschners deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender. Medizin, Naturwissenschaften, Technik.

17. Ausg. (1996). Berlin, New York, W. de Gruyter, 1996. Z6661.G3K87 MRR Biog SciRR Merged with Kürschners deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender. Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften, to form Kürschners deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender (18. Ausg. 2001+ (Z2230.K89)).

Continues in part Kürschners deutscher Gelehrten-Kalender auf das Jahr . (1. Jahrg. (1925)-16. Ausg. (1992) (Z223.K93)). Kvítek, Martin. Prukopníci vedy a techniky v Ceských zemích. Ilustrovali Ondrej Zahradnícek, Tomá#353; Rízek. Praha, Fragment, 1994.

64 p. col. illus., col. ports. (Edice Odkaz) Le Gal, Étienne, and Lucien Klotz. Nos grands savants: ce que tout Français doit en connaître. Préf. de Émile Picard. Paris, Librairie Delagrave, 1926. 281 p. (Bibliothèque des chercheurs et des curieux) Bibliography: p. 280-281.

Includes a list of the scientists discussed, arranged in five general categories: (1) mathematicians and astronomers, (2) engineers and inventors, (3) physicists and chemists, (4) naturalists, geologists, and archaeologists, and (5) physiologists, phoneticians, physicians, and multimedia dissertation surgeons. Lindroth, Sten, ed. Swedish men of science, 1650-1950. Translated from the Swedish by Burnett Anderson. Stockholm, Swedish Institute, Almqvist Wiksell, 1952. 295 p. Bibliography: p. 292-295. List of past scientists. In 30 years' review of China's science technology, 1949-1979 . Singapore, World Scientific, 1981. p. 274-301.

Short sketches of the lives and accomplishments of 86 Chinese scientists who died during the period 1949-79. Essays Skills? Líudi russkoi nauki; ocherki o vydaíushchikhsía deíatelíiakh estestvoznaniía i tekhniki. Matematika, mekhanika, astronomiía, fizika, khimiía. Pod red. I. Multimedia Dissertation? V. Kuznetsova. Moskva, Gos. izd-vo fiziko-matematicheskoi lit-ry, 1961. 599 p. illus., ports.

Includes bibliographical references. Apache Creation Myth? Mangin, Arthur. Les savants illustres de la France. Nouv. Multimedia? éd., entièrement refondue et augm. de plusieurs biographies nouvelles. Avec un appendice comprenant l'histoire abrégée de la science et des savants pendant les trois derniers siècles. Ornée de seize portraits authentiques, dessinés par M. Bocourt.

Paris, P. Essays Skills? Ducrocq, 1865. 524 p., [16] leaves of plates. ports. Mid-nineteenth-century scientists. Edited by John North. Multimedia Dissertation? Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1969. 190 p., [7] leaves of plates. illus. (The Commonwealth and philosophy essay international library.

Liberal studies division. Science and society, v. 4) Essays on Charles Babbage, Charles Darwin, James Prescott Joule, Hugh Powell, James Smith and Andrew Ross, Joseph Lister, and multimedia dissertation W. H. Perkin. Middleton, Edgar. M en who are shaping the future. London, J. Gifford, 1939. 238 p., [8] leaves of plates. ports.

Sir William Bragg, Sir Edward Mellanby, J. B. S. Haldane, Julian Huxley, Sir Joseph Barcroft, F. L. Hopwood, F. G. Banting, Sir James Jeans, Sir John Orr, Sir Frank Smith, Sir Arthur Keith, Lord Rayleigh, Sir F. G. Hopkins, Sir George Simpson, John Logie Baird, A. M. Low, and Edwin John Butler. Also notes the essays skills, essential contributions of the unknown soldiers of science. National scientists of the Philippines, 1978-1988 . Pasig City, Philippines, Dept. of Science and Technology, National Academy of Science and dissertation Technology, Philippines, published and exclusively distributed by Anvil Pub., 2000. 298 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna. Österreichische Naturforscher und Techniker. Wien, Im Verlag der Gesellschaft für Natur und Technik, 1951. 216 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 203-209. In two parts: Naturforscher und Forschungsreisende and Techniker, Erfinder, Industrielle. See also entry under Knoll, Fritz, above. Outside the square: inspirational science and tales of in descriptive, extraordinary Australians.

Foreword by Hugh Morgan; introd. by Robyn Williams. Parkville, Vic., Clunies Ross Press, 1993. 76 p. Dissertation? illus. (some col.), ports. (some col.) Winners of the Clunies Ross National Science Technology Award. Paul Trainor, Graeme Clark, Ewen Tyler, Mike Penny, Ralph Sarich, Donald Metcalf, Ern Dawes, John Gladstones, Bob Becher, Susan Serjeantson, Graeme Jameson, and Michael Rickard. Pakistan Association of Scientists and Scientific Professions. Myth? Scientists and technologists of multimedia, Pakistan, a directory . Karachi, 1966. Philosophy Essay? 367 p. Arrangement is by field of specialization, with a name index. Multimedia Dissertation? Parry, Albert.

The Russian scientist . Study? New York, Macmillan, 1973. 196 p. illus., map, Bibliography: p. 183-186. Includes chapters on Lomonosov, Lobachevskii, Mendeleev, Mechnikov, Pavlov, TSiolkovskii, and Kapitsa, and a section on the Soviet academy of sciences. Philippine men of science. A bio-bibliographical handbook of men and women in the field of science and technology. v. 4-5. Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila, Scientific Clearinghouse and Documentation Services Division, Science Promotion Institute, National Science and Technology Authority, 1983-85. 2 v. Each volume provides information about 50 individuals. Portraits in science. Compiled and introduced by dissertation, Ann Moyal. Canberra, National Library of vocabulary used, Australia, 1994.

203 p. ports. Bibliography: p. 200-203. Interviews with 12 Australian scientists. Profiles of African scientists . Multimedia Dissertation? 2nd ed., rev. and expanded. Nairobi, African Academy of dissertation lake wallenpaupack, Sciences, 1991.

661 p. ports. Q141.P76 1991 SciRR Arrangement is by country, with name and subject indexes. Robinson, Norman H. The Royal Society catalogue of multimedia, portraits. With biographical notes by Eric G. Forbes. London, Royal Society, 1980. Vocabulary Used? 343 p. ports. (some col.) N7635.R63 1980 SciRR Portraits of 176 individuals, nearly all of them fellows or foreign members. Royal Society of multimedia dissertation, London. Biographical memoirs of fellows of the Royal Society. Apache Creation Myth? v. 1+ 1955+ London, The Society. ports. Includes bibliographical references.

Continues the Society's Obituary notices of fellows , v. Multimedia? 1-9, 1932-5 (Q41.L8475). Crisis? LC set of the Biographical memoirs is multimedia dissertation incomplete. Russisches biographisches Archiv [microform]. Editor, Axel Frey. München, K. G. Saur Verlag, 1997+ . 539 microfiche. Microfiche 98/4 (C) MicRR and apache creation Electronic format. Multimedia Dissertation? Alternative title: Russian biographical archive. #8220;Consists of approximately 160,000 bibliographical entries for 75,000 individuals from the earliest times to skills, the end of the multimedia dissertation, dynasty of the aqa english gcse coursework, Romanovs in 1917.

Compiled from more than 150 source works published between 1827 and 1995. Schmidt, Marian. Dissertation? Hommes de science: 28 portraits. Paris, Hermann, 1990. 250 p. ports. A short biographical sketch appears at the end of each interview. Scientists face to face.

Edited by István Kardos. Creation? Translated by Inez Kemenes and others. Budapest, Corvina Kiadó, 1978. 400 p. ports. Multimedia? Based on television interviews with 18 Hungarian scientists, some of whom made their careers in other countries. Small portraits are reproduced on the inside front and back covers of the volume. Scientists in the Philippines. Manila, National Science Development Board, 1975-78. 2 v. Includes bibliographical references.

Each volume contains chapters on 10 scientists, all of apache myth essay, them deceased. Singh, Jagjit. Multimedia Dissertation? Some eminent Indian scientists. Delhi, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 1966. 131 p., [16] p. of lake, plates. illus., ports. Dissertation? H. J. Bhabha, J. C. Bose, R. Vocabulary In Descriptive Essays? C. Bose, S. N. Bose, S. Chandrasekhar, J. B. S. Haldane, D. S. Kothari, K. S. Krishnan, P. C. Mahalanobis, C. V. Raman, S. Ramanujan, and M. N. Multimedia Dissertation? Saha. Some nineteenth century British scientists.

Edited by R. Vocabulary Used? Harré. Dissertation? Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press, 1969. 259 p. illus., map port.(The Commonwealth and international library. Liberal studies division. Science and society, v. 5) Essays on Sir Charles Wyville Thomson and Sir James Murray, Arthur Cayley, Sir Francis Galton, William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Sir Norman Lockyer, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas, and Sir William Ramsay. Tibenskéy, Ján. Priekopníci vedy a techniky na Slovensku.

Bratislava, Obzor, 1986-1999. Coursework? 3v. Multimedia? illus., facsims., maps, ports. Bibliography: v. 1, p. 379-414; v. 2, p. 909-966. Turkevich, John. Soviet men of science; academicians and corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR . Princeton, NJ, D. Van Nostrand Co., 1963. 441 p. Includes bibliographical references. Essay? Who's who in science and technology in Nigeria . 2nd ed. Multimedia? Edited by apache myth essay, Adetunji Akinyotu and dissertation Adeboye Olatunji. Case? Akure, Federal University of Technology, 1994. xxix, 655 p. Who's who in Soviet science and multimedia technology.

Compiled by Ina Telberg. 2nd ed., rev. and enl. by Antonia Dmitriev and V. G. Telberg. New York, Telberg Book Co., 1964. 301 leave. Q127.R9W5 1964 SciRR Wiemers, Gerald, and Eberhard Fischer. Die Mitglieder von 1846 bis 1996: Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 1996.

227 p. ports. Errata slip with one portrait inserted. Portraits are accompanied by coursework, minimal biographical information--professional field and places and dates of birth and death. Zhong, Shizu. Ancient China's scientists. Multimedia? Hong Kong, Commercial Press, 1984. 111 p. illus. Q127.C5C55936 1984. Percentage? Contents: Lu Ban.-- Bian Que.--Cai Lun.--Zhang Heng.--Hua Tuo.--Zu Chongzhi.--Jia Sixie.--Bi Sheng.--Shen Kuo.--Li Shizhen.--Xu Xiake. Abstracting and indexing services that index relevant journal articles and other literature of a biographical nature are listed below. Please consult a reference librarian for the location and formation of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room.

America, History and Life (1964- ) Z1236.A48, Z1236.A484, Z1236.A485, Z1236.A486, Z1236.A488 and Z1236.A487 MRR Alc and Electronic Format. Applied Science Technology Index (1913- ) Z7913.I7 SciRR and dissertation Electronic Format. Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts (1969- ) Bibliography and Index of Geology (1933- ) Z6031.G4 SciRRgt and Electronic Format. Bibliography of Agriculture (1942- ) Z5073.U572 SciRR and Electronic Format. Biography and Genealogy Master Index (1975- ) Z5305.U5B57 MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format. Biography Index (1946- ) Z5301.B5 MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format. Biological Abstracts (1926- ) QH301.B37 SciRR and Electronic Format. Chemical Abstracts (1907- ) Current Biography (1940- ) CT100.C8 BRS and Electronic Format. Current Work in the History of Medicine.

Engineering Index (1884- ) Z5851.E62 SciRR and apache essay Electronic Format. Historical Abstracts (1955- ) D299.H5, D299.H512, and D299.H513 MRR and multimedia Electronic Format. Essays Skills? Mathematical Reviews (1940- ) QA1.M76 SciRR and Electronic Format. New York Times Index (1913- ) AI21.N44 and AI21.N45 MRR Physics Abstracts (1898- ) Q1.S3 SciRR and QC1.P46 SciRR and Electronic Format. Psychological Abstracts (1927- ) BF1.P65 and Electronic Format. Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- ) AI3.R48 BRS and Electronic Format. The electronic resources listed below may only be available at a large public or academic library. The Library of dissertation, Congress has subscriptions to these resources which are available to on-site researchers at the Library of Congress. Some titles may be available exclusively in electronic format, while others have components which are represented in book or microfiche formats. Consult a reference librarian for the location and dissertation lake format of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room. African American Biographical Database.

Includes Chadwyck-Healey's Black Biographical Dictionaries 1790-1950, obituary files, slave narrative collections, photographs, illustrations, and other sources. American National Biography. CT213.A68 1999 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Portraits of more than 17,4000 men and multimedia women from all areas and walks of wallenpaupack, life whose lives have shaped the nation. Biography Resource Center. Database of biographical information on more than 150,000 individuals from all parts of the multimedia, world.

The information is taken from standard biographical resources, many of which are also available in print format in the Library. Chambers Reference Online. CT103.C4 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Contains Chambers Biographical Dictionary (1997 ed. with amendments) Elektronische Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (E-ADB and E-NDB) is a database for German biographies. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. DA28.O95 2004 MRR Biog and Electronic format. An illustrated collection of 50,000 specially written biographies of the men and women who shaped Britain's past.

Proquest Historical Newspapers. World Biographical Information System. Current component indexes and archives include the philosophy, following, with more added yearly: American Biographical Archive (ABA Series I and II); Biographical Archive (ABEP Series I and II); Biographical Archive of the multimedia dissertation, Benelux Countries/Archives biographiques des pays du Benelux (BAB I); British Biographical Archive (BBA Series I and II); Archives biographiques françaises /French Biographical Archive (ABF Series I and II); Deutsches biographisches Archiv /German Biographical Archive (DBA Series I and II); Archivio biografico italiano/Italian Biographical Archive (ABI Series I and II); Russisches biographisches Archiv/Russian Biographical Archive (RBA); Scandinavian Biographical Archive (SBA I); and Archivo biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica/Spanish, Portuguese and Latin-American Archive (ABEP Series I and II). Component sources include Debrett's Peerage and wallenpaupack Baronetage, Debrett's People of dissertation, Today, Macmillan Dictionary of Women's Biography, Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women, Who's Who 2003, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Who's Who in Christianity, Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, and Who's Who in The Roman World. Lake Wallenpaupack? Journals that often contain biographical articles on scientists, or bibliographic listings of relevant books and articles, include: Most of the resources listed below provide bibliographies or list links to related sites from their web sites. It is also possible to multimedia, find sites using a search engine, such as Alta Vista, Google, or Yahoo to locate additional sites. Suggested terms for searching include: Internet Resources and dissertation wallenpaupack Biographical Sources, Scientists and Biographical Sources, Scientists and Biography and multimedia Bibliography, or the names of individual subject specialties and the term biography, or the names of individual scientists. Biographies PolySearch Engine. Biography resources: finding information on the famous, infamous, and obscure.

CRL News , January 2002, Vol. 63, no. 1. Essays? BUBL Link Catalogue of Internet Resources: Scientists. QD21.B67 1997 and Electronic format. Dictionary of Australian Biography. Multimedia Dissertation? Contains 1030 biographies of Australians, or people closely connected to Australia, who died before the end of 1942.

Components include Australian Medical Pioneers Index (AMPI), Bright Sparcs, and philosophy OzLife: Australian Biography Index. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. F1005.D49 MRR Biog and Electronic format. The electronic database provides access to the 14 volumes of dissertation, Dictionary of apache creation myth, Canadian Biography already in print and to multimedia dissertation, a selection of Canadian biographies from unprinted volumes. Dictionary of vocabulary used, New Zealand Biography. CT2882.D53, CT2882.D53217 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Contains over 3,000 biographies of deceased New Zealanders who have 'made their mark' on the country. The electronic database includes the multimedia dissertation, collected biographies originally published in the printed Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (CT2882.D53) series between 1990 and 2000, and in the parallel Maori-language series, Nga Tangata Taumata Rau (CT2882.D53217).

Updated occasionally. Distinguished Women of Past and Present. Listening Skills? Links to biographies of women in all fields of endeavor. Eric Weisstein#8217;s World of Science. Contains searchable full-text encyclopedias of astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, scientific biography, and physics. The Faces of Science: African Americans in the Sciences. Photographs, short biographies, and bibliographical sources on multimedia dissertation African American scientists. Galileo Project: Catalog of the Scientific Community in the 16th and apache myth essay 17th Centuries. Multimedia? More than 600 biographies of members of the scientific community during the 16th and 17th centuries with 20 searchable fields.

Internet Public Library: Biographies. Library of philosophy, Congress, Science Reference. Selected Internet Resources: Biography. MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: Indexes of Biographies of Mathematicians. Short biographies, some with photographs and references. NASA Astronaut Biographies. Multimedia? Includes photographs and used personal data. Links to biographies of astronaut candidates, cosmonauts, and payload specialists. New York Public Library: Research Guides: Biographical Sources: Selected Internet Sites.

Nobel Prize Internet Archive. Biographies of Nobel Prize winners, with links to other sites containing information. Obituary Daily Times. An index of published obituaries from across the world. SACNAS Biography Project.

Photographs, biographies, and some video of Chicano/Latino and Native American scientists, compiled by the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science. School Science Directory: Science Biography Resources. Smithsonian Institution: Selected Bibliography on African American Inventors. WWW Virtual Library for multimedia dissertation, the History of Science, Technology Medicine: Biographical Sources. Links to a variety of creation myth essay, biographical sources covering virtually all scientific disciplines.

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Poverty and Welfare in the American Founding. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. Did Americans before the 20th century lack compassion for the poor? Did they treat the poor with indifference or even cruelty?

That is the impression given by most high school and dissertation, college textbooks. Few students ever learn that government-funded welfare, not to mention generous private charity, has existed throughout American history. James MacGregor Burns’s Government by the People , a college textbook, says that “[c]ontemporary American liberalism has its roots in Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, designed to aid the poor and to aqa english coursework protect people against dissertation, unemployment and bank failures.”[1] He implies that the poor received no government aid or protection before the 1930s. Reinforcing this impression, Burns goes on to say that “American conservatism has its roots in the political thinking of John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and many of their contemporaries…. Most conservatives opposed New Deal programs and the War on Poverty in the 1960s…. Human needs, they say, can and should be taken care of by charities.”[2] Larry Berman and Bruce Murphy’s college textbook Approaching Democracy gives a similar slant: “While poverty has existed in vocabulary in descriptive essays the United States since the early colonial days, it first reached the public agenda in the early 1900s as a result of the writings of muckraking journalists.”[3] If poverty “first reached the public agenda” only then, readers are likely to conclude that government did nothing about it before that time. Multimedia Dissertation! Nothing in Berman and Murphy contradicts that conclusion.

Most history textbooks present accounts that are the same as or similar to the accounts given by these political scientists. These claims about the American past are either untrue or misleading. America has always had laws providing for the poor. The real difference between the bp oil case crisis Founders’ welfare policies and today’s is over how , not whether , government should help those in need. Neither approach has a monopoly on compassion. The question is: What policies help the multimedia dissertation poor, and what policies harm them?

Conservatives today sometimes make the same mistake that liberals make about America’s past. Reacting to what they regard as the dissertation lake wallenpaupack excesses of the modern welfare state, conservatives tend to assume that poor relief in early America was entirely private. They continue to echo Barry Goldwater’s statement in The Conscience of a Conservative , written before he ran for President in 1964: “Let welfare be a private concern. Let it be promoted by dissertation individuals and vocabulary used, families, by multimedia dissertation churches, private hospitals, religious service organizations, community charities and other institutions that have been established for this purpose.”[4] Goldwater apparently did not realize that the Founders would have rejected such a policy as heartless. Scholarly historians of welfare in America present a more accurate picture, but they too tend to dismiss the approach of earlier Americans, including the Founding generation. These historians are generally dismayed by the earlier distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor. They tend to present the essays skills earlier welfare system as either a well-intentioned or a mean-spirited failure. Michael Katz, for multimedia dissertation example, commenting on poorhouses, which were strongly endorsed by creation essay Thomas Jefferson, writes, “Miserable, poorly managed, underfunded institutions, trapped by their own contradictions, poorhouses failed to meet any of the goals so confidently predicted by their sponsors.”[5] In the standard history of multimedia, welfare in America, Walter Trattner writes that: [Early American observers] concluded that no one ought to used essays be poor, and dissertation, there was little tolerance for the able-bodied pauper.

The only cause of such poverty, it was assumed, was individual weakness…. [B]y the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Americans began to believe that poverty could, and should, be obliterated—in part, by allowing the poor to perish…. Percentage! Stereotypes rather than individuals in need dominated the dissertation public mind.[6] Trattner does not hide the ideology behind his judgments; at the end of the book, he enthusiastically endorses President Bill Clinton’s national health care and welfare proposals.[7] We will see that the dissertation wallenpaupack Founders would have something to say in response to Katz’s and Trattner’s harsh and misleading words. Jefferson and Franklin on Welfare. From the dissertation earliest colonial days, local governments took responsibility for their poor. Lake! However, able-bodied men and women generally were not supported by the taxpayers unless they worked. They would sometimes be placed in dissertation group homes that provided them with food and shelter in essays skills exchange for dissertation labor. Wallenpaupack! Only those who were too young, old, weak, or sick and dissertation, who had no friends or family to help them were taken care of in idleness. The Founders had little to say about the skills topic of poor relief. Like the family, welfare was not a controversial topic.

Two of their rare statements on the subject occur in writings provoked by foreigners: Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia , written in answer to questions posed by a Frenchman, and dissertation, an article criticizing the British welfare system written by wallenpaupack Benjamin Franklin for multimedia dissertation the British press. Jefferson explained the Virginia poor laws at the time of the Revolution: The poor, unable to support themselves, are maintained by an assessment on the tithable persons in their parish. This assessment is levied and listening skills, administered by twelve persons in each parish, called vestrymen, originally chosen by the housekeepers of the parish…. These are usually the most discreet farmers, so distributed through their parish, that every part of it may be under the immediate eye of some one of them.

They are well acquainted with the details and dissertation, economy of private life, and they find sufficient inducements to execute their charge well, in their philanthropy, in the approbation of their neighbors, and the distinction which that gives them. The poor who have neither property, friends, nor strength to creation myth labor, are boarded in the houses of multimedia, good farmers, to whom a stipulated sum is annually paid. To those who are able to help themselves a little, or have friends from whom they derive some succors, inadequate however to their full maintenance, supplementary aids are given, which enable them to live comfortably in their own houses, or in the houses of their friends. Vagabonds, without visible property or vocation, are placed in gcse percentage workhouses, where they are well clothed, fed, lodged, and made to labor. Nearly the same method of providing for the poor prevails through all our states; and multimedia, from Savannah to vocabulary used in descriptive essays Portsmouth you will seldom meet a beggar.[8] In his proposed Virginia “Bill for multimedia Support of the Poor,” Jefferson explained that “vagabonds” are: able-bodied persons not having wherewithal to maintain themselves, who shall waste their time in idle and dissolute courses, or shall loiter or wander abroad, refusing to work for reasonable wages, or to betake themselves to some honest and lawful calling, or who shall desert wives or children, without so providing for them as that they shall not become chargeable to a county. In the poorhouse to which vagabonds are sent, there would be an overseer, a “discreet man … for the government, employment, and correction of the persons subject to him.”[9] In the Notes on the State of Virginia passage just quoted, Jefferson referred to lake “those without strength to labor.” In his proposed bill, they were more precisely described as the “poor, lame, impotent [i.e., weak], blind and other inhabitants of the county as are not able to dissertation maintain themselves.”[10] The terms “tithable,” “parish,” and “vestrymen” in bp oil spill the passage above refer to the pre-Revolutionary Southern practice of assigning care of the poor to multimedia dissertation the local Anglican church. In keeping with the spirit of the Revolution, which separated church from state, Virginia transferred this task from church to listening county government in 1785, as Jefferson had proposed. Poor children whose families could not provide for multimedia dissertation them, including orphans, were put out to philosophy essay suitable persons as apprentices so that they would learn “some art, trade, or business” while being of use to those who were training them.[11] However, this was not to be done, in Jefferson’s plan, until they had attended public school for three years, if necessary at dissertation, public expense.[12]

All the typical features of early American welfare policy can be seen in listening skills Jefferson’s descriptions and proposals: The government of the community, not just private charity, assumes responsibility for its poor. This is far from the “throw them in the snow” attitude that is so often attributed to pre-1900 America. Welfare is kept local so that the administrators of the dissertation program will know the actual situations of the persons who ask for help. This will prevent abuses and freeloading. The normal human ties of friendship and neighborliness will partly animate the philosophy contests relationship of givers and recipients. Dissertation! A distinction between the deserving and philosophy, undeserving poor is carefully observed. Able-bodied vagabonds get help, but they are required to work in institutions where they will be disciplined. Children and the disabled, on the other hand, are provided for, not lavishly but without public shame. The homeless and beggars will not be abandoned, but neither will they populate the streets.

They will be treated with toughness or mercy according to their circumstances. Jefferson’s idea of self-reliance was in fact family reliance, based on the traditional division of labor between husband and wife. Husbands were legally required to be their families’ providers; wives were not. Nonsupporting husbands were shamed and punished by dissertation being sent to the poorhouse. Poor laws to contests support individual cases of urgent need were not intended to go beyond a minimal safety net.

Benefit levels were low. The main remedy for poverty in a land of opportunity was marriage and work. For Jefferson, the abolition of primogeniture and entail was a far more important anti-poverty measure than poor laws providing housing and dissertation, food for people in need. As Jefferson boasted to John Adams, “These [anti-primogeniture] laws, drawn by dissertation lake wallenpaupack myself, laid the axe to dissertation the root of the pseudo-aristocracy.” Laws restricting the use and ownership of private property were remnants of feudalism, whereby the common people were kept in their place by discouraging property owners from making the most economical use of the property they had or by making it hard for the poor to acquire property of their own. In America, said Jefferson, “everyone may have land to labor for gcse percentage himself if he chooses; or, preferring the exercise of multimedia dissertation, any other industry, may exact for vocabulary used in descriptive it such compensation as not only to afford a comfortable subsistence, but wherewith to provide for a cessation of labor in old age.”[13] When Benjamin Franklin lived in England in the 1760s, he observed that the dissertation poverty problem was much worse in that country than in America. Britain did not limit its support of the poor to a safety net provided under conditions that prevented abuse. There, the poor were given enough that they could live in idleness. The result was to increase poverty by giving the poor a powerful incentive not to become self-supporting.

Franklin wrote: I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion of the means. Vocabulary In Descriptive! I think the best way of multimedia dissertation, doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I travelled much, and I observed in different countries, that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer. Study! There is multimedia dissertation, no country in the world where so many provisions are established for them [as in England] … with a solemn general law made by the rich to subject their estates to a heavy tax for the support of the poor…. [Yet] there is no country in the world in which the poor are more idle, dissolute, drunken, and apache creation, insolent. The day you [Englishmen] passed that act, you took away from before their eyes the multimedia greatest of all inducements to industry, frugality, and sobriety, by dissertation giving them a dependence on somewhat else than a careful accumulation during youth and health, for support in age and multimedia dissertation, sickness. In short, you offered a premium for the encouragement of idleness, and you should not now wonder that it has had its effect in the increase of poverty.[14] We see in Franklin’s diagnosis a striking anticipation of today’s welfare state, in which, as we will see, poverty has remained stagnant as the essay welfare system has swelled since the 1960s.

Franklin’s understanding of the welfare paradox—that aid to the poor must be managed carefully lest it promote indolence and therefore poverty—was shared by most Americans who wrote about and administered poverty programs until the end of the 19th century. The Declaration of dissertation, Independence and the Obligation to Help the Poor. These were the essays listening skills Founders’ practical proposals and views on poor relief. Their policies were intended to help the multimedia dissertation poor in ways that did not violate the rights of taxpayers or promote irresponsible behavior. From Jefferson’s standpoint, poverty programs that help people who choose not to work are unjust.

Far from being compassionate, compelling workers to support shirkers makes some men masters and other men slaves: Workers are enslaved to nonworkers. That violates a fundamental principle of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson’s whole career was devoted to the establishment of a government that would secure the rights of ordinary people against “pseudo-aristocrats” who would oppress them. To say that all men are born with a right to listening liberty means that no man has the right to dissertation rob another of the vocabulary used fruits of dissertation, his labor. That principle goes for any person or group in society, whether it be European aristocrats, slaveholders, or those today who despise “dead-end jobs” and “chump change.”[15] (In a 2007 survey, only 5 percent of vocabulary used, jobless poor adults blamed their unemployment on “inability to find a job.”[16]) Jefferson affirmed his principled opposition to government redistribution of income from the rich to the poor in this statement:

To take from one, because it is thought his own industry and that of his fathers has acquired too much, in order to multimedia spare to aqa english gcse coursework others, who, or whose fathers, have not exercised equal industry and multimedia, skill, is to violate arbitrarily the first principle of association, the vocabulary used in descriptive guarantee to dissertation everyone the free exercise of wallenpaupack, his industry and the fruits acquired by it.[17] The “first principle of dissertation, association” is the right to liberty, including the right to the free exercise of one’s industry and its fruits. According to creation myth the Declaration of Independence, we have an unalienable or natural right only to those things that we possess by nature. We are born alive and free, so life and liberty are natural rights, but no one has a natural right to a decent income or free medical care. Jefferson’s opposition to transfer payments from taxpayers to the poor might be taken to dissertation mean, as libertarian law professor Richard Epstein argues, that “the basic rules of private property are inconsistent with any form of welfare benefits.”[18] Why, then, would Jefferson favor a government-funded safety net for the poor as he did? In John Locke’s language, the law of nature teaches not only self-preservation, but also the preservation of others when one’s “own preservation comes not in competition.”[19] Political society, which is organized for the security of its members’ lives as well as their liberty and aqa english coursework percentage, property, is multimedia, obliged to respond to those who are in need. Those who refuse to work may be compelled; those who cannot work deserve the community’s support. One might compare the in descriptive Founders’ conception of welfare to multimedia a social insurance policy. Even taxpayers benefit from the policy because there may come a time when they too need help. Epstein admits that welfare can be justified in such a view, but “benefits must be set low, perhaps uncomfortably low, in order to discourage perverse behavior undertaken solely to become eligible for myth benefits,” and he despairs that government could do so.[20]

Epstein seems unaware of early American welfare policy, for that is multimedia dissertation, exactly what Jefferson’s plan and Virginia’s practice achieved. Essays Skills! Support of the multimedia poor was therefore part of the Founders’ “liberalism,” but only on Jefferson’s terms: that is, on the terms of the working man’s right to liberty. Welfare Policy During and After the Founding Era. Jefferson’s and vocabulary used essays, Franklin’s views were shared by most Americans during and after the Founding era. Burns suggested in the quotation cited on multimedia, the first page of this paper that “conservatives” like Adams and philosophy, Hamilton opposed government support of the poor. He cites no evidence to support that insinuation because there is none.

As noted, Trattner’s From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America criticizes early American welfare policy, yet his book presents a mostly accurate picture of what was done. Dissertation! Trattner shows that the earlier policies have much to recommend them: “Most communities [in colonial America] attacked the essays listening skills problem of multimedia, poverty with a high degree of civic responsibility.”[21] The same is true, in his telling, of the Founding era and after. A historian of Founding-era welfare in New York State agrees: “Local communities attempted as best they could to assist their destitute neighbors, balancing compassion with economy, benevolence with discipline.”[22] In colonial times, some communities supported the poor in their own homes or in the homes of others. As the poor population grew, many concluded that “outdoor relief” was leading people to vocabulary look on welfare as an entitlement and multimedia dissertation, creating a class of permanent dependents. Consequently, the emphasis soon shifted to “indoor relief”—almshouses and workhouses. Now, writes Trattner: Public assistance would be confined to institutional care, mainly for the “worthy” or hard-core poor, the permanently disabled, and bp oil spill study crisis management, others who clearly could not care for themselves. Multimedia! Also, the able-bodied or “unworthy” poor who sought public aid would be institutionalized in workhouses where their behavior not only could be controlled but where, removed from society and its tempting vices, they presumably would acquire habits of gcse percentage, industry and labor.[23] The 19th century, notes Trattner, was “the great era of institution building.”

For most people such institutions were not places of permanent, or even long-term, residence…. They were … temporary shelters for the jobless during times of depression and widespread unemployment; maternity homes for young, unmarried pregnant women; and places of last resort for orphans and sick, helpless, and childless elderly persons…. [A]lthough they generally were dreaded, poorhouses often served as key life supports amidst the multimedia harshness and uncertainty of vocabulary used in descriptive, existence in multimedia early industrial America.[24] Because public aid was so limited, there was wide scope for individual acts of case, generosity and liberality. Today’s conservatives are right to point to dissertation private charities as an important source of poor relief in the old days. Lake! Even before the multimedia Revolution, writes Trattner: Private philanthropy complemented public aid; both were part of the vocabulary used in descriptive American response to poverty. While, from the outset, the public was responsible for providing aid to the needy … as soon as they could afford to, private citizens and a host of voluntary associations also gave generously to those in multimedia dissertation distress.[25] After the Revolution and vocabulary used in descriptive, throughout the 19th century, hospitals for multimedia the poor, educational institutions, YMCAs, and Salvation Army branches were established in growing numbers all over essay America by public-spirited citizens. Like the public workhouses, these private charities distinguished between deserving and undeserving poor. Good character, it was thought, would enable most people to become self-sufficient. These agencies tried to build the character of their recipients through education, moral suasion, religious instruction, and work.[26]

Marvin Olasky shows in dissertation detail in aqa english gcse coursework The Tragedy of American Compassion how 18th and 19th century Americans combined Franklin’s hardheaded realism about the ill effects of dissertation, indiscriminate generosity with a warmhearted sympathy for philosophy essay contests those who fell into need through no fault of multimedia, their own. Gcse! Private welfare was often given by multimedia religious groups, and recipients were expected to pray, worship, and essays skills, repent of the unindustrious habits and self-indulgence (such as excessive drinking) that often led them to multimedia seek assistance in the first place. Americans of that day believed that God himself set the proper example: His mercy is infinite—but only to the repentant who strive to mend their ways.[27] Let us step back for a moment and used essays, look at poverty from multimedia, a wider perspective. If we rank poverty and welfare policies in listening skills terms of quantity of money and material goods given to people who are poor, then today’s policies are far more effective than the dissertation Founders’.

Benefit levels are much higher, and myth essay, far more people are eligible for multimedia dissertation support. That is lake, what leads historians like Michael Katz to condemn the earlier approach as a failure. However, if poverty and welfare policies are judged by dissertation their effectiveness in providing for the minimal needs of the poor while dramatically reducing poverty in a society over time, then America before 1965 could be said to have had the most successful welfare policy in world history. By the same benchmark, post-1965 poverty programs have failed. Two centuries ago, most Americans—at least 90 percent—were desperately poor by today’s standards. Most houses were small, ill-constructed, and poorly heated and insulated.

Based on federal family income estimates, 59 percent of Americans lived in poverty as late as 1929, before the Great Depression.[28] In 1947, the government reported that 32 percent of Americans were poor.[29] By 1969, that figure had declined to 12 percent, where it remained for 10 years.[30] Since then, the percentage of poor Americans has fluctuated but has remained near the same level. As of vocabulary in descriptive, 2013, the poverty rate was 14.5 percent. In other words, before the huge growth in government spending on poverty programs, poverty was declining rapidly in America. After the new programs were fully implemented, the poverty rate stopped declining. The recipe for America’s enormously successful pre-1960s antipoverty program was: Establish free markets and protect property rights. Keep taxes and regulation at a minimum to encourage the poor to provide for themselves through their own work and entrepreneurship. Provide strong government support for lifelong marriage and for a morality of self-controlled self-assertion (a morality combining industriousness, self-restraint, and basic decency with the vigilant spirit that says “Don’t tread on me”). The self-reliant family was to be the nation’s main poverty program.

As the poverty program of last resort, provide minimal, safety-net public and multimedia dissertation, private support in local communities for the poor whose families were unable or unwilling to gcse provide for dissertation them. In the older America, most poor people were free to work or go into business without asking permission from government. Vocabulary In Descriptive! Low taxes and minimal regulation allowed them to keep most of the fruits of their labor. The stability of marriage encouraged men to meet their family obligations. Government officials, teachers, and writers praised the dignity of responsible self-support and condemned irresponsible dependence on government handouts. In the Middle Ages, a serf might have worked hard all his life, but much of what he produced went into the hands of a wealthy landowner. In most countries of the world, including America today, government regulation and licensing requirements often prevent the poor from entering and multimedia, competing freely in the market. Besides, much of what the working poor earn through their own efforts is taxed away to support those who do not work. In the 19th century, a few American intellectuals, typically influenced by European thinkers opposed to the Founders’ idea of essays, property rights, questioned the idea of individual responsibility.

By 1900, many intellectuals were turning away from the traditional American view that in a free country, frugal and dissertation, industrious conduct usually leads to an adequate living. Amos Warner, author of the influential American Charities (1894), wrote that unemployment, not shiftlessness and drunkenness, was the most frequent cause of poverty. Robert Hunter’s Poverty (1904), another important book of the Progressive Era, blamed unemployment almost entirely on “miserable and unjust social conditions.” Around the same time, Edward Devine, the essays listening skills editor of Charities, a leading periodical of the welfare reformers, said: “We may quite safely throw overboard, once and for multimedia dissertation all, the idea that there is any necessary connection between wealth and virtue, or between poverty and guilt.” The new solution: Increase benefit levels and eligibility and remove the moral stigma from poverty, whatever its cause.[31] Of course, the Founders had never claimed that all poverty was caused by bad character. Essay! Jefferson’s poor law had made a clear distinction between those who were able to work but preferred not to and those whose age or disability prevented them from working. The new approach tended to blame indiscriminately what later came to be called “the system” for poverty of every kind. In spite of this intellectual assault on traditional welfare policy, the Founders’ approach persisted—in modified form, to be sure—until the 1960s. Multimedia Dissertation! Contrary to common opinion, for example, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal modified but did not greatly change the older model. Social Security was originally sold as an insurance scheme in which workers funded their own retirement. Christopher Jencks explains how different was the original congressional conception of ADC (later renamed AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children) from today’s welfare:

When Congress established ADC in 1935, it thought it was subsidizing a set of state programs known as “mothers’ pensions.” These programs had been established to dissertation wallenpaupack ensure that indigent widows of dissertation, good character did not have to place their children in orphanages. Not all states explicitly restricted benefits to gcse coursework widows, but most states did limit benefits to mothers who could provide their children with a “suitable” home. Local officials usually interpreted this requirement as excluding unwed, separated, and divorced mothers, on the grounds that such women set a poor moral example for their children.[32] However, the multimedia 1935 law had been based on aqa english, a report written by bureaucrats in the Children’s Bureau who made sure that the language of the law would permit (although not require) states to give aid to divorced women and single mothers. Looking back on the episode, Frances Perkins, FDR’s liberal Secretary of Labor, said that: [She] felt that the Children’s Bureau had let her down…. She said it never occurred to her, in view of the fact that she’d been active in drives for homes that took care of multimedia, mothers with illegitimate children, that these mothers would be [eligible for aid].

She blamed the huge illegitimacy rates among blacks on aid to mothers with dependent children.[33] Perkins, like most other Americans at that time, accepted the older distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, a distinction based on moral conduct. State governments gradually loosened welfare eligibility standards and increased benefit levels during the 1940s and 1950s, but it was not until the mid-1960s that welfare was officially conceived as a right that could be demanded by anyone in need, regardless of vocabulary, conduct or circumstances. Poverty and Welfare Policy After 1965. Before 1965, most Americans believed that property rights and the marriage-based family were the most effective means to get people out of poverty. After 1965, government policy and elite opinion turned against the older view. In order to help the poor, government raised taxes on dissertation, the working poor. In the name of safety and environmentalism, it set up licensing requirements and regulations that make it harder for the poor to go into business building houses, repairing air conditioners, exterminating insects, fixing cars, or running a store or restaurant. Local governments set up building codes that were meant to guarantee safe dwellings and businesses but which deprive the aqa english coursework poor of inexpensive housing. Dissertation! Code requirements drive up the costs of new houses by tens of thousands of dollars.

Moreover, government routinely tears down poor people’s houses that are not “up to code” for defects as minor as peeling paint. The city of contests, Dallas, Texas, demolished over a thousand private homes between 1992 and 1995, most of them in low-income and minority areas, sending previous residents onto the welfare rolls or into the streets as homeless.[34] The most destructive feature of the multimedia post-1965 approach has been its unintentional promotion of family breakdown, which is a recipe for the neglect and abuse of children, the widespread crime that such abuse fosters, the impoverishment of women and children, and the loneliness and anguish of everyone involved. Among the skills reasons that people get married and stay married (or used to) are happiness, mutual usefulness, a sense of moral obligation, and the penalty of shame and the law for those who misbehave. Post-1965 policies and ideas have ravaged all four of these supports of marriage. Recent welfare policies have particularly undermined the usefulness of marriage for many women, at least in the short-term horizon in which people sometimes make such decisions.

Marriage makes possible an dissertation efficient division of labor for raising children and gcse coursework, providing for dissertation the care and livelihood of people of all ages. In the usual arrangement, the husband is the principal provider and protector, and essay, the wife bears and tends the children when they are young. George Gilder has explained better than anyone else the role of multimedia dissertation, welfare in family breakdown. Most women have a natural superiority to men in affairs of love and the heart, including especially the bearing and nurturing of bp oil spill study management, children. What, then, can a man offer a woman?

To put it bluntly, money and honor. Women rarely marry men who make less money than they do or whose social rank is below their own (unless the multimedia dissertation men have a good career in prospect), and women frequently divorce men who make less. Men and women often lose romantic interest in lake wallenpaupack each other when one of the multimedia partners cannot offer an equalizing contribution. When increasingly generous government support became widely available to women in in descriptive the 1960s, illegitimacy and dissertation, divorce grew dramatically. As Gilder writes, “Female jobs and welfare payments usurped the man’s role as provider, leaving fatherless families.” Welfare destroys the incipient families of the dissertation lake wallenpaupack poor by making the struggling male breadwinner superfluous and thereby emasculating him emotionally. His response is predictable. He turns to the supermasculine world of the street: drinking, drugs, male companionship, and multimedia dissertation, crime.[35] The incentive structure of the modern welfare state is similar to the one that Franklin condemned in old England, except that ours is more generous and more tolerant of single motherhood.

Since 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson inaugurated the used modern War on Poverty, total annual government welfare spending has grown from less than $9 billion (1.3 percent of gross domestic product) to $324 billion (5 percent of GDP) in 1993 to $927 billion (6 percent of GDP) in 2011.[36] Between 1965 and 2013, the government spent $22 trillion (adjusted for inflation) on means-tested welfare programs—more than three times the costs of all military wars in the history of the United States.[37] In 2013, there were roughly 80 different federal means-tested welfare programs.[38] Just counting seven large federal programs (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance; public housing; Medicaid; utilities; Women, Infants, and Children assistance; and dissertation, emergency food assistance), a single mother of two was eligible in 2013 for benefits that were the equivalent of a job paying $16.96 per hour in California, $18.27 in New York, and $20.44 in spill study crisis management Massachusetts ($35,287, $38,000, $42,515, respectively, per year). In California, the value of multimedia dissertation, this package of welfare benefits was only 8 percent below the median salary in aqa english coursework percentage the state; in New York and dissertation, Massachusetts, the value was less than 5 percent below the respective median salaries. Minimum-wage jobs do not even come close to competing with welfare in wallenpaupack most states. These figures do not take into account state, county, and municipal benefits. Nor do they take into account the dissertation massive use of Social Security Disability as a de facto welfare program (as of apache creation essay, 2005, 4.1 percent of dissertation, Americans between the ages of 25 and creation myth, 64 were enrolled).[39] In Hawaii, the equivalent in taxable income for the total value of these seven federal benefits was $60,590.[40] From the point of view of the usefulness of marriage, the choice of the poor to forgo work is, as Charles Murray writes, “the behavior of people responding to the reality of the world around them and making the decisions—the legal, approved, and even encouraged decisions—that maximize their quality of life.”[41] As Robert Rector and William Lauber have explained: The current welfare system may be conceptualized best as a system which offers each single mother … a “paycheck.”… She will continue to receive her “paycheck” as long as she fulfills two conditions: (1) she must not work; and (2) she must not marry an employed male…. [Welfare] has converted the low-income working husband from a necessary breadwinner into a net financial handicap.

It has transformed marriage from a legal institution designed to protect and nurture children into dissertation an institution that financially penalizes nearly all low-income parents who enter into it.[42] Despite the aqa english gcse coursework percentage successes of the 1996 welfare reform, the welfare system as a whole has grown since then. In effect, the 1996 reform altered only one program; other programs expanded as costs and participation rates increased. Requiring able-bodied adults to work in exchange for welfare makes welfare more burdensome, but it does not remove its attractiveness altogether. The government-guaranteed jobs and day care that such schemes often require simply make the multimedia dissertation money less convenient.

The basic problem—that government makes it affordable for women to bear and raise children without husbands while living independently in bp oil households of their own—is still there. If a society really believes that marriage is the best arrangement for multimedia dissertation the well-being of contests, men, women, and children, then its laws and multimedia dissertation, customs must reflect that belief seriously, consistently, and effectively. High benefit levels and bp oil management, irresponsible attitudes toward sex and marriage create a world in which many children have few or no ties to dissertation their fathers; in essays listening skills which mothers, increasingly unmarried, are more often abused and exploited; and in which many men join gangs and take up crime as a way of life. Dissertation! This is a world not only of financial poverty, but also of emotional chaos and physical danger. It is not Hobbes’s state of nature, but life is increasingly “nasty” and “brutish.” One cannot help being reminded of used essays, Benjamin Franklin’s final verdict on dissertation, the British welfare system—a system, he argued, that promoted poverty by coursework supporting people who chose not to work: Repeal that [welfare] law, and you will soon see a change in their manners. Multimedia! St. Essays Listening! Monday, and St.

Tuesday, will soon cease to be holidays. Six days shalt thou labor, though one of the multimedia dissertation old commandments long treated as out of contests, date, will again be looked upon as a respectable precept; industry will increase, and with it plenty among the lower people; their circumstances will mend, and more will be done for their happiness by inuring them to provide for themselves, than could be done by dividing all your estates among them.[43] The contemporary outlook on welfare has both propelled the family’s disintegration and promoted vast dependence. Amending its perverse incentives and deleterious effects on multimedia, the family would require reforms not only in welfare law, but also in essay contests family law, property regulation, and more. An analysis of these reforms exceeds the scope of this paper. Many today fail to note that antipoverty programs can easily have a corrupting effect if they are not set up in a way that promotes rather than breaks down the morality of self-restraint and dissertation, self-assertion that is a necessary foundation of what Jefferson called “temperate liberty.”[44] Both Jefferson and Franklin supported laws that encourage responsibility toward family and community, self-sufficiency, and industriousness. They understood that political liberty rests on the moral character of a people. —Thomas G. West, PhD, is Paul Ermine Potter and Dawn Tibbetts Potter Professor of Politics at Hillsdale College. Dissertation Lake! This essay is multimedia, a revised and updated version of chapter 6 of Vindicating the Founders, by Thomas G. Apache Myth! West. Copyright © Rowman Littlefield.

Used by multimedia dissertation arrangement with the publisher. Aqa English Coursework! All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or printed without permission in writing from the dissertation publisher. The author wishes to thank Arthur Milikh and gcse percentage, Tyler Thomas of The Heritage Foundation, who provided stylistic improvements and updates for post-1965 developments. [1] James MacGregor Burns et al., Government by the People , 15th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993), p. 196. [3] Larry Berman and Bruce A. Murphy, Approaching Democracy (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), p. 568.

[4] Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative (1960; reprint, Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. Dissertation! 68. [5] Michael B. Katz, In the dissertation Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 3. [6] Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America , 5th ed. Dissertation! (New York: Free Press, 1994), pp. 55–56. [8] Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (1787), Query 14, in Writings , ed. Merrill D. Listening! Peterson (New York: Library of America, 1984), p. 259. [9] Thomas Jefferson, “A Bill for Support of the multimedia dissertation Poor,” in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson , ed.

Julian P. Boyd (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950), Vol. 2, pp. 422, 420. [11] Marcus W. Essays! Jernegan, Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America, 1607–1783 (1931; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960), p. 188. [12] On Jefferson’s poor law, see Ralph Lerner, The Thinking Revolutionary: Principle and Practice in the New Republic (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 65–66. [13] Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to John Adams,” October 28, 1813, in Writings , pp. 1307–1309. [14] Benjamin Franklin, “On the Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” London Chronicle , November 1766, in Writings , ed. J. A. Leo Lemay (New York: Library of America, 1987), pp.

587–588. [15] Myron Magnet, The Dream and the Nightmare: The Sixties’ Legacy to dissertation the Underclass (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 47–49. [16] Lawrence Mead, “Making Welfare Work,” testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on apache, Ways and Means, U.S. House of Representatives, 113th Cong., 1st Sess., June 18, 2013, http://waysandmeans.house.gov/uploadedfiles/larry_mead_testimony_hr061813.pdf. [17] Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to Milligan,” April 6, 1816, in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson , ed. Albert E. Bergh (Washington: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. 14, p. Multimedia Dissertation! 466. [18] Richard A. Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp.

316–322. [19] John Locke, “Second Treatise,” in essays Two Treatises of Government , ed. Peter Laslett, student edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), sec. Dissertation! 6. [20] Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of contests, Eminent Domain , pp. Multimedia Dissertation! 316–322. [21] Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 28.

[22] Robert E. Aqa English Gcse Coursework Percentage! Cray, Jr., Paupers and Poor Relief in New York City and multimedia, Its Rural Environs, 1700–1830 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), p. 199. [23] Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 59. [26] Trattner’s first 75 pages tell the story of welfare in early America; cf. Katz, In the Shadow , and Benjamin J. Bp Oil Spill Study Crisis Management! Klebaner, Public Poor Relief in America, 1790–1860 (1952; reprint, New York: Arno, 1976). [27] Marvin Olasky, “The Early American Model of multimedia, Compassion,” chapter 1 in aqa english gcse coursework The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1992). [28] U.S. Department of Commerce, Survey of Current Business , Vol. 44, No. 4 (April 1964), p. 11 (percent of American families with less than $3,000 annual income in 1954 dollars).

This figure is comparable to the “below poverty level” numbers that the government began to report in 1947, because the below-$3,000 percentage in 1947 was 35, which is close to multimedia dissertation the 32 percent officially reported poor in that year. [29] Table B-17, “Number and Money Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals, 1947–63,” in Economic Report of the essays listening President Transmitted to the Congress, January 1965, Together with the Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), Appendix B, p. 210. [30] Table No. 730, “Persons Below Poverty Level and dissertation, Below 125 Percent of Poverty Level,” in United States Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1996 (Washington.: U.S.

Government Printing Office, 1996), Section 14, “Income, Expenditures, and Wealth,” p. 472. [31] Quoted in Trattner, From Poor Law to contests Welfare State , pp. 102–104. See also Robert H. Bremner, The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (1956; reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992), chapter 2; Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion , pp. 116–150. [32] Christopher Jencks, Rethinking Social Policy: Race, Poverty, and the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 2; cf.

Robert B. Stevens, Statutory History of the United States: Income Security (New York: Chelsea House, 1970), p. 152. [33] Quoted in dissertation The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak , ed. Essay Contests! Katie Louchheim (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), p. 175. George W. Liebmann discusses AFDC, unwed motherhood, and the case for maternity homes in “The AFDC Conundrum: A New Look at dissertation, an Old Institution,” Social Work , Vol. 38, No. 1 (January 1993), pp. 36–43.

[34] Craig Flournoy, “Man Sues City over philosophy essay Order to Raze Home,” Dallas Morning News , March 2, 1995, pp. A25, A27. [35] George Gilder, Men and Marriage (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1992), p. 80. [36] Robert Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State: 79 Programs and $927 Billion in Annual Spending,” testimony before the Committee on the Budget, U.S. House of Representatives, April 17, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2012/05/examining-the-means-tested-welfare-state. [37] Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “The War on multimedia dissertation, Poverty After 50 Years,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2955, September 15, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/09/the-war-on-poverty-after-50-years. [38] Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State.” [39] David Autor and Mark Duggan, “The Growth in Social Security Disability Insurance Rolls,” National Bureau of dissertation, Economic Research Working Paper No. Dissertation! 12436, August 2006, http://www.nber.org/bah/fall06/w12436.html. [40] Michael D. Tanner and Charles Hughes, “The Work Versus Welfare Trade-Off: 2013,” Cato Institute White Paper , 2013, http://www.cato.org/publications/white-paper/work-versus-welfare-trade. [41] Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy from creation, 1950 to 1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 162.

[42] Robert Rector and William F. Lauber, “A Conservative’s Guide to State-Level Welfare Reform,” in Making Government Work: A Conservative Agenda for the States , ed. Tex Lezar (Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1994), p. Multimedia Dissertation! 143. [43] Franklin, “On the Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” in Writings , p. 588. [44] Jefferson, Notes on the State of essays, Virginia (1787), Query 8, in Writings , p. Multimedia! 211. Author of The Political Theory of the American Founding, and the Paul Ermine Potter.

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1. Myth! What does it mean . to say that a perspective on personality is inherently deterministic? Give an example of multimedia a perspective we discussed in class that has, at its core, a deterministic worldview. Support your assertion by giving examples of how this perspective is deterministic. When a personality is inherently deterministic, it means that personality is pre-determined from. Humanistic psychology , People , Person 2472 Words | 5 Pages. Many psychologists whom deal with personalities feel that there are five basic dimensions of personality , which most people call . the aqa english gcse percentage, “Big Five Personality Traits”.

These traits are known to be Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and dissertation, Openness. Many times these traits are examined through questionnaires, surveys, and tests to essays, see exactly where a person stands. Agreeableness is a person that’s usually very cooperative, agreeable, and warm (Nelson/Quick). A person who usually. Big Five personality traits , Emotion , Neuroticism 803 Words | 3 Pages. “Is an multimedia, individual's personality determined by their biological nature or by their personal experiences (nurture)?” When . Vocabulary In Descriptive! personality is multimedia analysed within the bp oil spill case crisis management, psychological field, the emphasis is dissertation placed on the ‘individual’s characteristics, modes of thinking and apache, feelings’(Ribeauxamp;Poppleton,1978). With these three aspects that make up one’s personality differing in all individuals, it proves difficult to provide an all-encompassing definition of personality . Behavioural geneticists attempt to study. Big Five personality traits , Brain , Frontal lobe 2054 Words | 6 Pages. ? Chapter 14 – Personality Shared environmental influences Psychic determinism Id vs. ego vs. superego Ego defense mechanisms: . Multimedia Dissertation! regression, reaction formation, projection Freud’s five stages in order Oedipal and Electra Complexes Adler and striving for creation essay, superiority Inferiority complex Jung and collective unconscious Behaviorists Locus of multimedia dissertation control – Julian Rotter introduced the concept. To describe the in descriptive essays, extent to which we believe that reinforcers are and punishers lie inside our outside of.

Big Five personality traits , Developmental psychology , Julian Rotter 1894 Words | 6 Pages. Assignment 1: Personality Strayer University Kenneth Baez BUS322 January 25, 2013 Describe each of the ‘Big 5’ personality . traits. For each trait, provide an example of how it might contribute positively to multimedia, an individual’s performance. 1. Aqa English Gcse! Extraversion- A person that is extraverted is someone that is multimedia outgoing and full of philosophy contests life. Most people like to think of multimedia extraverts as those people in a social group that love to be the center of attention or outspoken.

According to Kendra Cherry, writer. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Openness to experience 792 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus . include: Constructing a coherent picture of dissertation lake wallenpaupack a person and his or her major psychological processes [1] Investigating individual differences, that is, how people can differ from one another. Investigating human nature, that is, how all people's behaviour is similar. Personality can be defined as a dynamic and dissertation, organized set of essays listening characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely. Big Five personality traits , Carl Jung , Consciousness 2080 Words | 6 Pages. the potential outcomes of these stress levels may be. What are the major sources of workplace stress and what effect can stress have on employees and . organisations? Personality What evidence is there that personality traits can predict performance at dissertation work? With reference to philosophy essay, the published literature consider whether personality traits are useful for predicting work performance.

Different approaches : 1. Nomothetic paradigm -individual differences can be described using predefined attributes. 16 Personality Factors , Big Five personality traits , Emotion 537 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Testing During the Hiring Process Personality testing is not a new topic. What is new is the ongoing shift in . mindset that has diluted the value of personality testing during the hiring process and dissertation, only finds a value in using personality testing after the candidate has joined the organization. This will be challenged by first providing a brief history on bp oil study, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and multimedia, reviewing the years of dedicated research that went into the development of the test. Essay! Second. David Keirsey , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Personality 1918 Words | 5 Pages. COL FELIPE B BEJAR JR MNSA RC #47 My Personality Profile I am 47 years old and born on . January 05. I am happily married with two children both living on their own with their respective husbands. My ambition since child was to become a teacher which was influenced by my high regards to my mentors looking at them as having so much knowledge and wisdom to impart to their students.

The childhood ambition was derailed due to multimedia, financial considerations. Military , Military academy , Personality 1392 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality Development Paper Personality can be defined as the characteristic feelings, thoughts, and used essays, behaviors that . contribute to a person’s individuality. Dissertation! Healthy personality development is dependent on essay contests, certain traits reliant on multimedia, gene environment interactions, cultural influences, temperament, cognitive, and emotional attributes. Psychological observations, such as twin studies aim to understand how these attributes impact development and the consistency of these characteristics. The theory. Emotion , Nature versus nurture , Neuroticism 1247 Words | 4 Pages. negative. Myth Essay! Section 2: Application of Personality Theory Theory Description and Rationale The explanation of personality based . on basic thinking and multimedia dissertation, cognitive capacities is what defines the social-cognitive theory. Bp Oil Case Study Management! To utilize this theory one must look at the beliefs, goals, and standards, the multimedia dissertation, competency to perform these behaviors, and gcse coursework percentage, relate them to the uniqueness and multimedia dissertation, coherence of personality (Pervin, Cervone and aqa english, Oliver, 2005).

The theory also believes personality is based on social learning by observation. Child abuse , Child sexual abuse , Motivation 2273 Words | 7 Pages. Personality Reflection Using the textbook, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, answer the following questions. . Multimedia Dissertation! Your responses to each question will vary but overall should be 700- to 1,050-words in length. Listening! 1. How would you define personality ? Personality is a set of dissertation unique and vocabulary essays, ever changing qualities and traits that define an individual. Each individual’s biological makeup, experiences, and multimedia, environment create qualities and traits that define his. Assessment , Clinical psychology , Personality 911 Words | 3 Pages. create one’s personality . According to ManageTrainLearn.com, Personality is the mixture of relatively permanent personal . characteristics in the way a person constructs the world, acts in it and reacts to it. By taking a simple test you will be able to figure out where you fall on the personality spectrum whether you are an extrovert or introvert, sensitive or intuitive, whether you choose feeling over thinking, or if you are a judger or perceiver. After taking the Myers Briggs Personality test, I. David Keirsey , Extraversion and introversion , Feeling 1022 Words | 3 Pages.

Pre- Employment Personality Tests A Look In To an vocabulary essays, Employers Options Composition II 8/10/08 In today’s fast paced society employers are . trying all they can to ensure they hire the dissertation, right person for the job. After all “time is money” and turnover consumes a lot of time. One method some employers use to attempt to listening, find the right employee is using the pre-employment personality test. Multimedia! These tests use a series of questions to used in descriptive essays, determine what a prospective hire’s personality is multimedia like; which in turn. David Keirsey , Employment , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Personality Lab report – Notes: Definition of the Big 5 traits and vocabulary in descriptive, the 3 uses of music – introduction In the abstract, be as specific as . you can about the hypotheses. You might like to list the ones supported and the ones not supported.

The relationship between x and y, and a and dissertation, b, but not between c and d, were significant The procedure is very straightforward. In Descriptive Essays! 2 questionnaires (different classes probably did these in different orders) and data entered online Provide brief overview. Anxiety , Big Five personality traits , Correlation and dependence 999 Words | 5 Pages. ? PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT, TRAINING FOR ME . BUT DO I NEED IT? Personality Development quint essentially means enhancing . and multimedia dissertation, grooming one’s outer and inner self to bring about a positive change to your life. Each individual has a distinct persona that can be developed, polished and lake, refined. Dissertation! This process includes boosting one’s confidence, improving communication and language speaking abilities, widening ones scope of knowledge, developing certain hobbies or skills, learning fine etiquettes. Facial hair , Hair , Human hair color 1482 Words | 7 Pages. human being possesses a personality which makes the difference from other individuals, and it develops at every stage of life. Vocabulary Used In Descriptive! To understanding . the people’s personal qualities, their self-development, helping others, and how they behave to other people; leads to the understanding and unlocking of multimedia human personalities . In this world everyone has it own personality and some of apache creation essay them are the dual personality . Physical gestures also present the people’s personality , but the personality other aspects are a.

Carl Jung , Four Temperaments , Personality 1445 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Paper Tabitha Martin PSY/211 April 25, 2013 Alicia M. Pearson Abstract The study of personality has a . broad and dissertation, varied history in psychology with an essays listening, abundance of multimedia theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional trait perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, and philosophy contests, social learning perspective. Dissertation! However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and essays listening, instead take an eclectic approach. Behaviorism , Clinical psychology , Forer effect 1330 Words | 5 Pages. but overall should be 700- to 1,050-words in length. 1. How would you define personality ? I would define personality as . the as the general trend of how a person thinks and behaves.

It is dissertation a composition of aqa english gcse coursework percentage thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of every person. One can determine one’s personality through expressions. Multimedia! People are unique in their own ways, which would explain how individuals obtain their own personalities . Some people may be outgoing, happy all the aqa english coursework percentage, time, up at multimedia the crack of dawn and ready. Change , Mother , Person 749 Words | 3 Pages. Personality Reflections Personality Reflections Denise Murphy PSY/250 June 25, 2013 Personality . Reflections Personality is a very complex and different type of element based on dissertation wallenpaupack, scientific research to define individuals differently, which makes everyone uniquely different. Dissertation! To define personality I would say it consists of a group of psychological forces of science that individuals use differently, which helps them to apache creation myth, understand their unique way of living along with specific communication. Clinical psychology , Personality , Personality psychology 771 Words | 3 Pages. Nathan Good February 16, 2013 BUS 201 Dr. Swetnam Self Assessment Exercise #1 I completed the Keirsey temperament survey at www.keirsey.com and was . Dissertation! categorized as an ESTJ , or the essay, Guardian/Supervisor. The Keirsey survey uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

My results indicated I am more extraverted than introverted, more sensing than intuitive, more thinking than feeling, and more judging than perceiving. According to the results, ESTJ’s are “the Guardian type most driven to multimedia dissertation, show some type. David Keirsey , ESTJ , Keirsey Temperament Sorter 828 Words | 3 Pages. Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to spill case management, Personality. Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality Michael Mousaw University of Phoenix PSY/250 Sarah Jenkins . February 25, 2010 Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality The authors’ first question is, “What is a psychoanalytic approach to multimedia, personality ?” Sigmund Freud describes it as (1) a theory of the mind or personality , (2) a method of investigation of unconscious process, and (3) a method of treatment (Westen, 1999 pg57). With this. Human , Mind , Personality psychology 1163 Words | 4 Pages. Brand as a Person: You now have to decide what 'image' you want for philosophy, your brand. Image means personality . Products, like people, have . Multimedia Dissertation! personalities , and they can make or break them in skills the market place. - David Ogilvy A brand can very well be compared to a person.

Just like people a brand has a personality . Multimedia Dissertation! Starbucks’ is apache myth sociable, youthful, outgoing, and friendly. Multimedia Dissertation! A refreshing freshness, warmth, and comfort is demonstrated through their service interactions, their packaging, their decor. Big Five personality traits , Brand , Emotion 992 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction to Personality L. Percentage! Michelle Cloud University of Phoenix Introduction to Personality Every individual . person has a personality . This personality is also unique in every person, and is influenced by such things as the multimedia, environment and his or her genetics. Aqa English Percentage! Personality theorists use theoretical approaches when attempting to define and multimedia dissertation, understand personalities . Speculation, hypotheses, and taxonomy help bring together the facts about personality , and bp oil spill case crisis management, give one a better understanding. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Personality 1226 Words | 4 Pages. Ideas About the Determinants of Personality Kori Kline Personality Theory Penn State Capital Campus Personality . is a very broad term, and my belief lies in the idea that everyone has an independent view on multimedia, how they define personality . My views on philosophy essay, how personality evolves in multimedia an individual is vocabulary used based upon several influences. Dissertation! Influences such as heredity, cultural, social and essays listening, environmental factors, and personal choice all add to the relative impression of personality . In my own personal opinion, I. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Person 1305 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality tests are used to better understand how one is perceived by others in day to day interactions.

Although the questions asked seem . Dissertation! very random at contests times, they cover a wide range of topics to better evaluate the individual. Along with evaluating someone’s personality , the tests are also used to give suggestions of dissertation possible career fields that would best suit the individual. Myth Essay! After taking a few of multimedia dissertation these tests myself, I hope to philosophy contests, have a better idea of my personality and apply the results to my. Answer , David Keirsey , Personality 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction to multimedia, Personality Paper Katie McMichael Axia College of University of Phoenix November 26, 2012 Introduction Who am I? What . are my good qualities? What are my bad qualities?

Why do I behave like that sometimes? Why can’t I stop doing this? How do I see myself? How do others see me? How did my personality come to be what it is today? How has it changed? When thinking about our personality , these are questions that we ask ourselves. Management! The only way to answer these questions is to. Big Five personality traits , Personality , Personality psychology 1094 Words | 4 Pages. Gordon Allport’s Personality Trait Theory Counseling and Psychological Therapy Alcorn State University December 5, 2012 Abstract . The aim of dissertation this research is to explore Gordan Allport’s Personality Trait Theory and to discuss how his theory closely mirrors my personal beliefs as it relates to me becoming a professional School Counselor.

As we sit and look around us, we observe the great variety of dissertation lake personality traits among people. Multimedia! For instances, there are a lot of apache creation essay people who are very. Big Five personality traits , Neuroticism , Person 1716 Words | 5 Pages. Personality development theory This paper will serve as a fact sheet and will answer questions pertaining to the gene environment and . interaction influence personalities , personality expressions in cultures, twin studies, temperament, and the characteristics of constancy over a period of time. The term personality was originated from a specific place and multimedia, is exponentially more complex although there are some assumptions when developing theories on personality alone. Any type of behaviors that. Big Five personality traits , Biology , Genetics 1430 Words | 4 Pages. In this essay I will be looking at dissertation lake two aspects of personality and multimedia, the effect that personality traits have on behaviour within . Coursework! organisations. “ Personality is the overall profile or combination of traits that characterize the unique nature of a person” (Ray French). This is just one of many definitions for personality , however all definitions linked to multimedia, trait theory share the bp oil spill study crisis management, same key aspects, that personality consists of internal traits and characteristics that have an multimedia, effect upon a person’s behaviour. Big Five personality traits , Extraversion and introversion , Neuroticism 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Determinants of Personality Development;

Theory of personality development Introduction: Personality . refers to vocabulary used, the unique and distinctive characteristics which differentiate one person from another. There is presently, no generally agreed upon dissertation definition of personality , nevertheless, most people who have written on aqa english percentage, the subject view personality as an individual difference concept and a lifelong development process; Larry A. Hjelle and Daniel Ziegler J. C. ( personality theories. Emotion , Individual , Life 805 Words | 3 Pages. Review of Personalities and dissertation, Problems. Review of Personalities and Problems Ken Wolfe's Personalities and Problems is a good book that goes into depth about many . important figures in aqa english gcse percentage history. Dissertation! Each personality that is apache essay discussed has played a vital role in how the world has come to be and multimedia, how it is run; politically, religiously, and philosophy contests, even as far as explorations and trade is concerned. Wolfe depicts each personality very well and gives great examples of what each personality has accomplished in his/her lifetime. Each chapter is broken. Leadership , Person , Personality 1564 Words | 4 Pages.

Researchers have studied personality test for a long history. Dissertation! At one time, personality tests were not perceived as a valid . selection method. Bp Oil Crisis! However, personality tests are widely used and get generally positive conclusions today. (1) Reliability and validity In recent years, there are many researches focusing on the illumination of the value of personality tests as predictors of performance. In 2007, Morgeson, Campion, Dipboye, Hollenbeck, Murphy, and Schmitt cautioned that personality tests have very low. 16PF Questionnaire , Clinical psychology , Criterion validity 1735 Words | 6 Pages. Personality Reflection 1. How would you define personality ? Personality is qualities and/or . Dissertation! characteristics a person or individual possesses.

Personality in people is usually traits a person has or obtains in time to become someone. Your personality defines who you are as a person, sometimes your personality can show others where you stand in listening the world, where you are in the class system even. 2. What are some key personality features that define you? Some of the key features that. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , Personality , Personality psychology 844 Words | 3 Pages. My Personality and Learning Styleessay. My personality and learning style Even though personality types are usually referred to by their dominant traits, it is multimedia dissertation . important to bear in mind that these categories simply reflect a personal preference or the creation essay, condition of being predisposed, not a categorical absolute.

People may be referred to as “Extroverts” or “Introverts”, but in multimedia dissertation truth, we are all a little bit of both, and listening, have the potential to multimedia, take on different types of personalities at myth essay different times. Dissertation! Our personalities are, in real life. Decision making , Emotion , Extraversion and introversion 772 Words | 3 Pages. ? PERSONALITY Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an . individual. Some ideas in the psychological and scientific study of essay contests personality include: Personality changes Personality development, the concept that personality is affected by various sources Personality disorder Personality genetics, a scientific field that examines the relation between personality and genetics Personality pathology, characterized by adaptive inflexibility. Big Five personality traits , Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory , Personality 1483 Words | 5 Pages. Personality Assesment Final Project. Personality Assessment Final Project Krista M. Multimedia! Dortch BEH 225 June 16, 2013 Tracy Doro-Krueger Personality Assessment . Final Project There are many people in aqa english gcse coursework the world today. Multimedia Dissertation! With each person comes a different personality and personality type. Creation! Each individual has different things that contribute to thier personalities and their attitudes. I recently had the multimedia, pleasure of interviewing a man names James R. Dortch Jr.

He is 27 years old about 5'7 and used in descriptive essays, weighs about 148 pounds. He is white non-Hispanic. David Keirsey , Mind , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1730 Words | 4 Pages. ? Team Personality Traits Dawn Borden , Gracie Reed Johanna Guedea, Megan Miller PSY/250 December 02, 2013 Anney Snyder . Team Personality Traits Team Personality Traits can be easily captured by five dimensions. These dimensions are called the Big Five. Dissertation! The Big Five consists of Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Instability, and Openness.

A combination of questions and answers provides information that determines which characteristics are associated with. Big Five personality traits , Conscientiousness , Neuroticism 1184 Words | 4 Pages. Character: Personality Psychology and School. Character is the summation of apache myth qualities, actions and tendencies which distinguish people from another. Eventually, our character is what we . do when no one is looking. Human personality should always be praised and no one should ever put anyone down for having a different kinds of multimedia personality . Essays Skills! It is truly just allowing people to be who they are unless they are in violation of other human’s rights. Multimedia! A part from essay, that, our character actually change based on the environment and it is different. 2002 albums , A Double Life , Boarding school 1411 Words | 4 Pages. Carl Rogers’ Theory of Personality.

Running head: PERSONALITY THEORY PAPER Personality Theory Paper Personality Theory Paper From the multimedia, theories . of apache creation myth essay Sigmund Freud to humanistic theories of personality , how one views others greatly influences how one sees the world and vice versa. Because the theories are so different—some suggesting that human nature is ill, evil, or bad, while others believe it is intrinsically good—it is easy to see why people’s views of others and the world are so different. However, each person has a single. Carl Jung , Human , Humanistic psychology 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Personality Analysis Melissa Ledom Psychology 405 May 31, 2010 Instructor Sarah Lind Personality Analysis . Introduction Psychologist in addition to multimedia dissertation, Philosophers have researched, studied, tested, and analyzed theories dealing with behavior and personality . Theories of bp oil spill case study management personality give understand of important factors, influences of multimedia personality development, plus underlying assumptions of traits, factors, influences, and many other affects. This paper will examine two theoretical. Emotion , Human behavior , Individual 890 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personality Analysis Personality Analysis The role personality plays in affecting situational . behavior in an individual is philosophy essay what makes him or her exclusive between others. That same exclusivity is what makes each person remarkable to multimedia, study and watch.

The same position of the essays, same two children like twins may have all the same inherent structure, but he or she will still have an individual personality to identify his or her own. The learning of personality is somewhat difficult and. Abraham Maslow , Human , Humanistic psychology 1392 Words | 5 Pages. ? Personality Dorentai Robinson PSY/211 11/16/2014 Pamela Lemons Personality is the combination of a person’s ways of thinking, . feeling and behaving that makes them different from everyone else. Granted there are some people who may seem to have the same personality , but rest assured that they are similar and have differences that make them unique from multimedia dissertation, others. Personality has four perspectives that describes the philosophy essay, different patterns in personality which allows an multimedia dissertation, individual to seem different from. Jacques Lacan , Personality psychology , Psychoanalysis 740 Words | 5 Pages.

UTILIZING THE TEAM CHARTER WITH PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES Utilizing the Team Charter with Personality Differences Marquita . Johnson University of Phoenix Utilizing the Team Charter with Personality Differences The personality portion of the Jungian 16 assessment revealed that I shared the same personality score with another team member which is ISTP. According to Jungian 16-Type Personality Assessment (2007), the dissertation lake, ISTP personality defines an individual, as observant, cool, unpretentious. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Neuroticism , Personality psychology 740 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: Personality Paper Personality Paper Shacena Dunn Psy/405 – Theories of Personality November 29, . 2010 Linda O’Connor Personality Paper The term personality has been heard throughout history. Each individual can give a description of their personality as well as her friends. What people fail to understand is personality is the most theorized and researched aspect of psychology.

Throughout the report the reader will be able to define personality , explain the theoretical approach. Behavior , Natural environment , Person 1044 Words | 3 Pages.

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chinese essay format FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by dissertation John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences.

With support from vocabulary used in descriptive essays, Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. Multimedia Dissertation! The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography.

Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the myth conditions and substance of country living, and multimedia the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series)

Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in gcse, Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an multimedia dissertation apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against case study management, images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in dissertation, an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and lake calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of multimedia dissertation, family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and dissertation lake the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the multimedia key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of gcse coursework percentage, traditional culture coexist within the same space.

Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in multimedia, the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of essays listening, Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the multimedia concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the dissertation Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings.

It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and multimedia dissertation through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to philosophy essay, render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of multimedia dissertation, government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the listening skills process of dissertation, urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to essays, take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to dissertation, us a set of dissertation lake wallenpaupack, visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of multimedia, Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . Bp Oil Study! In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of multimedia dissertation, Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of aqa english gcse coursework, radical changes in multimedia, China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to bp oil case crisis, the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by multimedia the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions.

Besiege the aqa english City by the Country (series) However, for multimedia dissertation peasant workers, the prospects for life and apache myth work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and multimedia their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the aqa english cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Dissertation! Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the essays listening skills taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life.

Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of multimedia, China’s social reality, and philosophy contests a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on multimedia dissertation, the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Dissertation! Beginning in multimedia dissertation, the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . Crisis! With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the dissertation center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of dissertation lake wallenpaupack, Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of multimedia, living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.

For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in vocabulary used, Chinese media and press. Multimedia Dissertation! They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. Lake! These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. Multimedia! At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. Aqa English Coursework! His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed.

From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No.

1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to multimedia, render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. Philosophy! He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of dissertation, time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of spill case crisis management, Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in dissertation, the coastal cities, and myth are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.

New Residences of multimedia, Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of vocabulary used in descriptive, departure for dissertation an understanding of the relationship between architecture and philosophy urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in multimedia, Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and coursework percentage peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of multimedia dissertation, Industry project refocuses our attention on aqa english coursework, the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.”

Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the multimedia labor and subsistence of the workers. Bp Oil! His images are intended to dissertation, call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. Listening Skills! While the images in dissertation, the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from spill case study, a rich variety of perspectives. Dissertation! Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the coursework relationship between the human body and multimedia work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of contests, social development and historical coincidences, modernization in multimedia dissertation, China is following a unique trajectory. Philosophy Essay! Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society.

The conflicting objectives and realities between the multimedia pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon apache creation myth essay the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and multimedia helplessness — with which the dissertation wallenpaupack workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the multimedia dissertation Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation. From the documentary works by essays skills these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society.

The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.