Essays about robert frost poetry
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book report diagram As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. Story Maps are graphic organizers that can be useful in helping a student analyze or write a story. This type of essays robert frost poetry, analysis is especially good for examining fables and folktales. Story map graphic organizers help the student identify the elements of the story and the theme or moral of the story. Some of the many elements of a story include the important characters (their appearance, personality traits, and motivations), the in blue, setting of the story (time and place), the problem faced by the characters, how the problem is approached, and the outcome. There are many types of story maps that examine different elements of the story (and reveal different structures within a story).
Some summarize the beginning, middle and end of a story. Some list the 5 W's: the who, when, where, what, and why of a story. Some list the essays poetry, title, setting, characters, the problem, the solution and the moral or theme of the story. Thesis? Some list a complex chain of essays, events that summarize all key elements of the story, in chronological order. Some, like a storyboard, are mostly pictorial, and illustrate the temporal research papers, major events of a story in chronological order. For a page on how to write a book report, click here.
This story map prompts the student to summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story. This story map prompts the student to about robert frost, summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story, with two extra cells for affordable, each (to list extra details). Robert Frost Poetry? This story map prompts the student to yo essay, summarize the place, time, characters, problem, and solution of a story. This story map prompts the student to summarize the title, place, time, characters, problem, solution and moral of a story. This story map chart prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, two major events, and the solution. This story map chart prompts the essays about robert frost poetry, student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, three major events, and the solution. This story map diagram prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the temporal database papers, problem, two major events, and the solution.
This story map diagram prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the about robert, problem, three major events, and penalty be reintroduced, the solution. This graphic organizer prompts the student to write about the characters, setting, and robert frost, events of a story. This graphic organizer prompts the student to review a book, summarizing the temporal database, book and writing their opinion about the text. This graphic organizer prompts the about robert poetry, student to review a book, summarizing the book and writing their opinion about the text. Make a book report wheel using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around. The student fills out the parts of the book report, including: Genre, Year Published, Setting, Main Character(s), Plot - Beginning, Middle, End, Problem or Conflict, and Message or Moral of Story. When you spin the wheel, the the parts of the book report appear, one at a time.
The student then answers the questions, Did you like this book? Would you recommend this book to a friend? Explain why. Make a reading log wheel for 8 books using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around. After putting the wheel together, the student follows the instructions on the front wheel and penalty should be reintroduced essay, fills out the reading log for essays robert, each given genre (type of book), including: Biography, History, Science, Animals, Science Fiction/Fantasy, Fables/Myths, Any Fiction, Any Non-Fiction. For each of the papers, 8 books, the student writes: Title, Author, Number of Pages, Your Rating of the Book, Date Completed. The student then answers the questions, Which book was your favorite book (and why)? Would you recommend this book to a friend? and Which book was your least favorite book (and why)? Print 4 different bookmarks. Each bookmark is a graphic organizer on which the student can write information about the book that is being read. Print 3 different bookmarks.
Each long bookmark is a graphic organizer on which the student can write information about the book that is being read. This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in about, which they can illustrate the housing essays, major events in a story in chronological order - 6 cells. This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in a story in chronological order - 9 cells. Poetry? This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in a story in chronological order - 12 cells. Story clock with three divisions. Affordable? Story clock with four divisions. Story clock with five divisions. Story clock with six divisions. A story star is a type of star diagram that can be used to describe the key points of a story or event, noting the 5 W's of the story: who, when, where, what, and why.
5 labeled petals around a main oval. A chart with 2 columns and 5 rows, labeled: Who, When, Where, What, and Why. 5 labeled options around a central oval. 5 labeled circles around a main oval. Book Impressions: Triple Draw and about, Write. Draw three of the major characters, scenes, or ideas from temporal research papers, a book you have read, and write about essays about robert each picture.
Or go to a pdf of the essay, worksheet. Books: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from poetry, three of your favorite books and write about each of them. Good Transition Words For Essays? Or go to robert frost, a pdf of the worksheet. Diagrams for writing paragraphs with a topic sentence, support details, and a conclusion sentence.
Use this form to write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and yo essay, plot summary.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for essays poetry, Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and in blue edmondson, constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for about, the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and menu thesis, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for frost poetry, the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of yo essay, C functions that are still active. About Poetry? This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is center where the C function pushes its results to be returned to essays robert frost the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an essays, offset relative to the top of the about frost stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the housing first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and essays robert, index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at essay in blue by john edmondson the top) and essays robert, index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and temporal database research papers, the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is about robert defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about yo essay, stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the robert frost running C function is by john always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to about robert frost poetry access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by center menu thesis, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to essays about robert poetry lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from in blue by john edmondson those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by essays about robert, the reference mechanism, implemented by research papers, the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in the API can throw an essays, error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in affordable housing essays, alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the about robert frost function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on yo essay the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to about robert poetry lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. Good For Essays? ptr is NULL if and essays robert frost poetry, only if osize is zero. When nsize is menu zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the essays frost poetry block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is database papers not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the robert poetry allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the temporal database allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the essays function to center menu thesis be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the essays robert frost poetry first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the database research papers number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and essays frost poetry, the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is research pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the essays frost called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the yo essay following protocol, which defines the about frost way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at papers index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in robert, the stack below the temporal database papers results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and essays, returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is essay edmondson left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to essays about robert poetry call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at for essays the top. About Poetry? If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the affordable housing result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only essays about frost, one element in center thesis, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on robert the top of the yo essay stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the essays frost error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the should essay semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Robert Frost Poetry? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is good transition words non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the essays about frost garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the center thesis current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of frost, dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in database papers, use by Lua by essays robert frost, 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the database papers step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for essays about, the step multiplier of the transition collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.
Returns the memory-allocation function of essays about robert, a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in yo essay, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is essays about defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the affordable essays value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in essays about robert poetry, its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for thesis, the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is essays about equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Essay By John Edmondson? Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an essays about frost poetry, actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is words for essays a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essays frost value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and by john, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the poetry given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to the death be reintroduced essay an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to robert frost an element outside the in blue current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at robert poetry the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to thesis a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and frost poetry, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is temporal papers a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the essays about frost poetry value at acceptable index index2 , following the in blue semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Poetry? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the essays indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Essays Frost Poetry? Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.
This function only essay by john, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the essays robert frost poetry chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of housing essays, memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for about robert frost, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in research, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto essays about robert frost poetry, the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to research papers destroy a thread.
Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in about poetry, Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and affordable, you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to about itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the center thesis table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is about robert poetry double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of words for essays, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the essays robert frost same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . Database Research Papers? However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the essays poetry original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of yo essay, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to about frost poetry the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of the death penalty essay, success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the poetry error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the death should essay, the stack.
Pushes a new C closure onto essays about frost poetry, the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. Transition For Essays? To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the about robert frost poetry C function onto yo essay, the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and poetry, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Penalty Should? A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is essays frost poetry not collected (as it was never created).
A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the edmondson string length. Pushes the essays poetry string pointed to yo essay by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an about frost, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Housing? The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack.
Pushes a number with value n onto essays about, the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto affordable, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at essays robert the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto in blue, the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the essays about frost main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of yo essay, a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at poetry the top of the stack. This function pops the temporal database papers value from the stack. Essays Poetry? The assignment is penalty should raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the essays chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Affordable? The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the about frost reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is menu defined as a macro:
Removes the essays frost poetry element at housing the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is essays about robert frost not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into penalty essay the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto robert frost poetry, its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the by john coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the about frost stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the the death should essay allocator function of a given state to about robert frost poetry f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at transition words the given index.
If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the essays stack. By John? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Essays Robert Poetry? It is affordable housing defined as a macro:
Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the robert frost poetry top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in yo essay, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for essays robert poetry, the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the essay in blue by john edmondson new elements are filled with nil . Essays About Robert Frost Poetry? If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. Yo Essay? All information about essays about robert frost poetry, a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the center thesis first argument to essays robert frost poetry every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch.
Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the the death penalty be reintroduced thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. About Frost? (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to good transition a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is essays frost poetry truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the the death be reintroduced actual value in about poetry, the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Good? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to essays robert frost the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at center menu thesis the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Frost? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to in blue by john edmondson convert the pointer back to its original value.
Typically this function is about used only for debug information. Equivalent to the death penalty be reintroduced lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. About Robert Poetry? If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an essay by john edmondson, index to an empty stack position). The types returned by essays robert frost poetry, lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in yo essay, lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and essays about robert poetry, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by temporal database research papers, the value tp , which must be one the about robert frost values returned by essay in blue by john edmondson, lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Essays About Robert Poetry? Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to affordable housing essays lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from essays about calling the yo essay writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and essays frost poetry, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the be reintroduced return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the essays poetry running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the essay in blue stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter.
A structure used to essays about robert poetry carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in center, a string, then source is about robert poetry that string. If the temporal database papers function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is about frost set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Yo Essay? Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.
Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about robert frost poetry, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about good, a function you push it onto the stack and start the essays about robert what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to center menu know in about frost, which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in penalty be reintroduced, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto essays about frost, the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the penalty should essay lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to essays about poetry lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Menu? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and poetry, so on, until the last active local variable). Affordable Housing Essays? lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and essays about poetry, returns its name.
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an words for essays, identification of the essays poetry activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto housing, the stack, and returns its name. Essays Robert Poetry? funcindex points to yo essay the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Essays Frost? For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for the death should, all upvalues. Type for frost poetry, debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the good transition value of essays robert, any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is in blue by john simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to frost call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the temporal database papers hook function. Essays Robert Poetry? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by housing, a bitwise or of the about frost constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is the death penalty should be reintroduced only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is about robert frost called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to yo essay the values to about frost be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is affordable essays about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is robert frost poetry executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to affordable housing essays zero. Sets the value of frost, a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the temporal research papers stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the about robert frost poetry value from the stack.
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. The Death Essay? It assigns the about frost value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the housing essays value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the frost primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments.
Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . Center Menu Thesis? All of these functions throw an frost, error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for affordable essays, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the essays about robert poetry string pointed to yo essay by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). About Robert Poetry? The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to essays the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value.
This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an essays robert frost poetry, extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Good For Essays? If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an about robert frost poetry, idiom to in blue edmondson use it in essays about poetry, C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Yo Essay? You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the essays poetry stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the temporal research papers final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at essays index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is center a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is about a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and words for essays, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in essays frost, the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for housing essays, mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of robert, numbers to essay by john edmondson select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to essays about go into should essay the error message.
Checks whether the function argument narg is essays about frost a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for the death penalty be reintroduced essay, t . Checks whether the about frost poetry function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is housing essays defined as the about robert frost poetry following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the given string. Center Thesis? It is essays poetry defined as the penalty be reintroduced essay following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. Essays Poetry? The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at essay edmondson the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in robert frost, C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and menu, pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the essays robert poetry metatable associated with name tname in yo essay, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by frost, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Essays? This function uses lua_load to load the poetry chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for the death should, userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the essays about robert final value associated with tname in good for essays, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on essays about the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to affordable housing the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is essays about robert poetry a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Center Thesis? Otherwise, raises an error. If the about frost poetry function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is yo essay absent or is nil , returns d . Essays About Frost? Otherwise, raises an penalty be reintroduced, error. If the function argument narg is essays about frost a string, returns this string. If this argument is transition words absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is about robert frost poetry not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. The Death Should Be Reintroduced? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an about poetry, error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to affordable housing essays a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the essays about string to penalty should be reintroduced actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and about robert frost poetry, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is menu a unique integer key. Essays Frost Poetry? As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Good Words For Essays? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the about poetry stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the essay in blue edmondson constant LUA_REFNIL . Essays Robert Frost Poetry? The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by the death penalty should, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and about robert, func is for essays a pointer to the function.
Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the robert stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the temporal database papers stack. Returns the robert frost name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an affordable housing essays, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the essays frost poetry type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the yo essay referred object can be collected. The reference ref is essays about frost also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the words for essays current position of the robert frost poetry control at level lvl in the call stack.
Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the transition function that called the essays frost running function, etc. This function is temporal database research papers used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in essays robert, Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ).
All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Database? Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of essays robert poetry, a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Essay By John? Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the about poetry Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to thesis Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to essays frost poetry provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is yo essay a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the robert frost default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Yo Essay? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in essays about frost, a non-specified way.
If you want to yo essay control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for essays poetry, pause . Temporal Database Research? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. Essays Robert? The level argument specifies how to be reintroduced essay get the essays frost error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of temporal database papers, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the essays frost poetry associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.
will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to should essay the first integer key absent from the essays poetry table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Affordable Housing Essays? Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the robert chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the good words error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. Robert Frost Poetry? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to menu the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is essays about a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the yo essay table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . Essays Robert Frost? In particular, you can use next(t) to yo essay check whether a table is empty. The order in essays about robert frost poetry, which the indices are enumerated is transition for essays not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for essays about frost poetry, or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to research papers a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the about next function, the table t , and nil , so that the housing essays construction.
will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of about frost, table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the the death penalty should essay table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . About Frost Poetry? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the temporal database research papers call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is essays a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the good for essays environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the essays about poetry running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table.
If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Essay Edmondson? In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). About Robert? In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the essay call as its result.
except that the about poetry above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the yo essay list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the essays robert poetry err function with the original error object, and database research, returns a status code. Its first result is the frost poetry status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of transition, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for frost, a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.
Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Temporal Database? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Essays About Poetry? The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the penalty be reintroduced values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the essays about robert frost coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Good? If there is any error, resume returns false plus the essays about robert error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and the death penalty should, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Essays About Frost Poetry? f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Transition For Essays? Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the essays frost error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. Center? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the about robert frost poetry new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is affordable essays a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component.
For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of essays robert frost, global a . This function can receive optional options after the good transition for essays module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by frost poetry, looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Affordable? If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for essays about robert frost, the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for yo essay, a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Essays Robert Frost Poetry? Otherwise require searches for temporal database papers, a Lua loader using the essays about path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Transition Words? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . About Poetry? If the loader returns no value and good transition for essays, has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Essays About Poetry? In any case, require returns the by john final value of robert, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in the death penalty should be reintroduced, luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the frost poetry value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is yo essay a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the about frost searcher will change each interrogation mark in center menu thesis, the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. Essays About Robert Poetry? So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for essay in blue, a loader as a C library, using the essays about frost path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to essay edmondson link the application with the robert poetry library. Temporal? Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to robert frost be used as the loader.
The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is transition for essays replaced by frost, an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to yo essay (and including) the first hyphen is robert poetry removed. The Death Should Essay? For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an essays robert frost poetry, all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for center, the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for about poetry, a C library for housing, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the about robert frost host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is by john edmondson a low-level function. It completely bypasses the about robert frost package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. Temporal Papers? libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and frost poetry, extension. funcname must be the good transition exact name exported by essays robert frost, the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to papers search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the robert frost poetry environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. Center Menu Thesis? To be used as an option to essays function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at center 0, as in C). Essays Poetry? Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at temporal papers position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the about robert frost __index field points to the string table. Transition Words For Essays? Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in about robert frost, a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and center menu, s expect a string.
This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to about poetry the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the affordable housing essays given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the about iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the yo essay n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the about poetry pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is center thesis passed as a sole argument. If the about poetry value returned by the death penalty, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is essays about no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Menu? The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the about poetry character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Yo Essay? %d : represents all digits. About Robert Frost Poetry? %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Essays? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Robert Frost Poetry? This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in temporal database research papers, a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of essays about robert frost poetry, characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the affordable housing essays octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character.
The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by frost poetry, single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of yo essay, letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to about robert %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by temporal, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in about, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of affordable, characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for essays about frost poetry, n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the database papers x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the about robert frost poetry string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at yo essay the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.
A ' $ ' at essays about frost poetry the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in essay, parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the essays about frost poetry subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is good words for essays captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the about poetry empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the research papers table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the essays about frost poetry length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the housing essays table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the essays robert frost space, if necessary. Returns the value of the essay edmondson removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of essays about poetry, table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort.
This library is an thesis, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the essays about robert arc cosine of good transition words, x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of essays robert frost, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of the death penalty essay, both parameters to find the poetry quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the essay in blue edmondson cosine of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and about frost poetry, e such that x = m2 e , e is an research papers, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of robert poetry, x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an temporal, interface to about robert frost the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in menu thesis, the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and robert, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers.
Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in essay, radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to essays frost set a default input file and center menu thesis, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors.
When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Essays About Robert Frost? When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the in blue file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the essays frost poetry default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in temporal research papers, read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
The call io.lines() (with no file name) is essays poetry equivalent to essay by john io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over frost poetry the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in housing essays, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an essays poetry, error message. The mode string can be any of the menu following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is essays about robert poetry erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is center thesis needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. About Poetry? This string is exactly what is the death be reintroduced used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to essays about robert write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and affordable, is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file.
This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the essays about frost program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Essay? Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Essays About Robert Frost Poetry? Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to center read.
For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. About? On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the the death should be reintroduced end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the essays about default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Essay? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of essays about robert frost poetry, file. Sets and gets the papers file position, measured from the beginning of the about robert frost file, to by john edmondson the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of essays about poetry, file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the database research beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the about robert poetry file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is good for essays buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an essays about poetry, appropriate size. Writes the affordable value of each of its arguments to the file . Essays About? The arguments must be strings or numbers. Good Transition? To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in about frost, Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and papers, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ).
Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to essays time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and by john, some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by about poetry, an operating system shell. The Death Essay? It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is frost available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for temporal research papers, code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the about frost error.
Renames file or directory named oldname to affordable housing newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essays frost poetry error. Sets the current locale of the transition words program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to essays about robert frost poetry change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the essay by john edmondson name of the new locale, or nil if the essays about robert request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the yo essay string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the essays poetry date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and yo essay, difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to essays about robert poetry avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and the death penalty be reintroduced, creating the file.) You still have to open the essays robert poetry file to use it and to database research remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the essays about functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and transition for essays, similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an frost poetry, interactive mode with the for essays user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and essays robert frost, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and yo essay, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the poetry caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by essays, the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. About Robert Frost Poetry? You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the database research current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and about frost poetry, so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the yo essay fields returned by about robert frost poetry, lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for thesis, what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. Essays About? If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the yo essay local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and about frost, C function locals). Returns the good transition for essays metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the essays about robert frost poetry name and affordable housing essays, the value of the upvalue with index up of the robert frost poetry function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Center Menu Thesis? Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the robert frost poetry hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is yo essay a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and about robert frost poetry, count . Housing? For line events, the hook also gets the essays about frost poetry new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the essay in blue by john edmondson return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the about robert frost function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Penalty Be Reintroduced Essay? An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is essays about frost provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the penalty should be reintroduced debug library. Essays About Frost Poetry? Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Center Menu? Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to essays poetry 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . Affordable? The script name is stored at robert index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and by john, so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Frost? For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Temporal Database? '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for essays robert poetry, its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Yo Essay? Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by essays poetry, assigning to _PROMPT . See the in blue by john edmondson next example: (The outer pair of robert poetry, quotes is for database, the shell, the inner pair is for robert frost poetry, Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the transition words program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and essays robert frost, the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in for essays, your machine. If lua is in essays about poetry, your PATH , then.
is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. Center? You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the about frost poetry extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the yo essay implicit variables of the for about frost, statement and for the repeat statement.
The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in words for essays, luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Essays Robert? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in good transition for essays, luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. About Poetry? There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the affordable essays new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from frost package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Essay In Blue By John Edmondson? Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Essays About Robert Poetry? Function lua_open was replaced by thesis, lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and about, nothing instead of the death penalty essay, luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. Essays About Robert Frost Poetry? (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Essays About Frost Poetry? Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the the death should be reintroduced essay, requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. About Robert Frost? It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources.
MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to yo essay, use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. Frost Poetry? However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to essay in blue by john edmondson, MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.
The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of about robert, your essay, along with the formatting of penalty be reintroduced essay, in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of essays poetry, your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to temporal database research papers, be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is poetry not a mandatory requirement, but it is by john edmondson recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting.
While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in robert poetry, the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks.
At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. Yo Essay? It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the about frost poetry, authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in center menu thesis, the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and about poetry, there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and essay in blue by john, has to be placed separately from a new line. Essays Frost? Quotation marks are not used in this case. Yo Essay? However, the about poetry, author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets.
Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into transition words all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children. Essays Poetry? Then came the yo essay, Sahibs from over the sea and essays robert frost, called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in transition words, MLA citations is essays robert frost used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the essays, statement of the author in essays, the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and affordable, omit the details that you do not need.
Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the essays about robert frost poetry, Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of words for essays, hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the about robert poetry, British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at temporal database research papers, the end of about poetry, essay.
To get detailed information about the temporal papers, formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to essays about, MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the the death penalty should be reintroduced essay, MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for essays about robert poetry professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in essays, writing and about poetry, formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for yo essay your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of robert frost poetry, your hard work.
Order you paper at menu, P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to essays about, the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in the death be reintroduced, writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the essays about robert frost, Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the should essay, best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in essays about, the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of temporal research papers, formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge)
There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and about robert frost poetry, a final outline that is submitted together with the yo essay, essay. Needless to say that both can be done in frost poetry, MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the good for essays, essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and essays about, conclusion are numbered in thesis, the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the frost, section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to the death should be reintroduced essay, have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to about robert frost, Enlarge)
The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is temporal database papers provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the about robert poetry, Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the good for essays, MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by essays robert their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by the death be reintroduced essay their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the essays frost poetry, book is the death penalty be reintroduced listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John.
Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author.
In cases when there are more than three authors of the essays robert, book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the good transition words, first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print.
Some books are published by about frost poetry organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Center Menu Thesis? When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the essays frost, name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Transition Words? Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. About Robert? Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of yo essay, newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the about robert poetry, following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Essays? Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in essays about robert, schools”.
The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. Menu Thesis? The month of publication has to about poetry, be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and good transition words for essays, July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of essays robert, P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the yo essay, URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to essays about poetry, be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition.
Some on-line sources may not provide all the the death should, above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. Essays Robert Frost Poetry? When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. Affordable Housing? 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Robert? Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of words, information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules.
Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the essays robert poetry, in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in in blue by john, the text by robert frost Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the center menu thesis, MLA footnotes and essays frost, endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of menu thesis, each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of essays about poetry, its sections.
MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. Database Research? All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and about robert frost, Conclusion .
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Amylase vs Starch vs Temp vs Buffers Lab Report. “Effects of Amylase reaction time when breaking down starch. ” Experiment Goal: The goal of our experiment was to understand the similarities in digestion by finding out how long it takes for the amylase enzyme, found in saliva, to break down our substrate, starch. Hypothesis: While understanding that starch is about poetry, broken down by our saliva (amylase enzyme) we predict that the higher the concentration of the enzyme the faster the yo essay, breakdown of the starch. Materials: Brightly colored test tube rack, kim wipes, beaker for about robert, trash 1. 5 ml microcentrifuge tubes. Test plate Micropipetters and tips DI water Buffer solution … 4. 5 to 8. 8 I2Kl (grams iodine) Starch solution Enzyme (amylase) 80 degree Celsius water (HOT) Floating test rack Procedure: While controlling the amount of starch and the amount of buffer we use with a pH of 5. 8, we want to investigate how changes in enzyme concentration affect reaction rates. First we put 500 ml of amylase from 0. 2% solution (provided by center Michael Bunch) into essays robert, an experimental tube.
We then put 3 drops of Iodine into temporal database research, a test plate (the color is brown). Need essay sample on Amylase vs Starch vs Temp vs Buffers Lab Report ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. While ready to essays robert frost, time our reaction, we added 250 ml of starch solution into the mixture of buffer and temporal database, amylase. The reaction had started instantly. We first timed the reaction at 20 seconds. At 20 seconds, we removed a 25 ml sample of the mixture and dropped it into one of the test sights of iodine. The color of the brown iodine turned immediately purple. Traces of purple in the iodine and amylase mixture indicate that the amylase did not have enough time to about robert frost, break down the starch completely.
We tried this pattern of every 20 seconds for up to three minutes. The amylase was not breaking down the starch. Because no reaction after too much time, we increased the amylase solution to 0. 5% and started our experiment over. After resetting our experiment back up we then made our solution of amylase and starch and started our timing intervals at 10 seconds. Good Transition For Essays. The color of the essays poetry, iodine was brown after only good transition 10 seconds. Essays About. This indicated that upping the amylase concentration to 0. 5% made the temporal, reaction faster, but not too fast. About. Since the reaction was too fast for temporal database research, complete observation we diluted the 0. 5% solution so that it could slow down the essays frost poetry, reaction time.
We tried a 200/800 enzyme to buffer or 0. 1% of the papers, 0. 5% solution. After mixing the solution and about robert frost, timing again we discovered that 10 seconds was still too fast and that the transition words, iodine was again brown. With another diluting solution in mind we diluted the 0. 5% dilution to a 100/900 ml solution and again after 10 seconds STILL TOO FAST. Another appropriation was made with a 60/940 ml solution, and to no surprise the reaction was still too fast. While running out of options we finally decided to try one last solution of a 20/980 ml solution and found that after 10 seconds the iodine was finally purple. We then kept timing with a 10 second interval, and at 20 seconds took another 25 ml sample and the starch was resolved and the iodine was then brown. While finding a way to slow down the reaction 10 seconds we found that a 20/980 or 1/50 enzyme to buffer it took 20 seconds for the amylase to about frost, break down the starch. Now with one more curiosity we tried a 10/490 solution and in blue by john edmondson, found that 10 seconds was purple, 20 seconds was purple, and that the starch was resolved at 30 seconds in brown iodine. Conclusion: In this part of the experiment we learned that our hypothesis was correct and that the about robert, concentration was extremely important and needed to be changed drastically with dilutions to be able to housing, see the effect in slow motion. PART II of enzyme vs starch experiment: After becoming quite good at essays frost, being able to test enzyme to starch solutions we were to by john, find out whether the pH of the buffer had an effect to the reaction time.
Hypothesis: With learning that the essays robert frost poetry, amylase concentration is a big factor in the experiment we predict that the pH will have the same effect and that the lower the pH the faster the reaction time. Procedure: With the same experiment set up and design we controlled the solution with what we left off and had a 10/990 enzyme to buffer solution, but changed the pH of the buffer. We then started out with a 4. 5 pH level and database research, started mixing and timing. We timed in 5 second intervals and found that the starch lasted for 20 seconds. Essays Robert. After learning that pH had a fast reaction time with an acidic pH level we decided to edmondson, try a base pH level buffer of 8. 8. Essays About Robert. We then set up our products the same as the others with a test tube with 490 ml of buffer, then adding 10 ml of amylase solution, then finally adding 250 ml of affordable housing essays, starch. We then started timing in 10 second interval. The reaction time of the starch breakdown was well past 4 minutes, so we decided to end this round of tests. With one more pH level to test, our hypothesis looked correct. With a 7. 4 pH level we used 20 second intervals with the exact same solution and found that it took starch a total of 4 minutes to totally break down. Conclusion: In conclusion to part II we discovered that our hypothesis was correct and that the more acidic the pH the faster amylase is able to frost, break down starch.
Part III of Amylase vs Starch experiment: With the new understanding of amylase, starch, and pH level reactions the papers, last variable we wanted to test was the essays about poetry, effect temperature had on yo essay, the reaction time. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that the hotter the water the faster the reaction time of starch breakdown. Procedure: Starting with 990 ml of 7. 4 pH buffer, 10 ml of enzyme, and 250 ml of starch floating in a floating test rack in a water bath of 80 degree Celsius heater water we let the experiment elements heat up for two minutes before we started mixing and timing our solutions. After letting the elements heat up we mixed our solution and started timing with 10 second intervals and found that once the starch was added to iodine the essays robert frost poetry, reaction was profusely purple. We timed until 4 minutes and discovered that the starch never broke down.
Conclusion: After running part III of this experiment we learned that our hypothesis was wrong, and actually acted the exact opposite. In Blue. Heat slows down the enzymes ability breakdown of starch immensely. We were unable to get the starch to essays frost, break down with so little time. The cooler the environment the faster the thesis, amylase enzyme is able to break down starch.
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Sweat drips onto my violin as we are filing into essays about frost the auditorium. I just arrived from a basketball game, I’m not nervous. However, that changes when I realize that I still have my basketball shoes on. Penalty Should Essay? And that I still have a plethora of edits to make in the newspaper room. And that I have three . As my thoughts drifted by with snapshots of scenes of the most memorable parts of about robert frost poetry my summer, I realized more fully than ever why I love engineering:
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58. Lessons from Failure Essay – Piano And I stand up, my dark blue dress cascading down my legs, the last note still echoing in about frost my ears. Then, a thunderous applause rattles every bone in my body. I bow.
It gets louder. Carnegie Hall. This was supposed to be a dream, seemingly unattainable. Yet, here I am. Looking bac. I never knew I’d find a second home. I guess it waltzed itself into my life the moment I timidly walked into the advanced journalism “pub,” sitting down next to the only other freshmen who had been accepted onto staff that year, a tall, ungainly-looking boy with a brilliant grin and a girl who looke.
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