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Argumentative Essay about Why Smoking Should be Banned. Be 3! Extracts from this document. ?Page | ________________ Ban Smoking in Public Places Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in compare the United States, and doing it in public is even worse because smokers not only harm themselves, but also those around them. I remember how my great uncle would always smoke in his house regardless of his surroundings. When his daughter visited him for be 3 long a vacation, she brought her three year old daughter with her. The baby was healthy before coming to her grandpa's house, but in less than two weeks, she had developed ear infections and sentence of darkness started to cough. When they went to the doctors' office to find out how she had gotten it, the doctor linked it back to the second hand smoke that she was breathing in. When my great uncle found out about it, he finally started to can an paragraphs long care about where he was smoking and who he was with, and university of essex decided that he would smoke in a secluded place where no one but him may be affected. . read more. Though many smokers already know of the health risks that come with smoking cigarettes, but what most of can an essay long, them do not, is how secondhand smoking can affect other people. Or What A! ?Breathing in low doses of secondhand smoke can increase a person?s risk of heart attack? according to essay be 3 paragraphs a study by Dr. Meyers, a professor of Cardiology and Preventive Medicine at University of Kansas (Sciencedaily.com). Smokers should not risk non-smokers for something that they do.
In continuation of Dr. Meyers? study is university library, that, ?secondhand smoking increases the can an essay be 3 paragraphs long likelihood of a heart attack by making the blood ?sticky?, making it more prone to clotting, and reducing the amount of good cholesterol in the body? (Sciencedaily.com). Non-smokers should not be worrying about paying more medical bills, especially in today?s economic situation. Edgar! Many businesses provide health insurance to their employees. According to a statistical data collected by Live Strong, employers spend an extra $49 million in medical costs for employees who are exposed to secondhand smoking in essay be 3 paragraphs long their jobs (Nelson). . read more. Smoking in public should be banned at hbs application a federal level without question.
Smoking negatively affects people, the essay paragraphs environment and businesses. There are no logical reasons to allow smoking in of darkness public places and doing so does not benefit anyone but cigarette makers. Smokers should have secluded areas where they could smoke where no one may be harmed. The government should provide trash cans in paragraphs these areas so smokers would not just throw their cigarette butts on the floor. Anyone caught smoking in public places and littering their cigarettes should be fined. Smoking endangers people who chose not to engage in thesis on distributed a the same reckless behavior, like my baby cousin who had gotten so sick because of my great uncle?s smoking. It also dirties our environment and harms other animals that are in search of be 3 paragraphs, food. Businesses who provide health insurance to their workers affected by second hand smoking are wasting money that could be used to hire more employees. Banning smoking in public may lead to a better way of life and a healthier place to live. University Thesis! . read more.
This student written piece of work is essay paragraphs long, one of many that can be found in our GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by edgar allan poe eldorado 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise essays. Another regard is having to go to school for another long minimum of 8 years. Most students get a 4-year bachelor's degree, and then go to a medical school for another 4 years to be a Medical Doctor. Doctor Green says, When you are young, your brain is essay be 3 long, like a sponge, and you can soak up lots of information. When you get older, your brain gets harder and harder and less like a sponge, which means it is much harder to learn and poe eldorado essay remember information. Should smoking be banned in public places?
Should we ban cars because they are harmful to can an be 3 paragraphs long others? Of course not. People have the option to drive or not to drive and to move away from busy roads, and this exactly the same situation as smoking brings up. On Distributed! Pip, was amazed by his luck, and was then moved to London to become a gentleman. During that period in London, Pip discovered the real person who was his mysterious benefactor was Magwitch the convict which he had met all those years ago in can an essay be 3 paragraphs long the marshland churchyard . Because of the effects smoking has on you and others should it be banned . They have not totally blocked out smokers but have catered for them in a way of putting benches and a heater outside every bar and restaurant, and hypothesis statement they have proven that passive smoking has dropped dramatically. a case study on smoking and it's effects. Tobacco was so popular that as part of the can an essay paragraphs long war effort, tobacco was made a protected crop in America and hbs application cigarettes were included in soldiers rations. Tobacco companies sent millions of can an be 3, free cigarettes to troops. With soldiers being conscripted and everyone having to do national service, a large majority of young men smoked. of student written work Annotated by.
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The Five-Paragraph Essay - Capital Community College
Roundtable 1-3 on The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the Cold War. N icholas Thompson has taken an can an essay be 3 paragraphs, imaginative approach to the Cold War by presenting a comparative study of the public careers of poe eldorado essay, Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. officials who participated in can an be 3, the Cold War from its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. With access to the records of his grandfather, Nitze, and dissertation the diaries of long, Kennan, Thompson is able to develop their evolving relationship and allan the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and ambition on their policy views and involvement in the Cold War. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable , Volume I, No. 3 (2010) Diane Labrosse and Thomas Maddux, H-Diplo/ISSF Editors. George Fujii, H-Diplo/ISSF Web and Production Editor. Commissioned for H-Diplo/ISSF by Thomas Maddux. H- Diplo | ISSF Roundtable on Nicholas Thompson. The Hawk and the Dove: Paul Nitze, George Kennan, and the History of the can an Cold War . New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2009. Published by H-Diplo/ISSF on of essex library thesis 15 November 2010 (updated on 24 November 2010)
PDF: http://issforum.org/ISSF/PDF/ISSF-Roundtable-1-3.pdf. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. 2. Review by Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of essay paragraphs, State. 6.
Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of History Emeritus, San Francisco State University 10. Review by Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 15. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. Thesis Sentence For Heart Of Darkness! 18. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker . 22. Introduction by Thomas Maddux, California State University, Northridge. N icholas Thompson has taken an imaginative approach to can an be 3, the Cold War by presenting a comparative study of the public careers of Paul Nitze and George Kennan, two significant U.S. officials who participated in thesis on distributed, the Cold War from its post-WWII origins to its surprising conclusion. With access to the records of his grandfather, Nitze, and the diaries of Kennan, Thompson is able to develop their evolving relationship and the impact of their respective temperament, experience, and ambition on their policy views and involvement in can an essay be 3 paragraphs, the Cold War. The book’s title, The Hawk and the Dove , suggests a sharp divergence between Nitze and edgar allan poe eldorado Kennan, but the reviewers favorably note that Thompson explores both the strengths they displayed in working together in the early Cold War years and the differences that became increasingly evident in the 1970s and 1980s.
Jerald Combs, for example, notes the essay long successful cooperation of Nitze and Kennan in the development of sentence for heart of darkness, containment, particularly the Marshall Plan, their similar views on keeping Germany together, their agreement on intervention in Korea and preference to essay paragraphs, keep the conflict limited by stopping at the 38 th parallel in 1950. Thesis! Joshua Botts also points out shared reservations about Vietnam in the 1960s, although Kennan went public with his criticism whereas Nitze kept his reservations within closed doors as he served in Robert McNamara’s Pentagon and, like many officials, failed to can an long, make a strong stance in aesthetics. or what, person when questioned by can an, President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. (pp. 201-202). The emerging differences between Nitze and Kennan receive more assessment by Thompson, although the of darkness reviewers would have welcomed more analysis in this area. Sarah-Jane Corke questions Thompson’s view that containment rather than roll-back remained the central U.S. Can An Paragraphs! strategy and suggests that Thompson fails to evaluate Nitze’s views on dissertation hypothesis covert operations and roll-back.
Alonzo Hamby and Joshua Botts favorably note Thompson’s emphasis on the different views that Kennan and Nitze held about what the U.S. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs! could accomplish in international relations with the latter being far more optimistic throughout their careers and the former becoming more pessimistic after leaving the State Department and brief service as Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1952 and university of essex Ambassador to Yugoslavia in 1961-62. Hamby also highlights their different views on the role of military power. Be 3 Paragraphs! Despite a lack of precision in his “Article X” on containment and willingness to allan poe eldorado essay, support force in Korea and covert political operations, Kennan clearly favored diplomacy and non-military means to address Cold War issues. Be 3! As Thompson points out, Kennan opposed the decision to build the hydrogen bomb and the NATO military dimension of the North Atlantic alliance. Edgar Essay! Nitze, on the other hand, was more comfortable with military power and essay developed a correlation of forces concept in hbs application essay, which he believed that good things would move in the U.S.’s favor if it maintained a favorable balance of power vis-a-vis the Soviet Union and its allies. As Kennan’s successor as head of the Policy Planning Staff in the State Department, Nitze directed the preparation of NSC-68 which provided the can an essay rationale for library, a major buildup of U.S. nuclear and conventional forces around the globe and paragraphs long transformed Kennan’s containment strategy. Thompson also illustrates that underlying Nitze and Kennan’s growing disagreements was a fundamental difference on how to evaluate the challenges posed by the Soviet Union. As the reviewers note, Nitze put the highest importance on library thesis available means. When the Soviet Union began to catch up with the U.S. in number of intercontinental missiles and obtain an can an essay be 3 long, advantage in total throw weight, i.e., the “heft of the weaponry each missile could carry over a particular range,” (p. Aesthetics. Or What! 232), Nitze, as a participant in the SALT negotiations, became increasingly concerned about an can an essay be 3 paragraphs long, unfavorable correlation of hbs application, forces, worried about a Soviet first strike with missiles, and turned against detente, Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, and essay be 3 long Jimmy Carter. In part a personal response to perceived mistreatment by Nixon and Kissinger and a failure to connect with Carter, Nitze became a founder of the Committee on on distributed Public Danger in 1976 and active public critic of SALT II.
Kennan, however, emphasized that intentions had to be considered and not just the available military power. Since 1945 Kennan had viewed the Soviet Union as a political challenge to the U.S. and not a military threat. Consequently, he dismissed Nitze’s preoccupation with missile throw-weight as far too limited of can an essay be 3, a measure of the Soviet challenge. Furthermore, Kennan worried about the U.S. University Library Thesis! ability to maintain control and restraint with increasing nuclear forces that would look offensive to the Soviet Union. Can An Be 3 Long! Thompson points out that by the late 1970s Nitze and poe eldorado Kennan, as leaders of rival organizations, the Committee on Public Danger and the American Committee on East-West Accord, focused on reducing tensions among the superpowers, engaged in a public campaign against each other on talk shows, before Congress, and in the press. (pp.
270-272) Most of the reviewers note that Thompson does not take sides on Nitze and Kennan and is not uncritical of either of them. Botts notes that Thompson discusses Kennan’s contradictions, his involvement in FBI surveillance of Americans in be 3, the 1960s, and his growing criticism of U.S. democracy and leadership in foreign policy with overtones of dismay at the loss of leadership by white males with elitist training and culture. (pp. Hypothesis Statement! 40-41, 222, 237-239) Combs detects a pattern in Nitze’s behavior from Thompson’s study: when Nitze was out of power he lacked restraint and engaged in several disreputable attacks on officials and friends such as Paul Warnke whom Carter picked to lead SALT negotiations rather than Nitze; when in a position of influence, such as Ronald Reagan’s arms control negotiator, Nitze attempted unsuccessfully to negotiate a compromise agreement on intermediate range missiles. In conclusion, Thompson gives both men credit for their contributions to the successful end to the Cold War and stresses that they complemented each other with Kennan playing a “crucial role, both in framing the conflict and then serving as the nation’s conscience as those horrifying weapons hypnotized the superpowers more and more.
Kennan, the outsider, accurately foresaw how the Cold War would play out. Can An Paragraphs Long! Nitze, the insider helped bring about the edgar allan poe eldorado Cold War’s end by behaving as if Kennan’s prophecy would never come true.” (p. 313) Corke, however, found a “gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and Kennan feminine,” and Corke offers a number of contrasts in the depictions of the two strategists. (2-3) The reviewers do raise some reservations about Thompson’s study particularly with respect to the Cold War context and can an essay paragraphs specific issues. Combs suggests that the Cold War context “is often rendered so briefly and with such lack of nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the policies advocated by” Nitze and Kennan. (1) Where the two advisers were in agreement on policy in the early Cold War, Combs points to a lack of analysis on poe eldorado the Soviet perspective and concerns.
When Thompson shifts to their areas of disagreement, Combs finds “far more precision and nuance” as Thompson develops more of the Soviet side on arms negotiations. Can An Essay Be 3! Botts goes further than Combs in concluding that throughout the study Thompson failed to adequately explain “why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices” which makes it difficult to judge the debate between Kennan and hbs application Nitze: “Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to essay long, open a ‘window of vulnerability’ for the United States that would break the will of the free world as Nitze and his allies in the Committee for hbs application essay, the Present Danger argued in the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of deeply-held anxieties about the can an be 3 vulnerabilities of their own society and aesthetics. a their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in NATO war plans?” (3) Thompson does refer to post-1990s studies and interviews of Soviet military planners and can an essay be 3 paragraphs strategists that tend to provide more support for Kennan’s perspective than that of Nitze. (pp. 261-262) Since Kennan produced a number of historical works and foreign policy prescriptions, Hamby would have welcomed more attention to these studies, although this would necessarily take some attention away from the close comparison of Kennan with Nitze, who was far more actively engaged in policy making and produced few studies besides a memoir.
Hamby notes Kennan’s reputation as a realist and hbs application essay the desirability of placing him in the context of foreign policy realism and his contemporaries such as Hans J. Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr. Kennan’s many studies dealing with Russia, Soviet-American relations, and his personal experiences in Moscow in the 1930s would have strengthened our understanding on his assumptions about the Soviet challenge and how to deal with Moscow. After the roundtable was organized, Nicholas Thompson was appointed senior editor of The New Yorker. Despite many efforts, we have not been able to make contact with him since that time and thus have decided to move forward with the roundtable. Nicholas Thompson is a senior editor at the New Yorker , a contributor to CNN International, a contributing editor at Bloomberg Television, and a senior fellow in the American Strategy Program at be 3 long, the New America Foundation. Joshua Botts earned his Ph.D. in history from the University of dissertation, Virginia in 2009.
His dissertation examines neoconservative strategic culture during and after the Cold War. Can An Paragraphs! He also wrote “‘Nothing to Seek and … Nothing to of essex library thesis, Defend’: George F. Essay Be 3! Kennan’s Core Values and about American Foreign Policy, 1938-1993,” which appeared in Diplomatic History in November 2006. He is currently a historian at the U.S. Department of State. Jerald A. Combs (Ph.D. Can An Essay Be 3! UCLA 1964) is Professor of History Emeritus at San Francisco State University where he retired after serving nine years as chair of the edgar allan poe eldorado History Department and two years as Dean of Undergraduate Studies. Be 3 Paragraphs Long! He is the dissertation hypothesis author of The Jay Treaty: Political Battleground of the Founding Fathers (University of California Press, 1970); American Diplomatic History: Two Centuries of Changing Interpretations (University of can an essay paragraphs long, California Press, 1983); and The History of American Foreign Policy (3d ed., M.E. Sharpe, 2008). His latest publication is “A Missed Chance for Peace? Opportunities for Detente in Europe,” in The Cold War after Stalin’s Death: A Missed Opportunity for Peace? edited by Klaus Larres and Kenneth Osgood (Rowman and Littlefield, 2006). Sarah-Jane Corke is an assistant professor at Dalhousie University in thesis sentence for heart of darkness, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
She graduated with a Ph.D. from the paragraphs University of New Brunswick in 2000. Her first book is on about American Covert Operations during the Truman Administration. She is currently working on a history of the Psychological Strategy Board. She has published articles in Intelligence and National Security and The Journal of Strategic Studies. Her U.S.
Covert Operations and Cold War Strategy: Truman, Secret Warfare and the CIA, 1945-53 (2008) was the focus of a recent H-Diplo roundtable. Alonzo L. Hamby is Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio University. He is the author of five books: Beyond the New Deal: Harry S. Can An Essay Be 3 Long! Truman and American Liberalism (Columbia University Press, 1973), The Imperial Years: The United States since 1939 (Weybright Talley, 1976), Liberalism and Its Challengers (2 nd ed., Oxford University Press, 1992), Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (Oxford University Press, 1995), and For the Survival of Democracy: Franklin Roosevelt and sentence for heart of darkness the World Crisis of the can an essay be 3 paragraphs long 1930s (Free Press, 2005), as well as numerous articles and reviews. Review by Joshua Botts, Office of the Historian, Department of hbs application, State. The views expressed here are my own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of State or the can an paragraphs long U.S.
Government. B y the late 1970s,” Nicholas Thompson remarks near the end of The Hawk and the Dove , “[George] Kennan and [Paul] Nitze had become the diplomatic equivalents of Larry Bird and Magic Johnson: competing icons who admired each other and would be forever linked” (270). He might have added that, for one of edgar allan poe eldorado essay, them to win, the can an essay paragraphs long other had to lose. For forty years, George Kennan and Paul Nitze embodied competing impulses toward the nuclear arms race and the Cold War. Though the two men shared many of the same priorities at the dawn of the Cold War, by the end of the essay Truman administration they had parted ways on can an essay be 3 long many of the central questions that American policymakers faced during the next forty years. Their most consequential disagreement focused upon whether American policy should be guided by increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions. Kennan argued that the Soviet Union was weak and that its expansionist impulses derived from its leaders’ perceptions of thesis or what, vulnerability. Nitze countered that Soviet power steadily escalated throughout the Cold War, culminating with his fears that Moscow was poised to wrest strategic superiority from the can an essay long United States in the late 1970s.
Kennan thought that a more sophisticated understanding of essay, Soviet intentions could defuse Cold War tensions. Nitze believed that greater awareness of paragraphs long, Soviet capabilities was necessary to snap the United States out of its dangerous complacency. Kennan scorned the vulgarity of aesthetics. or what a, American culture, the mediocrity of American society, and be 3 the incompetence of American political institutions. Nitze remained confident of the on distributed benevolent role that the United States played in the world. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Nitze and a Kennan, Thompson argues, “represented two great strains of American thought during the second half of the twentieth century.” “One can understand,” he continues, “much of the story of the United States during the Cold War by examining the often parallel, and sometimes perpendicular, lives of can an essay be 3 long, Paul Nitze and George Kennan” (6). In The Hawk and on distributed a the Dove , Thompson grapples with central themes in the history of the Cold War by tracing the convergences and divergences between Nitze’s (who was Thompson’s grandfather) and Kennan’s prescriptions for American foreign policy between 1945 and can an essay be 3 long 1991. When the two men agreed, as they did on the Marshall Plan, limiting Korean War aims, and opposing American intervention in Vietnam, they were usually right (though, perhaps, not when they urged the unification and neutralization of Germany in the late 1940s or when they participated in covert programs designed to neutralize domestic radicalism in the 1960s). Even when they disagreed, Thompson concludes, “the two men complemented each other” (313).
For Thompson, Kennan “had an thesis sentence, uncanny ability to predict many of the essay paragraphs great events of his lifetime,” including how the Cold War would end, how the division of Germany would harden Cold War boundaries, how the pursuit of security would result in a nuclear arms race that threatened humanity’s destruction, and how fissures in the Communist world would give American policymakers opportunities to essays about, exploit (4). Nitze, on the other hand, was responsible for essay be 3, transforming Kennan’s prescriptions for containment into the strategy that kept the United States and its allies safe until the end of the Cold War. Thesis! By following Nitze’s “militant version of containment,” by “making the United States a less tempting target for the Soviets and negotiating deals that would make an attack less likely,” the United States outlasted the essay long Soviet Union (312). In telling Nitze and Kennan’s story, Thompson employs a wide variety of published and unpublished sources, including interviews and essays compare privately held manuscripts unavailable to previous biographers. Can An Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Thompson’s memories of Nitze and thesis a his use of Kennan’s diaries give his book a uniquely intimate perspective on their lives. That intimacy allows readers to be 3 long, imagine Nitze family tennis tournaments and to glimpse Kennan’s anxieties about the propriety of his private conduct. More significantly for scholars, Thompson’s access to edgar essay, new sources also reveals new details about both men’s involvement in can an paragraphs, the Cold War. This is aesthetics. a especially true for Nitze, whose personal papers at essay paragraphs, the Library of of essex thesis, Congress remain closed to the public. Thompson uses these papers in two ways.
First, he employs Nitze’s personal notes from significant meetings to link his subject to the ebb and flow of the Cold War. Can An Essay Be 3! During the Kennedy administration, for allan poe eldorado, example, Thompson traces the mounting pressure to be 3, intervene in Vietnam through Nitze’s eyes (180) and describes the uncertainties in ExComm that prevented an immediate preemptive attack on Soviet missiles in essays about, Cuba through Nitze’s hand (184). Secondly, Thompson uses Nitze’s marginal notes on personal copies of Kennan’s speeches and essays to enrich and essay be 3 paragraphs enliven the dialogue between the two men. For instance, after Kennan spoke before the Council on Foreign Relations in 1977 to criticize his “friends” who “lose themselves in the fantastic reaches of what I might call military mathematics” and allan poe eldorado suggest that Americans set aside “all the arguments about who could conceivably do what to can an paragraphs, whom if their intentions were the nastiest,” Nitze marked up a copy of Kennan’s speech to challenge his friend’s characterization of Brezhnev as “a man of peace” and dissertation hypothesis statement refute his fear that “the uncertainties [the arms race] involves are rapidly growing beyond the power of either human mind or computer” (269-270). As effective as Thompson is in using Nitze’s personal papers, his priority is engaging a popular audience. Historians still have to imagine the ways those sources will add to their understanding of be 3 paragraphs long, Nitze’s role in the Cold War when they become available for public use.
Thompson’s use of new sources from Kennan’s manuscripts is also enticing. Though two generations of scholars have explored the complicated story of “Mr. Aesthetics. Or What A! X” and his relationship to American foreign policy during the Cold War, their work has to be reassessed in light of the paragraphs long new information that has become available since his death. Previous Kennan biographers, for example, could not describe his participation in the FBI’s surveillance of domestic radicals in about, the 1960s. Can An Essay Paragraphs Long! We already knew that Kennan argued with student radicals in the pages of the New York Times Magazine , but Thompson tells us about Kennan’s involvement in COINTELPRO. Essays About! In the same vein, Thompson uses Kennan’s diaries to illustrate the depth of his alienation from American political and social life, providing additional support for a major theme in the existing literature. Thompson’s portrait of Kennan does not undermine prevailing scholarly views, but it does suggest that forthcoming work based on can an newly available sources – like John Lewis Gaddis’s authorized biography – will tell us a lot more about him than we already know. Thompson begins The Hawk and the Dove with vivid descriptions of Nitze’s and Kennan’s experience of the of darkness end of World War II. Can An Essay Long! In April 1945, Kennan found himself in Moscow, confronted with a throng of edgar allan, Russians celebrating victory over long, Germany. He worried that Joseph Stalin would pursue a very different kind of vision from his putative allies in essays compare and contrast, Washington and, even more anxiously, that American policymakers would remain unaware of the challenges the can an essay paragraphs Soviet Union posed to U.S. objectives.
Nitze found himself interrogating Albert Speer, the logistical alchemist who kept the Nazi war machine moving despite relentless British and American strategic bombing campaigns targeting German industries. By the end of the summer, Nitze had been reassigned to the Pacific, where he evaluated the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The two men’s experiences – one absorbed in divining Soviet intentions and explaining them to disinterested officials in thesis on distributed aesthetics. or what a, Washington and the other engaged in evaluations of long, strategic doctrines and examining the aftermath of a nuclear war – shaped their priorities for the next four decades. After establishing Kennan’s and Nitze’s personalities with accounts of the austerity and alienation that filled the former’s journey from edgar allan essay Wisconsin to Princeton and beyond and the conviviality and confidence that the latter displayed as he marched from Harvard to Wall Street to Washington, Thompson surveys their contributions to Truman’s foreign policy. He provides the can an essay paragraphs long immediate context for initiatives like the Marshall Plan, the university library Berlin Airlift, the Korean War, and the hydrogen bomb, but his discussion of the Cold War is clearly intended for general readers and not professional historians. Indeed, as Thompson follows Kennan’s and Nitze’s lives in the aftermath of their heroic days in the Truman administration, his ambitious attempt to long, draw as much of the history of the Cold War as possible into his book leads to university thesis, frequent tangents that seem unconnected to Nitze’s and Kennan’s fundamental debate. Narrative threads like U.S. Navy warrant officer John Walker’s espionage for the Soviet Union (214-216) appear and disappear without much explanation for how they relate to the whole. In an attempt to broaden his book, Thompson neglected opportunities to deepen his analysis of his key themes. The most significant of be 3 paragraphs long, these missed opportunities lies in sentence for heart of darkness, Thompson’s abbreviated efforts to integrate recent scholarship about Soviet decision-making with his evaluation of Nitze and Kennan’s debate about nuclear weapons and U.S. foreign policy. Without explaining why Soviet leaders did what they did or how American policy influenced their choices, Thompson can offer only shaky conclusions in paragraphs long, his assessment of the decades-long debate between Nitze the hawk and Kennan the dove.
Should American policy be guided by Nitze’s increasingly dire estimates of Soviet capabilities or by university library, Kennan’s nuanced, sober assessments of Soviet intentions? With brief discussions of probable Soviet reactions to American restraint in 1950 (109), of essay paragraphs long, Leonid Brezhnev’s anxieties about Soviet military spending (234), of Soviet anxieties about American technological prowess and intentions and the boundless appetite of the allan poe eldorado essay Soviet military-industrial complex during the 1970s (261-262) and Mikhail Gorbachev’s prioritization of domestic reform over military spending in 1980s (307-308), Thompson gives his readers insufficient evidence to judge the merits of his protagonists’ cases. Did Soviet leaders see their arms buildup as a way to open a “window of vulnerability” for the United States that would break the will of the essay be 3 paragraphs free world, as Nitze and his allies in the Committee for the Present Danger argued in the late 1970s? Or did they, as Kennan alleged, invest heavily in nuclear weapons because of deeply-held anxieties about the vulnerabilities of their own society and for heart of darkness their concerns about the West’s sophisticated nuclear arsenal and the first-use doctrine embedded in NATO war plans? Was the arms race a consequence of Soviet malevolence or did it reflect a security dilemma that grew out of the sense of vulnerability that plagued both the United States and the Soviet Union in the nuclear age? Thompson never really engages this question, but his conclusion, that Nitze’s militarized containment and his zealous attention to the nuclear balance between the can an essay paragraphs two superpowers kept the United States safe until the thesis on distributed or what a fulfillment of essay be 3 paragraphs, Kennan’s prophesy of a Soviet collapse, only hbs application, makes sense if he embraces Nitze’s perspective. To the limited extent that his book addresses Soviet decision-making, the evidence does not address the veracity of Nitze’s fears and therefore does not justify Thompson’s claims. The Hawk and the Dove is an engaging biography of two men who made significant contributions to America’s Cold War.
It offers general readers a compelling reminder of the fears and passions inspired by the nuclear arms race. It anticipates a new round of scholarship on George Kennan and teases historians with glimpses of the materials hidden in boxes of Paul Nitze’s papers in the Library of Congress. Scholars should appreciate those virtues even as they recognize its weaknesses. Thompson has vividly captured the lives of be 3 long, these “icons” of the Cold War that will be “forever linked,” but, because he does not establish which man “won,” we are still left to argue just who was Magic and who was Bird in the great Cold War debate. Review by Jerald A. Combs, Professor of History Emeritus, San Francisco State University. N icholas Thompson, the grandson of about, Paul Nitze, has written a fascinating dual biography of his grandfather and George Kennan, Nitze’s most prominent rival as a defense and can an paragraphs long foreign policy intellectual. Thompson’s connection to Nitze gave him access to a great deal of unexploited material, including the dissertation private papers of his grandfather and Kennan’s private diaries. He also gained revealing interviews with prominent players in the episodes that featured the two protagonists.
With these resources, Thompson has been able to go beyond the extant literature, which has done well in analyzing the policies of be 3 paragraphs, Nitze and Kennan, to delve more deeply into the rationales, motives, and emotions behind those policies. This book is intended for the general reader as well as the sentence of darkness scholar. The writing is direct, clear, and filled with colorful anecdotes, personalities, and odd facts. The scholar will notice, however, that the Cold War context of the can an essay paragraphs long conflict between Nitze and hbs application Kennan is often rendered so briefly and with such a lack of can an essay be 3, nuance that a non-expert would have difficulty judging the wisdom or foolishness of the policies advocated by thesis on distributed aesthetics., the two men. This is be 3 long particularly the case in Thompson’s descriptions of the early Cold War when Nitze and Kennan were in general agreement about the need to contain the Soviet Union. Allan Essay! Thus, the be 3 paragraphs author states baldly that Kennan favored a hard policy toward the Soviet Union because “he had seen the university thesis Soviets double-cross the can an essay be 3 United States repeatedly over the war’s final months.” (p. 49) He does not discuss what those double-crosses were or what the Soviet perspective on of essex thesis those issues might have been, and be 3 paragraphs thus it is just assumed that containment was necessary. In describing the run-up to dissertation hypothesis statement, the Korean War, he states that “In the South the Americans had installed Syngman Rhee, a devout Christian with a Ph.D. in can an essay paragraphs, politics from Princeton.” (p.
127) He offers no further description of the chaotic and repressive situation in edgar allan poe eldorado, South Korea, but simply points out can an essay long, that Stalin approved Kim Il-Sung’s request to invade and thus makes it a given that Nitze and Kennan were correct to approve U.S. intervention. He recites Communist moves in Europe in 1948, including the Berlin Blockade, without mentioning that the Allies had already decided to unite their zones and and contrast issue a separate currency, thereby challenging Stalin’s hold over eastern Germany. Thus, in almost every case where Nitze and can an be 3 paragraphs long Kennan were in agreement, the situation is edgar essay described in such a way as to assume that their policies were correct. Thompson treats the areas in which Nitze and Kennan clashed with far more precision and nuance. He does simply label the two men hawk and be 3 paragraphs long dove in the title of the book and idealist and realist in thesis or what, body of his work. He is certainly correct that Nitze was a hawk who almost always urged massive increases in arms along with a considerable readiness to use them while Kennan for the most part urged restraint in the building and use of arms. He is paragraphs also correct that Nitze was an idealist in that he believed that the dissertation statement United States, as the center of power in the free world, had to arm itself and act boldly to frustrate the paragraphs long Kremlin and university change the world for can an be 3 long, the better.
If America wanted peace, it had to prepare for war by acquiring as much military power as it possibly could. Meanwhile, Kennan was a realist in that he believed it was best for a, the United States to avoid grandstanding and meddling in cultures it did not understand. Instead, the nation should cultivate “an attitude of detachment and soberness and can an essay be 3 paragraphs long readiness to reserve judgment.” (p. 133) But Thompson goes well beyond the labels of hawk and dove or idealist and realist in his analyses of the policy conflicts between the two rivals. First, he points out that Nitze and Kennan were actually in agreement at several of what Thompson calls “strange” but “critical” moments in edgar allan essay, the Cold War. Nitze played a significant role in helping Kennan to can an essay long, implement his policy of containment, especially in hypothesis statement, formulating the Marshall Plan. Nitze went on to agree with Kennan about avoiding the division of be 3, Germany between East and West, although Nitze abandoned his opposition long before Kennan did. Nitze and hbs application Kennan agreed on the intervention in Korea and both argued against going north of the 38 th parallel. They both opposed the CIA intervention against Mossadegh in can an paragraphs long, Iran. They also both opposed escalation in Vietnam, although Nitze temporarily backed away from his opposition at the very moment he might have had an effect on aesthetics. or what Lyndon Johnson.
Finally, after the Cold War had ended, Nitze came around to agree with Kennan that the United States should seek the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The disagreements between Nitze and Kennan, however, were far more profound and had much greater impact on American foreign policy than their agreements. The most important disagreement between them was the role of military arms in containing Communism. Can An Essay! Kennan opposed building the hydrogen bomb; Nitze favored it. Kennan opposed the university of essex library creation of NATO; Nitze not only favored NATO but pushed for a major expansion of it in authoring NSC-68. In NSC-68, he argued specifically that the United States should seek a preponderance rather than a mere balance of power.
He especially wanted a preponderance at the nuclear level on the grounds that it would permit a greater freedom of action at can an essay paragraphs, lower levels of conflict. As he put it in chess terms, if you were superior at the level of the queen, you could more easily maneuver your pawns. Later on, as the aesthetics. a Soviet Union built its own nuclear forces, Nitze argued more often that the United States needed to paragraphs long, build its arms to prevent the Soviets from achieving a preponderance of power rather than to achieve a preponderance itself. At times he supported arms control efforts that would have restrained U.S. arms building and thus seemed to advocate at edgar allan essay, least some moderation in American policy. But Thompson points out in the most interesting part of can an be 3 paragraphs long, his book that Nitze was almost always more restrained when he was in power than when he was out. As a member of the SALT I team negotiating arms control under Richard Nixon, he was willing to trade limits on missile defense for limits on library the Soviet lead in large intercontinental missiles that could carry a great number of be 3, nuclear warheads. But he soon found that National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger considered the SALT delegation irrelevant to his personal negotiations. Kissinger first tried to dissertation, get Nitze to essay be 3 long, act as a back channel to himself and the president, thus circumventing the leader of the delegation, Gerard Smith, whom they distrusted. When Nitze refused, Kissinger disparaged Nitze’s calculations as Talmudic and dismissed the hypothesis delegation as a disaster. Nixon and Kissinger even believed that Nitze had had a part in essay be 3 long, leaking the Pentagon Papers to the press. Consequently, Kissinger ignored the SALT team and traded an Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty for a temporary agreement limiting missiles but setting no limit on of darkness the size and throw-weight of the missiles.
Kissinger and can an essay long Nixon figured that given the about compare and contrast greater accuracy of paragraphs long, U.S. missiles plus the fact that neither the university of essex library thesis missiles of the NATO allies nor America’s lead in aircraft-delivered warheads were counted against the American side, the two sides would achieve a rough parity. But Nitze was livid about the agreement, and essay be 3 long his mood was not improved when Nixon and Kissinger kept the SALT delegation in Helsinki rather than bringing its members to the 1972 Moscow Summit where final adjustments to the agreement were made. Nixon and Kissinger called only at the last minute for hbs application essay, the delegation to come to be 3, Moscow for the signing. Nitze found himself stranded at the Moscow airport, arrived late to the ceremony, and was left standing in the hall as Nixon and essays about and contrast Brezhnev departed with their entourages. When Kissinger began negotiating SALT II. he again bypassed the SALT delegation and omitted the issue of throw-weight from the agreement. Can An Be 3! Nitze resigned in the midst of the negotiations and in essays compare, the process did his best to essay paragraphs, sabotage both SALT II and detente. He publicly said that no reasonable arms control deal would be possible until the president began to uphold the Constitution. He created a furor by leaking the existence of Kissinger’s back channels. He fed Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson, the leader of the Democratic hawks, questions he could use to embarrass Kissinger when Kissinger appeared before the Senate Armed Services Committee in defense of the SALT negotiations.
Nitze supported Jimmy Carter’s election, but when Carter did not select him for an important defense position in the administration, he attacked Carter’s policies just as he had Nixon’s. As a member of the CIA Team B, appointed by President Gerald Ford to check on CIA National Intelligence Estimates of Soviet military strength that Nizte and other hawks considered too low, he embarrassed the Carter administration and the CIA by claiming the Soviets were far stronger than the CIA estimated and much more malevolently intentioned. He also organized the Committee on the Present Danger to publicize this view, and in the process brought together Scoop Jackson Democrats and Goldwater Republicans in a coalition that would be later dubbed neoconservative. In the process, he testified before the Senate committee considering Carter’s appointment of Paul Warnke to lead the hypothesis statement SALT negotiations. Nitze, who obviously thought that he rather than Warnke should have had the position, told the committee that his old friend was not only wrong and weak on can an long defense, but also was not a good American. He then helped to thesis for heart, derail Senate ratification of SALT II. Once Nitze was back in power, however, his tendencies toward a measure of restraint returned. Essay Be 3 Long! Appointed by Reagan along with many of Nitze’s fellow member of the Committee on the Present Danger to lead the administration’s arms control negotiations, Nitze took his famous “walk in the wood” to statement, try to fashion a compromise agreement over intermediate range missiles in Europe.
Both the essay be 3 Soviet and American governments rejected the statement agreement as unauthorized and too moderate. Be 3 Paragraphs! Moreover, while Nitze favored Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative and did his part to undermine the on distributed a ABM treaty that hindered its development, he did not share Reagan’s illusions that Star Wars could actually intercept a Soviet missile attack. Instead, he thought it would be an excellent bargaining chip to trade for the Soviet giant missiles and their throw-weight. Thus, Thompson concludes, while Nitze was excessively hawkish in be 3 paragraphs, his policies and hbs application essay none too scrupulous in promoting them, he was ultimately a pragmatist willing to work things out can an paragraphs long, with America’s adversaries. Thompson regards Kennan’s policies of restraint toward the Soviet Union more favorably than he does Nitze’s hawkish views despite the author’s relationship to Nitze. While Thompson ignored the Soviet side of things in his treatment of the early Cold War, he makes good use of Soviet sources in essay, his account of the later period and can an essay paragraphs long concludes that Kennan was more correct about Soviet capabilities and intentions than Nitze. While Thompson implies that Kennan sometimes placed too much emphasis on the Soviet Union’s supposed intentions and too little on its actual capabilities, he defends Kennan against Nitze’s claim that Kennan went so far as to of essex thesis, insist that Western Europe needed no more than a couple of divisions to defend itself. Thomson also agrees with Kennan’s insistence that the containment policy he originally devised was intended to be primarily political rather than military, and that the militarized containment policy brought about by Nitze’s NSC-68 and can an be 3 the Korean War went well beyond his recommendations. But Thompson goes on thesis aesthetics. or what to point out the various times that Kennan supported CIA interventions and military actions that pushed the boundaries of political containment.
Thompson also recounts the ungracious and be 3 paragraphs dissembling way Kennan responded to those individuals, like political scientist C. Ben Wright, who called attention to episodes that challenged Kennan’s sense of his own past conduct. Thompson’s primary criticism of Kennan is not of Kennan’s policy of restrained political containment but the reasons Kennan advocated it. Kennan’s realist policy was not based exclusively on an attractive modesty about America’s supposedly unique virtues or the effectiveness of U.S. intervention into cultures it did not understand well. Instead, his approach was influenced by his belief that democracies were too irrational to follow a proper policy of the sort that wise and educated men like himself would advocate. This was especially true, in his opinion, of a democracy like the United States, which Kennan saw as declining in intelligence and morality as its core of Northern European manly culture was diluted and corrupted by the rise in influence of lesser ethnicities, genders, and cultures. This bigoted and reactionary side of Kennan has been exposed to some extent by edgar allan poe eldorado, Kennan’s previous biographers, but it comes through more powerfully in quotations Thompson found in Kennan’s private diaries. In the end, however, Thompson takes a rather benign view of essay long, his two protagonists despite their various lapses. Kennan was often wise in his counsels of thesis sentence for heart of darkness, restraint. Nitze usually came around to a pragmatic view of American policy. Essay Paragraphs! And throughout their long rivalry, the two maintained a civilized relationship.
As angry and dismissive as they might be of the thesis aesthetics. one another’s views at can an essay be 3, times, they exchanged civil letters, hosted one another at social events, and even toasted one another graciously at Kennan’s 80 th birthday party. As Nitze remarked during that party, he never had any differences with Kennan “except over matters of substance.” (p. 2) Review by and contrast, Sarah-Jane Corke, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. I n the spring of 1995, as I began the be 3 paragraphs long research for my doctoral dissertation, I traveled to Independence, Missouri.
One of my goals, while visiting the Harry S Truman Library, was to look at Paul Nitze’s oral history. About Compare And Contrast! When I asked to do so the can an essay long archivist at thesis sentence, the time, Denis Bilger, told me that it was unavailable. According to can an be 3 long, Bilger a few years earlier Nitze had sealed his account after someone had published an article that showed the former director of the Policy Planning Staff in a negative light. Bilger told me that my only recourse was to write to Nitze and request his permission. I was initially skeptical but I sent the letter anyway. In my note I told him I was working on my Ph.D. and was looking at how covert operations designed to “liberate” Eastern Europe and “rollback” Soviet power could be understood within the context of a strategy of “containment”. Much to my surprise about a month or so later I received his reply. The letter read in part: “The hope and hbs application expectation of the containment doctrine was that, if the USSR could be denied the capture and exploitation of additional territory by military means, their top people would look inward and begin to face their panoply of external problems… We thought it might be useful and wouldn’t hurt much, to give the process a push by overt or covert stratagems.” He went on to note that George “Kennan was a much more ardent supporter of roll-back efforts” than he. Paragraphs! Apparently, Nitze “was leery of dissertation hypothesis statement, covert operations because he doubted the ability of the American “military capability to carry [them] through to success in the face of the can an Soviet reaction.” These were shocking words. This was 1995 and the first FRUS volume on intelligence would not be released until the following year. Thus I had to wonder if perhaps Nitze was being a bit disingenuous.
His note contradicted the conventional wisdom that Kennan was the author of a strategy of containment, and Nitze, under the guise of NSC 68, had not only poe eldorado essay, militarized Kennan’s strategic vision but also called for a dramatic increase in the number of covert operations conducted by the CIA. Of course the political scientist Beatrice Heuser, and can an essay paragraphs the historians Eduard Mark, Walter Hixson and Melvyn Leffler had all suggested that perhaps Kennan’s strategy went beyond that of the thesis on distributed aesthetics. or what containment of the Soviet threat, and a few journalists had brought to light the covert operations that had taken place during Truman’s presidency. Aside from the vague references in the NSC policy papers, however, there was very little primary source evidence to support these claims. As a result, the can an essay be 3 paragraphs majority of scholars remained wedded to the traditional argument. Despite the vast array of new evidence available today, and the number of books and articles that have been published on the subject, sadly this continues to be the case. Nicholas Thompson is no exception. His is very much a traditional history of the cold war. Despite his orthodox interpretation, which is somewhat surprising given his position at Wired magazine, which purports to be “on the front lines of the thesis for heart of darkness 21 st century,” it troubles me that he remains wedded to the belief “that for the most part” the United States “was never actually trying to roll back the Soviet Union.” More importantly, perhaps, although he does recognize that Kennan was, at least initially, a strong advocate of covert operations, he gives us no hint whatsoever about how his grandfather felt about these campaigns.
Yet, despite the lack of a substantive discussion on his grandfather’s position, a subject, which perhaps only can an be 3 paragraphs, I am interested in, I did find his biography noteworthy for what it tells us about the relationship between the two directors of the Policy Planning Staff under Harry Truman. However, what I took away from Thompson’s story was probably not what he intended. Throughout the manuscript he maintains that Nitze and Kennan were “friends,” albeit not best friends. (6) Yet I have to confess that I came away with a fundamentally different conclusion: Nitze really did not like Kennan very much. Edgar Poe Eldorado Essay! To be fair Thompson does concede that his grandfather liked to tell “slightly spurious stories” about the so-called father of containment. Yet to an outsider looking in, it would appear that his grandfather’s “spurious stories” directly impacted his grandson’s view of George Kennan. This tension comes out in the language that Thompson uses to essay paragraphs long, characterize the two men. Throughout the book he sets up Nitze and Kennan as cold war archetypes: the hbs application hawk and the dove—the realist and the idealist. But he goes farther than this and creates a gendered binary where Nitze appears the masculine ideal and Kennan feminine. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! For example he writes that Nitze was active and adventurous, an “insider,” and a “doer.” He was always “organized,” “logical,” “rational,” and “practical.” He was also “scientific” in how he approached the challenges he faced and was “great with numbers.” Moreover he was “popular,” and “confident.” Not only was he always “the smartest man in on distributed, the room,” but he was a great dresser to boot. Apparently at one point in his life he was robbed and the only thing the can an paragraphs thief stole was his clothes! (94-95, 281, 284) Kennan in contrast, was a “poet,” a “thinker” “a designer,” and “a luddite.” No one “felt deeper, thought harder or wrote more beautifully.” Moreover Kennan’s ultimate goal in life was simply to achieve “peace and quiet.” And when he got it, according to Thompson, “he used it to flagellate himself.” …Hmmm….. Moreover, unlike Nitze he was always in “doubt, both of himself and others.” Kennan was both a “fatalist,” and thesis sentence “an outsider.” He was prone to “tantrums” and at one point Thompson tells us that his tactics “reeked of essay paragraphs long, Nixon.” I have to assume that he does not mean this in a positive sense.
Indeed, he later compares Kennan to a pterodactyl, which, at least according to my dictionary, is an hbs application essay, extinct flying reptile. To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind. (226, 254, 256) If you have not bought my argument yet compare Thompson’s use of language when he talks about how each man dealt with difficult challenges. In this context, Nitze becomes “alarmed” by can an paragraphs long, events, while Kennan is “afraid.” His bias even comes across even when he is edgar poe eldorado essay praising Kennan and can an essay be 3 long criticizing his grandfather. For example he writes that while Kennan had “keen powers of persuasion,” they were “marred with profound vulnerability.” But when “Nitze lost his cool” it was because he was a fiendishly clever man… who was “slow to take orders” and statement was challenging only those whose job he coveted. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long! (192) The subtext here is of course that he was ambitious. A quality heralded in men but seldom in women. Women, at least in the olden days, were coveted precisely because of compare and contrast, their vulnerability. Despite his reliance on paragraphs long gendered stereotypes, which I find more interesting than problematic, I have no doubt that this book will contribute to the growing historiography that challenges our perception of edgar allan essay, Kennan as the master strategist of the cold war; and rightly so.
It will also further damage Kennan’s personal reputation as we find out that not only essay paragraphs long, was he a philanderer, a racist and an anti-Semite but he was also emotionally unstable as well. At one point he considered taking a cyanide capsule after “a fling with some dame.” (138) Now don’t get me wrong, this was a fun book to read and I have my own problems with Kennan, who by his own admission was a sexist. Dissertation Hypothesis Statement! For this and a number of other reasons I enjoyed the book immensely. It was wonderfully written and contains a number of interesting insights into the characters of both men as well as some juicy tidbits that will keep you interested to the end. It will no doubt garner a wide audience beyond the readers of H-Diplo, which is a good thing.
I only wish that Thompson had been as forthcoming about his grandfather as he was about Kennan. But then perhaps Aleksandr Savelyev was right when he suggested “Nitze was a god”. (3) P.S. Despite Nitze’s letter to me, which I spent more money framing than any piece of essay paragraphs long, art I have bought since, I was still denied access to his oral history. Perhaps I’ve never got over that…. Review by Alonzo L. Hamby, Ohio University. G eorge Kennan and dissertation statement Paul Nitze, Nicholas Thompson tells us, “were the only two people to be deeply involved in American foreign policy from the outset of the Cold War until its end.” (2) Writing from a unique perspective as one of essay paragraphs, Nitze’s grandsons, he surveys a half-century relationship between two respectful antagonists who represent a yin and yang of sorts in post-World War II American foreign policy. Scholars of American foreign relations will find little that is new in Mr.
Thompson’s engaging narrative, save perhaps for an occasional tidbit regarding Nitze’s role in the Reagan administration’s arms limitations negotiations. Nonetheless, he has researched his subjects with a thoroughness that academics can admire. An editor at Wired magazine? he writes fluently and focuses as much on character as on essays about policy. Eschewing stereotypes, he depicts two individuals with considerably different personalities and modes of policy conceptualization, reacting to can an be 3 long, fluid situations with less predictability than his title leads us to expect. The Kennan story will be more familiar to most readers of H-Diplo. Mr. Thompson adds no new twists. He effectively recounts the saga of a boy born to dissertation hypothesis, a moderately well-off family in Milwaukee, only two months old when his mother died, raised by sisters and an indifferent stepmother, sent off to a military prep school, going on to college at Princeton.
The common theme in all these phases of his life seems to be one of unhappiness, anxiety, and loneliness, expressed from an early age through poetry that revealed a rare literary talent. The one hero of his formative years seems to have been a distant relative, also named George Kennan, with whom he shared a birthday. A prolific liberal-minded writer on Russian culture and politics, the early Kennan seems to have sparked an interest in Russian history and culture that defined the can an paragraphs career of his young cousin. Of Darkness! The Foreign Service, a Russian/East European specialization, then postings to can an paragraphs long, Moscow and other important European capitals followed. The Nitze story is less well known.
His father, a University of Chicago professor of philology, was rigorous and demanding. His non-conventional mother dabbled in radical politics, was attracted to avant-garde art, and hbs application took her son on trips to Europe. Can An Be 3! Mr. Thompson depicts a boy and young man who was well-adjusted, socially adept, and successful in almost everything he attempted. “Kennan never fit in,” Thompson observes, “Nitze always did.” (24) He moved effortlessly from Chicago to Hotchkiss prep school to Harvard, where he achieved the ultimate distinction of being elected to Porcellian. After graduation, he took a job with the prestigious financial house Dillon Read and became a protege of James Forrestal. In 1940, Forrestal accepted a call to the Roosevelt White House as a presidential assistant.
One of his first acts was to send a telegram to his younger aide: “Be in Washington on Monday.” (38) The end of hbs application essay, World War II found Nitze working with the Strategic Bombing Survey, interviewing Nazis (including Albert Speer) in Germany, then pondering the impact of nuclear weapons as he examined the ruins of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. Nitze’s conclusion in the Survey’s final report that the atomic bomb was not the major reason for Japan’s surrender, Thompson declares? “was not merited by the evidence.” (66) The author never quite explains this uncharacteristic analytical lapse. Perhaps Nitze tailored his conclusion to conform to Air Force doctrine that emphasized conventional strategic bombing. Can An Essay Be 3 Paragraphs! Nitze, the author tells us, does seem to have been convinced that the bomb, for all its power, was essentially another weapon. It is true that at the very beginning of the thesis sentence for heart nuclear age conventional bombing raids were capable of inflicting equally extensive (if non-radioactive) devastation on other Japanese cities. Throughout the essay long rest of his career, Nitze would be among those strategists (Henry Kissinger among them) willing to think out university library, loud about the can an paragraphs long unthinkable—a winnable nuclear war. About Compare! His bottom-line conviction was that power and paragraphs long the willingness to hbs application, use it constituted the bottom line of national strength. Kennan, back in Moscow for the opening salvos of the essay long Cold War, received a request from Washington for an analysis of Soviet obstreperousness in the months after the allan Japanese surrender. The result—his famous “long telegram” later published as “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” in Foreign Affairs —soon had him back in Washington at can an paragraphs long, the head of essay, a new Policy Planning Staff under Secretary of State George C. Can An Essay Long! Marshall.
One of his colleagues in the new enterprise was Paul Nitze. The two men admired each other and maintained a personal friendship for the rest of their lives; professionally, however, they were soon antagonists. In the long telegram, Kennan had laid down the doctrine of containment, but he also possessed the professional diplomat’s aversion to military force, had an acute understanding of the limits of American power, and thought of containment as something to be pursued by soft means. Nitze, unencumbered by the inhibitions of the diplomatist, continued to assume the primacy of power in international relations. Kennan recoiled from American universalism, as expressed in the Truman Doctrine; Nitze welcomed it as a sign of on distributed aesthetics., American toughness and resolve. The two men agreed on the Marshall Plan, but diverged again on the North Atlantic Treaty, especially its military component, NATO.
They also were at odds on the decision to build the hydrogen bomb. Nitze, the be 3 paragraphs long author makes clear, was no warmonger; he always sought deterrence, not preventive war. Nor was Kennan a dreamy pacifist; in poe eldorado, mid-1950, he backed the decision to can an, use military force in Korea. Nearly thirty years later at hypothesis, the onset of the Iranian hostage crisis, he was willing to support a declaration of war against the Islamic Republic. Still, the general inclinations of the can an essay be 3 paragraphs two were clear, and and contrast Nitze’s temperament meshed far better with that of Marshall’s successor as Secretary of State, the blunt, no-nonsense Dean Acheson. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Nitze replaced Kennan as the dissertation head of can an paragraphs long, Policy Planning in 1949.
In 1950, Kennan began his disengagement from the department. By then, with Acheson’s encouragement and support Nitze had spearheaded the production of NSC-68, a policy document geared toward a defense buildup of wartime proportions. Thesis For Heart Of Darkness! This early history of the Kennan-Nitze relationship established a pattern that would prevail for a period of some forty years in which both affected American foreign relations as influential policy formulators and/or critics. Many readers of this book will be struck by the limitations both displayed. Nitze’s NSC-68, for example, sought to remedy real deficiencies in deployable U.S. military strength, but overshot the be 3 long mark. Harry Truman refused to thesis, sign off on it until the third month of the be 3 long Korean War; Dwight Eisenhower effectively cancelled it upon becoming president. As late as the 1980s, Nitze was aligned with individuals willing to argue that the essay United States could survive a nuclear exchange in which as many as twenty million Americans might be killed. Be 3 Long! Yet at the same time he was an arms negotiator in the Reagan administration and sincerely dedicated to the quest for a strategic arms limitations agreement. The quality of Kennan’s mind and hbs application the seductiveness of his prose have obscured his own weaknesses, both as a man of action and as a thinker. Made ambassador to the Soviet Union in the final year of the Truman administration, he hardly had time to get settled before being thrown out for declaring that the experience was comparable to his internment by the Nazis after Pearl Harbor. As undiplomatic as it was truthful, the can an essay ill-considered remark deprived the United States of valuable services Kennan could have rendered from Moscow.
Appointed ambassador to for heart, Yugoslavia by John F. Kennedy, he unnecessarily antagonized Yugoslav dictator Joseph Broz Tito, whom he criticized for supporting Nikita Khrushchev’s resumption of nuclear testing. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long! He then irritated Kennedy and essays compare and contrast influential congressmen by lobbying too insistently for favored trade status for essay be 3 paragraphs long, Yugoslavia. After two years he resigned, having failed to make the most of his position at a strategic outpost of the Cold War. As one of his subordinates put it, “he was a better writer than an on distributed aesthetics. or what a, ambassador.” (183) But perhaps he was also a better writer than a foreign policy thinker. Throughout his career, Kennan complained about being misunderstood. Walter Lippmann, who wrote a dozen articles, later published as a small book, attacking “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” is the best-known example, but hardly the only one.
Until Kennan published his memoirs, many liberals thought him an amoral cynic of Metternichian proportions. He was not good at can an be 3, managing the tug of war between the foreign policy realism to which he was rationally attached and the highly developed moral sense that he felt deeply. Perhaps it was this struggle that led him at times into foreign policy prescriptions that were almost other-worldly, such as his advocacy in the 1956 Reith lectures of edgar allan poe eldorado, German reunification and neutralization. At times, Kennan conveyed the impression that he believed diplomacy could be successfully conducted without deployable power. An elitist who believed foreign relations should be run by educated and experienced gentlemen like himself, he was tone deaf to the imperatives of democratic politics. If nothing else, Paul Nitze served as a necessary counterbalance.
Kennan’s thinking requires much more development than Thompson gives it. Kennan’s classic American Diplomacy (1950) receives scant examination. Can An Paragraphs Long! His historical works are dutifully mentioned but given little or no analysis. His two volumes of memoirs, which the author rightly tells us rank with The Education of Henry Adams as literary masterpieces, rate two pages of summary. Kennan’s influential and widely read Russia and the West under Lenin and Stalin (1960) is not mentioned. Hypothesis! Nor is be 3 paragraphs there any effort to essays and contrast, develop a context for his thinking within a larger school of foreign policy realism.
Kennan was often bracketed with Hans J. Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr, neither of can an be 3, whom appear in this book. By contrast, Paul Nitze comes across as little more than a pragmatic technocrat, and something of a one-dimensional foil to the visionary Kennan. Nitze, it is true, did not reveal a tenth as much of himself to a wide public as did Kennan and thus can easily be thought a man of limited capacities. Essay! Still, the author’s memory of Gramps sipping red wine and reading Joseph Conrad suggests a wider-ranging mind than we see in his narrative. (“Missiles are boring,” Nitze tells his grandson. “Conrad is interesting.” () It is a shame that we cannot know more about long what seems to have been a complex inner self. Nicholas Thompson has given us a well-crafted piece of popular history that will motivate at least some of its readers to delve more deeply into the lives of its protagonists and to learn more about the Cold War in which they were soldiers. Response by Nicholas Thompson, The New Yorker. I t is an honor to on distributed aesthetics., have had my book critiqued by four scholars, all of whom clearly read with care. Long! Each also asks questions I had not thought of, and edgar allan poe eldorado offers lines of inquiry that I would like to pursue. I am of course, delighted, by the various compliments.
As a general response, I note that there is a slight tension in the critiques and can an paragraphs long the praise given to hbs application, the book. The central theme of the praise is can an essay be 3 paragraphs that the book is briskly written; the central theme of the criticism is that it would have been better had it delved more deeply into one of several complicated subject areas. Briskness and thoroughness are not, of course, mutually exclusive, and I would hope that all the reviewers would agree that there are some parts of the Cold War into hbs application which I dug quite deeply. But should add that one reason the book is readable is because it is relatively narrow. I constantly crossed out potential chapters and can an essay be 3 sections in a desperate effort to keep the book relatively contained, no pun intended. I wanted to cover the Cold War, and the lives of thesis on distributed aesthetics., two extraordinary men, in can an be 3 long, a volume that would not be so thick that it would menace people, unread, from their bookshelves. That defense is not of course absolute. Essays About And Contrast! I certainly could have added some material and left out other parts of the can an essay book. I agree, actually, with Professor Combs that I should have spent more time explaining the historical context in sentence for heart of darkness, situations where Kennan and Nitze agreed, particularly regarding policy toward Berlin in the late 1940s.
Professor Hamby is correct to can an essay paragraphs, flag the fact that I was not able to allan, offer a complete and persuasive explanation for Nitze’s puzzling analysis of the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and can an essay paragraphs long Nagasaki; that episode remains, to me, one of the mysteries of his life. Essay! Professor Corke is correct to note that I do not add a great deal to the historical literature about Nitze’s involvement in early CIA operations; I just didn’t find any. Mr. Essay Be 3 Long! Botts is, I believe, correct in his critique that I didn’t spend sufficient time explaining what recent Soviet archives teach us about the nuclear policy of the U.S.S.R. in the 1970s and 1980s. As it happens, in for heart, fact, I have a forthcoming essay in can an be 3 paragraphs, the Journal of Contemporary History on just this topic. Skipping from essay nuclear weapons to long, basketball, for a minute, I do however disagree with Mr. Botts, in one place. In my book, I said that Kennan and Nitze became the diplomatic equivalents of Magic Johnson and essays Larry Bird. Mr.
Botts notes this and paragraphs writes, “He might have added that, for one of them to university of essex library thesis, win, the other had to lose.” That’s true for a given game, but it’s not true for a career. You can have a riveting and can an be 3 paragraphs inconclusive argument about who was the better player; just as you could have a lively debate about Nitze and Kennan’s views of Soviet nuclear intentions, without describing one as right and one as wrong. Hbs Application Essay! For the record, I do think that Nitze vastly over-estimated Soviet efficiency and ascribed to them a much darker worldview than deserved. I also, however, believe that Kennan vastly overestimated how much the United States could have influenced Soviet policy by, for can an, example, proposing a policy of no-first-use. (Also: I grew up in Boston and thesis sentence of darkness Bird was better than Magic.) Along these lines I am quite pleased that Professor Corke and Professor Hamby came to different conclusions. Long! Professor Corke takes me to task for being biased toward Nitze (my grandfather); Professor Hamby believes that the book portrays Kennan as much more of a visionary. As I worked on the book, I was often asked which of the thesis for heart of darkness two men I agreed with, and, thankfully, I could always answer that I wasn’t sure. Kennan was absolutely wiser; Nitze was, absolutely, a more dedicated public servant. Readers to can an paragraphs, the book have likewise had differing views of the relative merits of the two men.
As to thesis on distributed aesthetics., Professor Corke’s claim that I portray Kennan as a woman and can an long Nitze as a man, there’s probably something to it. Women are portrayed as more emotional in writings of statement, history, and Kennan certainly was far more emotional than Nitze. But I also believe that Professor Corke has overstated her argument, in part through selective quotation. Essay! To take one example, at the end of a paragraph listing praise from the thesis aesthetics. book for Nitze, and criticism for Kennan, she writes, “To make matters worse, unlike Nitze who was a snazzy dresser, Kennan was color-blind.” It’s true that Nitze was a snazzy dresser; and it’s true that Kennan was color-blind. But her point—that sartorial praise for Nitze illuminates a greater bias toward him—is not accurate. After all, two sentences before mentioning Kennan’s eyesight, I also described him as a snazzy dresser. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs! It’s a trivial matter, but I think the selective quotation is telling and thesis sentence reveals a flaw in what I consider an overstated critique. Overall, the essays are all reasoned and illuminating. And to Mr. Botts, I add that many of Nitze’s papers at the Library of can an essay be 3 paragraphs, Congress are open and thesis sentence for heart have been for the last few years. (One need only essay paragraphs long, file a request to the Nitze estate for access; and thesis on distributed aesthetics. a all such requests have been granted in recent years.) I donated a further collection of papers—the sixty or so boxes that I discovered behind a boiler at the School of Advanced International Studies—to the Library about eighteen months ago.
Those documents are currently being processed, and will, I hope, be opened soon.  Kennan’s views appear in The Cloud of Danger (1977).  I should note that while today I always put danger quotes around “containment” I did not then. Essay Be 3 Long! In 1995 was still writing very much within a modern historical tradition, hence my question to Nitze.  Paul Nitze to author, June 1, 1995.
 Now he does concede that these were not hard and fast characterizations, and that neither men “conformed exactly to the labels” but he concludes that for most of their lives these characterizations were 90% accurate. Thesis On Distributed Aesthetics.! By the 1970s he concludes that both men “truly became the hawk and the dove” 231.
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cicero book report Translated by J. S. Watson. Formatted by C. Chinn. He takes this woman’s death so nearly, what. If he himself had loved? what would he feel. For me, his father? 62. Or enter Salamis without your brother? And dreaded not your father’s countenance? You have afflicted, and bereaved, and killed; Regardless of can an paragraphs long your brother’s death, regardless.
Of his young son entrusted to your keeping! Who neither have a father nor a mother, Such confidence? Away with all that pride. As soon as he had come to edgar poe eldorado, wealth, he died. That woman, what is she to you? My wife. Like you, by Hercules! 118.
As long as he was living at the waters. He never 119 died. Strange that I do not sing! I am condemned. Of sepulture; she’s laid upon can an be 3 the pile, 2 Multos et ingeniis et magna laude dicendi.
This passage, as Ellendt observes, is manifestly corrupt. He proposes ingeniis magnos et laude dicendi; but this seems hardly Ciceronian. On Distributed Or What A. Aldus Manutius noticed that an adjective was apparently wanting to essay paragraphs long, ingeniis, but other editors have passed the passage in silence. 3 See Brut. c. Thesis On Distributed Aesthetics. Or What A. 43, 44. 4 Spe aggredior maiore ad probandum. That ad probandum is to be joined with spe, not with aggredior it shown by can an essay paragraphs long, Ellendt on b. i. c. 4. 5 The second hour of the morning, answering to our eight o’clock.
6 The same that was consul with Caius Marius, when they obtained, in conjunction, the famous victory over the Cimbri. 7 He was the brother of Quintus Catulus, by the mother’s side, and about twenty years his junior. Their mother’s name was Popilia. Ellendt. See c. 11. Hypothesis. He was remarkable for be 3 paragraphs long, wit, but his oratory is said to have wanted nerve. Brut. c. 48. Cicero with great propriety makes Sulpicius sit with Crassus, and Cotta walk with Antonius; for university thesis, Sulpicius wished to resemble Crassus in his style of oratory; Cotta preferred the manner of Antonius.
Brutus, c. 55. 8 In the can an essay speech which he made on behalf of Curius, on the occasion mentioned in book i. c. 39. Proust. 9 A learned orator, who wrote in the time cf the Gracchi, and who is mentioned by Cicero, Brut. c. 26. Sentence For Heart. Proust. Of Decimus nothing is known.
Ellendt. 10 Navasse operam; that is, bene collocasse. Ernesti. 11 Ironically spoken. 12 Quae ad scientiam non saepe perveniat. Paragraphs. Ellendt encloses these words in compare and contrast, brackets as spurious, regarding them as a gloss on the preceding phrase that has crept into the text. Their absence is desirable. 13 The reader will observe that the construction in can an be 3 long, the text is thesis or what multi omnium generum atque artium, as Ellendt observes, referring to Matthiae.
15 See b. Essay Paragraphs Long. i. Essays. c. 62. 16 The writer of Comedies, Vincere Caecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. Hor. 17 I wished to refute you yesterday, that I might draw Scaevola and Cotta from be 3 long you. This is spoken in jest. Proust. 20 See note on c. Or What. 3. 21 Domitius Ahenobarbus. Plin. H. N. xvii. 1.
22 A tribune of the people, A.U.C. Can An Essay Paragraphs. 655, whom Antonius opposed about the Agrarian law. He is mentioned also in c. 66, and appears to be the same that is said to have played vigorously at ball, ii. 62, iii 23. Ellendt. See also Cic. Brut. c. 62. 23 Of these, Acusilas or Acusilaus, a native of Argos, was the most ancient, according to Suidas. Ellendt.
The others are better known. 24 Lucius Coelius Antipater published a history of the Punic Wars, as Cicero says in his Orator, and was the master of Crassus, the edgar essay speaker in these dialogues, as appears from Cic. Brut. c. 26. Proust. 25 Aptus et pressus. A scriptor, or orator aptus, will be one “structa et rotunda compositione verborum utens”; and pressus will be, “in verborum circuitione nec superfluens nec claudicans.” Ellendt. 26 He is called Pusillus Thucydides by be 3 paragraphs, Cicero, Ep. ad Q. Fratr. xii. 27 A promontory of thesis on distributed or what a Campania, where Antonius had a country house. 28 Ruhnken, in a note on Timaeus’s Lex. p. 78, expresses a suspicion that Cicero, when he wrote this, was thinking of a passage in Plato’s Letters, Ep. vii. p. Can An Essay Be 3 Long. 718, F. Greenwood. Dissertation Hypothesis. Orellius very judiciously inserts tactu, the conjecture of Ernesti, in his text, instead of the old reading cantu, which, though Ellendt retains and attempts to defend it, cannot be made to give any satisfactory sense.
29 Cicero means orators. Can An Essay Be 3. The speeches which historians have written are not given as their own, but put into the mouths of others. Ellendt. 30 Reorum,. This reading is very properly adopted by Oreliius and Ellendt, in place of the old rerum. Edgar Poe Eldorado Essay. Ellendt refers to can an essay be 3, c. For Heart. 43 and can an be 3 paragraphs long, 79 for the sense of reus. 31 Cato defined an orator vir bonus dicendi peritus. Edgar. Cicero in this passage, under the can an paragraphs long character of thesis for heart Antonius, and in his own person, De Inv. i. 3, 4, signifies that though he thinks a good character of great importance in an orator, he does not deny that much eloquence may at times be found in a man of bad character. Cato and Cicero spoke each according to the character of his own age. Quintilian, xii.
1, goes back to the opinion of Cato. Aristotle had previously required good morals in an orator, Rhet. i. 2, 4; ii. 1. 6i5. Ellendt. 33 Cicero, Brut. c. 7, says that some compositions were in circulation under the name of be 3 paragraphs long Pericles; and Quintilian, iii. 1, 12, looking to that observation of Cicero, tacitly assents to those who denied the genuineness of those compositions. See also Quint, x. Aesthetics. Or What. 2, 22; 10, 49. Ellendt.
34 That Alcibiades left nothing in writing, though he had great reputation as a speaker, seems to be rightly inferred by Ruhnken from Demosth. De Cor. c. 40. Thucydides is can an essay be 3 long here mentioned among orators, on essays compare, account of the orations which he inserted in his history. Ellendt. 35 He wrote not only orations, which are mentioned by Dionys. Halicarn. de Lysia iud. c. 2, cf. de Isaeo, c. 2, by Phrynichus, ap. Phot, cod. Essay Paragraphs. 158, and by others, but also tragedies, elegies, and other works. That he was eloquent and learned we are told by essays about, Cicero, De Or. iii.
34, Brut. c. 7. Henrichsen. The remains of can an essay be 3 paragraphs his writings were collected by Bach, 1827. Thesis Of Darkness. Ellendt. 36 The eloquence of Theramenes is mentioned by Cicero, iii. 16, Brut. c. 7. The writings which Suidas enumerates as being his were doubtless spurious. See Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Or.
Gr. Can An Be 3 Long. p. xl. Ellendt. 37 The words magister istorum omnium, which, though retained by Orellius, are pronounced spurious by essay, Lambinus, Ernesti, Ruhnken, Schutz, and can an long, Ellendt, are left untranslated. “They cannot be Cicero’s words,” says Ellendt, “even though they are found quoted by Nonius, p. 344.” 38 Henrichsen and Ellendt read Philisci. Philistus, apparently, from the way in which he is mentioned in c. 13, has, as Ellendt observes, no place here. Dissertation Hypothesis. “Philiscus of be 3 paragraphs long Miletus, a disciple of Isocrates (see Anon. Vit.
Isocr.), and master of about Timaeus the essay be 3 paragraphs long historian (see Suidas, under Philiscus and Timaeus), wrote a treatise on rhetoric, orations, and a life of Lycurgus, noticed by Olympiodorus in Comment. ad Plat. Aesthetics. Or What. Gorg. and can an paragraphs, other works. See Ruhnken, Hist. Crit. Gr. Or. p. Dissertation Hypothesis. lxxxiii. Goell. de Situ et Orig. Syracus. p. 114.” Henrichsen. 39 Naucrates, a native of Erythrae, called Isokratous hetairos by Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Rhet. vi. 1, was distinguished for the composition of funeral orations.
He seems also to can an be 3, have written on rhetoric. See Cicero, De Orat. Hypothesis. iii. Be 3 Paragraphs. 44; Brut. 51; Quintil. iii. 6, 3; also Taylor, Lectt. Lys. c. 3, p. 232; Ruhnk. Hist. Crit. Or. Gr. Thesis For Heart Of Darkness. p. lxxxiv. Essay Paragraphs Long. Henrichsen.
40 This is university one of Virgil’s directions to the farmer in the first Georgic, where he gives the reason for it, Luxuriem segetum tenera depascit in herba, Cum primum sulcos sequant sata? --Georg. i. 114. 41 Magna offensio vel negligentiae, susceptis rebus, vel perfidiae, receptis. Recipere is used with a reference to others, by whom we allow some duty to be laid upon us; suscipere regards only ourselves.
Ellendt. 42 Inertia. This passage puzzled Lambinus and others, who did not see how the reproach of essay be 3 paragraphs long inertia in an orator could be greater than that of hbs application essay tarditas, or stupidity. But inertia here signifies artis ignorantia, ignorance of his art, which is doubtless the can an be 3 long greatest fault in compare and contrast, an orator Verburg. 43 Because he was then attached to the party of the Gracchi.
Proust. 44 A law of Lucius Apuleius Saturninus, tribune of the people, A.U.C. 652. It is also mentioned in c. 49, But neither the cause nor subject of it is at all known. Ellendt. 45 Superioris generis causa duplicatur. Ellendt explains these words thus: “in the same cause, the allegations of the two parties are judged as two separate questions of the same kind.” 46 Which shows what a speaker ought to say, and what is effective is persuading an audience. Proust. 47 Martius Aquilius, who, after the termination of the servile war in Sicily, was brought to trial on can an essay long, a charge of extortion.
As he was unwilling to entreat the essay pity of the judges, Antonius, who pleaded for him, tore open his tunic in front, and showed the scars of the honourable wounds which he had received in battle. He was acquitted. Livy, Epit. Proust. 48 Norbanus the tribune. See note on c. 47. Ellendt. 49 He was consul with Publius Rutilius, A.U.C. 649; and having refused to unite his troops with those of Quintus Caepio, the proconsul, was defeated by the Cimbri, and lost his army. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long. Livy, Ep. lxvii. For this miscarriage he was, with Caepio, brought to of darkness, trial, and can an essay be 3, must have been defended by Antonius.
Ellendt. 50 Of the trial of Quintus Marcius Rex nothing is known. Ellendt. 51 He was accused of having been bribed to bring Opimius to trial for library thesis, having caused the death of Caius Gracchus. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs. See Smith’s Dict. of Biog. and Mythol. Art.
Decius, n. 4. 52 Innumerable accusations may be brought against a person, as against Verres by university of essex thesis, Cicero; but the loci, common topics or grounds, on which the can an essay long attack or defence will rest, (respecting, for instance, avarice, luxury, violence, treason,) will be but few. Ellendt. 55 See i. 45; also iii. 33; ii 55; and De Legg. i. 3. 56 The words in brackets are regarded by all the best critics as the production of some interpolator.
57 That the hbs application allusion is to the islands of the Sirens, who tried to allure Ulysses to listen to their song, the commentators have already observed. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long. Ellendt. 58 Quum erat in hac gente Magna illa Graecia, “when Great Greece was in (or among) this people.” In hac gente, i.e. in Italis, among the Italians, or in Italy. Compare And Contrast. Ellendt. 59 In one of the can an paragraphs tragedies of Pacuvius were represented two brothers, Amphion and Zethus, the former fond of philosophy, music, and the refined arts, the other of a rougher disposition, addicted to essays about compare and contrast, war and despising science. To this story Horace also alludes, Ep. i. 18.
41: Zethi, dissiluit, donee suspecta severo. Conticuit lyra. Fraternis cessisse putatur. Moribus Amphion. B. 60 In this passage I adopt the correction, or rather restoration, of Ellendt, Nam et omne, quod eloquimur, fit, ut id aut esse dicamus aut non esse. All other modern editions for be 3 paragraphs long, fit have sic. 61 Diogenes, and other Stoics like him. Proust.
62 Terence, Andr. i. Edgar. 1. 83. Can An Essay Paragraphs Long. Colman’s Translation. 63 I follow Ellendt’s text: Sic has ego argumentorum volui notas quaerenti demonstrare ubi sint. Orellius and most other editors have Sic has ego argumentorum novi notas, quae ilia mihi quaerenti demonstrant, “sententia perinepta,” as Ellendt observes; for it was not what Antonius himself knew that was to be specified, but how he wished learners to be assisted. 64 Pacuvius in his Hermione, as appears from Nonius v. flexanima. The thought is borrowed from Euripides, Hec. A. 816. Essay. Ellendt. 65 See note on for heart of darkness, c. 28.
66 See note on c. Be 3 Paragraphs. 47. 67 The forefinger, which Crasaus is hbs application said to hare pointed with wonderful effect. See Quintilian, xi. 3. 94. 68 Spondalia. For this word I have given “verses.” “That it is corrupt,” says Ellendt, “all the commentators agree.” Hermann, Opusc. i. p. 304, conjectures sponda illa, “from that couch,” on which he upposes Telamon may have been reclining. 69 Quintus Servilius Csepio, in can an, his consulship, says Henrichsen, had embezzled a large portion of the sentence for heart gold taken at can an be 3 paragraphs, the capture of Toulouse, A.U.C. 648. In the following year, when, through the disagreement between him and the consul Manlius, the Romans were defeated in essay, two battles by the Cimbri, his property was confiscated, and his command taken from him.
Some years afterwards, A.U.C. 659, when Crassus and Scaevola were consuls, Caius Norbanus, then tribune of the people, brought Caepio to trial, as it appears, for the embezzlement of the gold at Toulouse, and for can an be 3 long, exciting sedition in the city. The senate, to whom Caepio, in his consulship, had tried to about and contrast, restore the judicial power, exerted themselves strongly in his behalf; but Norbanus, after exciting a great tumult, carried his point by force, and Caepio went into banishment at can an essay long, Smyrna. 70 As Caepio had tried to on distributed aesthetics. or what a, take it out of the hands of the knights, and to restore it to the senate. 71 Since public or common fear must affect individuals. 72 Quae si inflammanda sunt. An elegant mode of expresaion, for can an essay paragraphs long, “si ad animos invidia inflammandos adhibenda sunt tanquam faces.” Ernesti. 73 Exitus spissi et producti esse debent. “Non abrupti, sed lenti” Ellendt. “Vehementes et longiores.” Proust. 74 Simul atque intuleris.
Rem sc. “As soon as you have introduced the subject.” 75 Orellius’s text has inferenda; many others, efferenda. There have been various conjectures offered, as infirmamda, evertenda, elevanda, infringenda. The reader may take his choice. 76 Cavillatio.
Ironical or satirical humour seems to be meant. 77 Quippe; leve enim, c. Quippe is equivalent to the Greek eikotos. Ellendt. 78 Ne in rutis quidem et caesis. Ruta were such things as could be removed from houses and other premises without pulling down or damaging any portion of them; caesa, as Proust remarks, refers to the cutting down of trees. 79 Cneius Domitius Ahenobarbus, in his tribuneship, A.U.C. 651, was hostile to the pontifices, because they had not chosen him in the place of his father, and proposed a law that those who were chosen by the pontifices into their body should not be appointed till their choice was sanctioned by the people. Veil. Pat. Library. ii. 12; Suet.
Ner. 2; Cic. Rull, ii. 7. He had some ability in speaking, but was not numbered among eminent orators. Cic. Brut. Can An Paragraphs. 45. Henrichsen. 80 An allusion to the proverb Sus Minervam.
81 He signified that other pleaders were mere brute animals in comparison with Crassus, and therefore to be fed upon thesis sentence of darkness hay. Turnebus. 82 The same that is mentioned by Sallust, as having accused Calpurniua Bestia. 83 Lacerat Lacertum Largi Mordax Memmius. The writer of the article “Memmius” in Dr. Smith’s Biog.
Dict. thinks that Memmius had from some cause the nickname of Mordax. The story of his having eaten or bitten Largius’s arm, appears, from what Cicero says, to have been a mere invention of Crassus. We do not half understand the joke. 84 This jest is from a speech of Crassus against Domitius. The gens Domitia, a family of great nobility, had produced many patricians remarkable, as well for paragraphs long, other vices, as for vanity. Ellendt.
85 These words are from some play now lost. 86 Quaesitor. The magistrate who presided at a quaestio capitalis, whether the praetor or any other. See Cic. Verr. i. 10; Vatin. 14; Sall. Jug. 40. Henrichsen. 87 Whether the thesis or what a joke was directed against him as being unclean, or as being dishonest, is uncertain.
Ellendt. 88 Probably taken from the paragraphs long apophthegms of Cato, and probably, also, a saying of Caius Claudius Nero, who was consul with Marcus Livius, A.U.C. 547, and defeated Hannibal at Sena. Liv. Compare. xxvii. 34. Ellendt. 89 The original is, Num claudicat? at hic clodicat. “What, is he lame? No; but he favours Clodius.” The reader easily sees that the force of the pun, which is be 3 bad enough at the first hand, is entirely lost by a literal translation.
I have been forced to coin two English words from the Latin to convey some idea of it. Thesis On Distributed Or What A. Had Clodius lived in this country, and his name been Greville, I had been as happy as Glaucia; for then I could have said, “Where is the old proverb, What, is can an he gravelled? No; but he is dissertation Grevilled. B. Num claudicat is thought by Strebaeus to have been a common question with regard to a man suspected of want of essay paragraphs judgment or honesty. 90 Quid hoc Naevio ignavius? It is thought to have been a joke of Publius Africanus Major, who, according to some, was accused by the Petilii, tribunes of the people, or, according to others, by a certain Marcus Naevius.
See Liv. xxxviii. 50, 56; Val. Max. iii. 7; A. Gell. iv. 18. Dissertation Hypothesis. But it might have been said by Africanus the younger in essay be 3, reference to some other man. Ellendt. 91 Video me a te circumveniri.
Toup, in his Appendix to Theocritus, suggests that we should read Video me a te non circum, sed hircumveniri, referring to a similar joke of Aristophanes, Acharn. 850. 92 Calvus satis est, quod dicit parum. The meaning is by no means clear, and no change in the punctuation elucidates it. […] Pearce supposes that it is said of a bad orator: “If he were to say more, he would give less satisfaction; what he has said is so far satisfactory, as it is brief.” [. Edgar Allan. ] Henrichsen thinks that calvus might be used metaphorically, as calva oratio for ieiuna; and that the essay long joke is on the ambiguity of the or what word. To me the passage seems inexplicable.
Ellendt. Whether calvus in the text be a proper name or not, is a matter of uncertainty; Turnebus thinks it is essay paragraphs long not. 93 Sannio. The sanniones were so called from sanna, a grimace, and personated ridiculous characters, like the Arlecchini or Pulcinelli of the Italians. On Distributed A. Ellendt. 94 This verse of Lucilius would be unintelligible to us, even if we were certain that the reading of it is sound. Heusinger thinks that Lucilius referred to the game played with nuts, which the author of the elegy entitled “Nux “mentions: Quas puer aut rectus certo dilaminat ictu. Others think that confixum facere signifies merely configere. Ernesti supposes that a sort of dish, made of pieces of flesh, fricasee, is meant. Be 3 Paragraphs. Schutz suggests that, if this be the meaning of confixum, some kind of eatable must be intended by nucula.
But this profits us nothing. Ellendt. 95 Non esse sextantis. A phrase applied either to anything worth more than a sextans, and therefore perhaps of great value, or to anything worth less than a sextans, or of no value at all. Turnebus. 97 Marcus Fulvius Nobilior. Hypothesis Statement. Cato had accused him of can an essay long having taken poets with him into his province, and called him Mobilior, to denote his levity, which, among the allan poe eldorado essay Romans, who were fond of gravity and steadiness, was a great crime. Turnebus. See Cic. Tusc.
Quaest. i. 2. He had also built a temple to the Muses. Cic. Be 3. ib. et Arch. c. 11; Brut. c. 20; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. Ellendt. 98 This appears to us moderns a very poor joke. No translation can make it intelligible to edgar, those who do not understand the original. 99 Divisorem. Divisores were those who distributed money among the tribes, in the name of the candidates, as bribes for their votes.
Sea Cie. Verr. i. Can An Long. 8; Planc. 19. Ellendt. 100 The Lex Licinia Mucia de civibus regendis, A.U.C. 659, by dissertation statement, which it was provided that no one should be accounted a citizen who was not really a citizen. Cic. Off. iii. 11.
Ellendt. 101 Turnebus thinks that the reference is to the Greek proverb, Ei me dunaio boun, elaune onon, “If you cannot drive an ox, drive an ass,” (see Apostol. Essay. Prov. vii. 53; Zenob. iii. 54; ) but that proverb seems inapplicable to this passage. Talaeus and Lambinus suppose, with more probability, that something like this must be understood: Agas asellum, cursum non docebitur.
Asellus is again mentioned in c. 66. Ellendt. 102 Nothing is recorded of that actor in pantomime. Ellendt. 103 This passage is corrupt, but as no emendation of it can be trusted, it will be sufficient to thesis sentence for heart of darkness, enclose Porcius in brackets. Orellius. 104 Ex tui animi sententia tu uxorem habes? The words ex animi sen-teniia had two significations: they were used by the censors in putting questions in the sense of “truly, sincerely;” but they were used in common conversation in the sense of “to a person’s satisfaction.” From the can an be 3 paragraphs long ambiguity of the phrase proceeds the joke. 107 Verba relata contrarie. Which the Greeks call antitheta, when contrariis opponuntur contraria.
Cic. Or. 50. 108 Villam in Tiburte habes, cortem in Palatio. Cora or chors meant a coop, pen, or moveable sheep-fold.
Schutz and Strebaeus, therefore, suppose that Glaucia intended to designate the companions of Metellus as cattle, for which he had a pen on the Palatine. 112 Antonius impudicos hominis mores insectatur, cum Cassandrae ab Aiace post expugnatam Troiam vim illatam fuisse constet. Ellendt. 113 Of Magius nothing is known. Ellendt. 114 The grandfather of the orator, as is clearly shown by hypothesis, Corradus in Quaest. Ernesti. 115 Sub Novis. Understand Tabernis argentariis. See P. Essay Be 3. Fabr. ad Quaest. Acad. iv.
22; Drakenborch ad Liv. xxvi. 27; xliv. 17. Ernesti. 116 Quintus Metellus Macedonicus, as Plutarch relates in his treatise De Fortuna Romanwum, had four sons, whose abilities were in hypothesis statement, proportion to their ages, the youngest being the can an paragraphs least gifted. Hbs Application. Proust. 117 The same anecdote is noticed by Cicero, De Senect. Be 3. c. University Of Essex Library Thesis. 4; and Livy speaks of the occurrence at some length, xxvi. 25. But that the Marcus Livius there mentioned had not the cognomen of Salinator, but of Macatus, is shown by P. Wesseling, Obss. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long. ii. 5; and there seems little doubt that Cicero made a mistake here, as in some other places. Ellendt.
118 We may suppose, says Strebaeus, the woman to have been deformed, and some one to hypothesis statement, have asked the man, “What relation is that woman to you? your sister?” When the man answered, “My wife,” the questioner would exclaim, “And yet, how like you she is! I should have taken her for your sister;” wittily indicating the deformity of the man. 119 The joke, says Schutz, is in the word never, as if it were possible that a man might die several times. 120 A reflection, says Turnebus, on the extraordinary size and magnificence of the can an building. 121 Which Scaurus required to dissertation hypothesis statement, be produced on the trial. 122 Texts vary greatly in this passage. I adhere strictly to that of Orellius. “It appears,” says Pearce, “that Scaevola was accused of extortion, as Cicero says in can an essay paragraphs, his Brutus, and in the first book De Finibus, and that Albucius, to prove the accusation, brought forward some writing of Granius, who, when judgment was given in favour of Scaevola, did not understand that it was at the same time given against his own writing.”
123 He is called the elder, because he had a brother of the same name, the father of Publius Clodius, the enemy of on distributed or what Cicero. Proust. 124 A species of ridicule expressed in a pithy sentence. The example produced requires that we should explain the essay long Cincian law. This cannot be done better than in the words of Dr. Middleton. The business of pleading, says he, though a profession of all others the most laborious, yet was not among the thesis on distributed aesthetics. or what a Romans mercenary, or undertaken for any pay; for it was illegal to take money, or to accept even a present for it; but the richest, the can an essay be 3 paragraphs long greatest, and the noblest of edgar poe eldorado Rome freely offered their talents to the service of their citizens, as the common guardians and protectors of the innocent and distressed.
This was an institution as old as Romulus, who assigned the patronage of the people to the patricians or senators, without fee or reward; but in succeeding ages, when, through the avarice of the nobles, it had become a custom for all clients to long, make annual presents to their patrons, by which the body of the citizens was made tributary as it were to thesis on distributed or what, the senate, M. Cincius, a tribune, published a law prohibiting all senators to take money or gifts on any account, and especially for pleading causes. This Cincian law was made in the year of Rome 549; and recommended to the people, as Cicero tells us, (De Senect. 4,) by Quintus Fabius Maximus, in the extremity of essay be 3 paragraphs his age. Caius Cento was one of the orators who opposed it. Livy, xxxiv. 4, gives us the essays reason for can an essay be 3, passing this law, “Quid legem Cinciam de donis et muneribus, nisi quia vectigalis iam et stipendiaria plebs esse senatui caeperat? “It is also mentioned by Tacitus, Annal. xi. 5: “Consurgunt patres legemque Cinciam flagitant, qua cavetur antiquitus ne quis ob causam orandam pecuniam donumve accipiat.” We also find from the same author, (xi. 7,) that this law was not well observed in Cicero’s time: “prompta sibi exempla quantis mercedibus P. Clodius aut C. Curio concionari soliti sint;” so the university of essex library thesis emperor Claudius confined the fees to can an essay be 3 paragraphs, be allowed not to exceed a certain sum, which amounted to 801.
14s. 7d. of our money, “Capiendia pecuniis posuit modum usque ad dena sestertia, quem egressi repetundarum tenerentur.” The Cincian law, says Dr. Taylor, has been well commented upon by hbs application, several of the moderns, as Ranchinus ii.; Var. vii.; Burgius i.; Elect, xviii.; and Brummerus. B. Turnebus understands the be 3 long sense of the repartee to essay, be, that patrons were not to expect thenceforward to live upon gifts from their clients, but must buy whatever they wished to have. 125 He wishes that labour were as easy as ease. 126 Excluding him from the can an essay number of the knights, to whom a horse was given at the public expense. 127 That is says Proust, was so reported by those who wished to favour him.
129 Antonius returns to the point from which he had digressed at c. 57. 130 Dissimulatum…obruatur. The word ante, which is retained by Oreliius, but is wanting in several manuscripts, I leave untranslated. 131 Antonius mentions seven ways by which the indiscretion of the orator may be of prejudice to the cause, to illustrate his last observation: 1. By irritating a witness, who would not have injured his client without provocation. 2. Dissertation. By not giving way when the arguments press too hard upon him, he may lose his cause. 3. By extolling those qualities in his client which ought to be extenuated, he may do mischief. 4. By throwing invectives upon those who are entitled to the esteem and be 3 paragraphs long, favour of the judges. 5. By upbraiding his adversary with the edgar same defects that are in some of the judges; of which Philip’s derision of a dwarfish evidence, before Lucius Aurifex, who was still lower in stature, was an instance mentioned before.
6. He may plead his own cause rather than that of his client; which blame Cicero seems to have incurred in be 3 paragraphs long, his oration for thesis sentence for heart of darkness, Publius Sextius, a cause in paragraphs long, which he was warmly and hbs application, specially interested. Whoever has any inclination to read the history of that trial, may find it in Dr. Middleton’s Life of Cicero, vol. Can An Essay Paragraphs Long. ii. p. 45, c. 7. By the use of false or repugnant arguments, or such v are foreign to the usage of the bar and judicial proceedings. B. 132 Quod ministratorem peteres, non adversarium. The ministrator was a witness, from whose evidence Antonius had drawn arguments. Ellendt. Whether by adversarius he meant Antonius or not, is, as Henrichsen says, uncertain. Ellendt thinks that Antonius is thesis sentence not meant.
I have however differed from him, as the context seems t indicate that Antonius is meant. 133 Ut in quoque eorum minimum putant esse, ita eum primum volunt dicere. “As in each of essay them they think that there is least, so they wish him to speak first.” 134 Ut in library, oratore. Schutz conjectures in oratoribus, but he had better, as Ellendt observes, have conjectured ex oratoribus. But the text may be correct. 135 Reperientur…sumentur. These words are plural in essay be 3, Orellius’s text, but Ellendt and others seem rightly to on distributed or what, determine that they should be singular. 137 Infrequentibus causis. Infrequens causa is a cause at the pleading of which few auditors are likely to essay long, attend. Ernesti. 138 Faciliora etiam in principiis.
Ellendt justly observes that etiam must be corrupt, and that autem should probably be substituted for it. 139 Samnitium. A kind of poe eldorado essay gladiators so called, that fought with Samnite arms. They had their origin among the Campanians. Liv. ix. 40. 140 Terence, Andr. Act I. Sc. 1. 141 Sapiens enim est consilium. These words I regard as a scholium that has crept into the text.
Ernesti. 142 Quid maxima quasi oratori scena videlur concionis. “Because the be 3 greatest stage, as it were, for an orator, appears [to be that] of a public assembly.” 143 Celeritas. The same word is used in c. 54: hoc quod in celeritate atque dicto est. Schutz conjntured hilaritas. 144 Because words are at the command of the practised orator, and, when matter is supplied, easily occur. Ernesti. 145 A man who has been censor, as you have been.
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Essay: Inca din cele mai vechi timpuri, de la Socrate si Platon… Inca din cele mai vechi timpuri, de la Socrate si Platon, pana astazi la Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hegel si Foucault oamenii au fost preocupati in can an essay, a gasi o forma de organizare si conducere a statului perfect. Thesis! Statul perfect a fost un subiect mereu deschis dezbaterii, dar pe baza caruia nimeni nu a reusit sa gaseasca un raspuns perfect si mai ales fezabil. Can An Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Poate oare fi perfect un stat sau doar perfectibil? Dar ce este statul si cat de mult trebuie sa se implice el in allan essay, viata cetatenilor? De catre cine sa fie ei condusi si mai ales cat de mare sa fie autoritatea liderului? este oare statul cel mai prost administrator? Toate acestea sunt intrebari la care vom oferi raspunsuri rationale in essay paragraphs, cele ce vor urma in hbs application essay, studiul nostru pentru aflarea statului perfect.
Statul, ca forma de organizare sociala, a aparut datorita nevoii de aparare impotriva pericolului extern. Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Totodata, cetatenii unui stat au in of essex library thesis, comun acelasi teritoriu, aceeasi limba, civilizatie, cultura si valori nationale. Can An Essay Be 3 Paragraphs! Toate acestea caracterizeaza o natiuni, si nu un popor. Essay! Poporul are in can an paragraphs, comun doar teritoriu pe care se afla, poate pe care a emigrat si care reprezinta doar un mijloc de a-si satisface trebuintele. Thesis Of Darkness! Statul este cel care administreaza tot patrimoniul national, statul este cel care trebuie sa raspunda nevoilor cetatenilor, dar, pe de alta parte, statul in essay paragraphs long, viziunea neoliberalilor este cel mai prost administrator datorita incapacitatii de a satisface toate nevoile membrilor societatii. In acest context intervin doua probleme fundamentale: 1. About Compare! Puterea si legitimitatea conducatorilor statului si 2. Can An Be 3 Long! Cate de mult trebuie sa actioneze statul astfel incat sa nu afecteze libertatea individuala a cetatenilor. Essays! Asadar, ambele probleme se restrang intr-o singura intrebare: care este raportul cel mai bun dintre autoritatea statala si libertatea individuala? In dezbaterea acestei teze avem ca puncte de referinta patru mari concepte politico-filosofice despre problema legitimitatii, si anume cum trebuie acceptata autoritatea de catre popor. Etatismul prezinta statul care impune in essay be 3 long, mod autoritar norme si legi dupa care societate trebuie sa functioneze. Hbs Application! Totul este controlat de stat, totul este in essay paragraphs, mana conducatorului suprem care isi doreste sa construiasca omul nou, perfect si nu perfectibil, omul nou care sa functioneze din inertie, multilateral dezvoltat, astfel incat societatea sa fie perfecta, e practic o lupta impotriva insasi firii umane, o batalie pe care liderii supremi o pierd de dinainte sa o inceapa. Dissertation! Cele mai elocvente exemple sunt regimurile totalitare: comunismul si nazismul.
Prin insasi firea lor, oamenii sunt nascuti sa traiasca liber, asa incat este inevitabila o decadere a acestor practici politice. Aici putem include si filosofia politica a lui Hegel deoarece filosofia lui Marx s-a bazat tocmai pe studiul lui Hegel, filosofie marxista care, denaturata, va duce la aparitia comunismului. Essay Be 3! Hegel prezinta lumea sub forma de proces, in university of essex library thesis, permanenta miscare, schimbare si dezvoltare. Essay Paragraphs Long! Acesta a creat sistemul idealismului obiectiv original pe baza caruia a argumentat teza despre identitatea dintre existenta si gandire. Essay! Potrivit spuselor lui Hegel, baza lumii o constituie ideea absoluta, spiritul universal care prin insasi natura sa este contradictorie si de aceea se afla intr-o permanenta miscare si autodezvoltare. Can An! Ideea absoluta, asa cum acesta sustine, este ratiunea, gandirea, baza care formeaza esenta tuturor lucrurilor. Thesis On Distributed Aesthetics. Or What A! Dar, o societate rationala nu este neaparat cel mai buna solutie. Can An Essay Be 3! O societate rationala presupune implicit ca toti membrii ei sa fie rationali ori asta inseamna ca fiecare cetatean va urmari sa iti atinga nivelul maxim de satisfactie, fara a mai tine cont de nevoile celor din jurul sau. Hbs Application Essay! Asadar, o societate strict rationala conduce la o contradictie si anume: existen??a competitiei fara cooperare. Be 3 Long! Acestea doua sunt interedependente si conditionate, dar, care, puse laolalta in poe eldorado essay, armonie, duce la progresul si inovarea intregii societati.
Inspirata din teoria lui Hegel, filosofia marxista transforma idealismul in be 3 paragraphs, materialism, care ajunge sa promoveze lupta de clasa, la sfarsitul careia nu mai regasim spiritul intors la sine insusi, ci o societate uniforma, cu oameni ,,egali in on distributed aesthetics., saracie”, societate presupusa a fi libera. Be 3 Long! Pentru Marx, statul nu este altceva decat o expresie a fenomenului de productie, ori cei care domina procesul de productie, au puterea. Hbs Application Essay! Economia este dirijata, planificata, la fel ca actiunile intregii societati. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Totul este planificat, perfect organizat, fara a tine cont de continua dezvoltare si miscare despre care Hegel vorbeste in of essex thesis, ,,Fenomentul Spiritului”. Contractualismul sau teoria contractului social prezinta statul ca forma a vointei majoritati. Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Cetatenii le ofera mandat celor care obtin puterea, iar pe durata acelui mandat se incheie un ,,contract” social pe care alesii trebuie sa il respecte. On Distributed Aesthetics.! De fapt, puterea se bazeaza pe vointa cetatenilor. Long! Originea acestei practici politice este sugerata inca din grecia antica, chiar din dialogurile lui Platon, unde Glaucon sustine ipoteza conform careia dreptatea este rezultatul unei conventii sociale: ,,sa convina ??ntre ei, ca nici sa nu isi faca nedreptati, nici sa nu le aiba de ??ndurat”.Cei 3 mari exponenti ai curentului contractualist sunt: J.J. Essay! Rousseau, Th. Can An Paragraphs! Hobbes si John Lock. University Library Thesis! Contrar lui Marx, Rousseau considera ca puterea nu apare ca o esenta teologica, nici ca o constructie juridica, nici ca o cucerire militara, ci ca o suma de interese.
Statul insusi este consecinta aparitiei proprietatii private ce a fost creat printr-un contract de inselaciune cu scopul de a-si apara proprietatile, tocmai de aceea, sustine filosoful, locul contractului de inselacine trebuie ,,sa-l ia adevaratul contract social”. Can An Essay Be 3! Asadar, suveranitatea trebuie privita ca ,,vointa generala”, asa cum afirma acesta in library, lucrarea ,,Discurs asupra inegalitatii”. Can An Essay Paragraphs! In aceeasi lucrare, Rousseau sustine ideea conform careia nimic nu-i poate compensa unui om pierderea libertatii, care este prezentata ca un ,,element constitutiv al firii umane”. Spusele acestuia sunt intarite si de Hobbes care prezinta in statement, opera ,,Leviathan” faptul ca starea naturala a omului este ,,bellum omnium contra omne”, si deci, oamenii incheie un contract social prin care transfera drepturile individuale si deci puterea, catre stat. Essay Paragraphs Long! Pentru acesta, omul are doua caracteristici: ,,homo homini lupus est”, oamenii sunt egoisti si rationali, adica urmaresc maximizarea satisfacerii propriului scop. Essays And Contrast! De aceea competitia si cooperarea joaca un rol cheie in can an essay paragraphs, societatea bazata pe contract social. Compare And Contrast! Si totusi, contractualistii mai trebuie sa ofere raspuns la o intrebare fundamentala: ce expertiza ar putea sa aiba cineva, pentru a justifica o autoritate politica a acestuia? Un raspuns dat de Platon ??n Republica a fost: ,,e vorba de cunoasterea pe care o are omul drept,cel care stie ce este o cetate dreapta.
Autoritatea sa nu deriva din trasaturi naturale ale sale, nu i-a fost data de cineva, ci deriva din expertiza sa, din acele cunostinte efective pe care le are si care ??l ajuta sa faca astfel ??nc??t toti membrii societatiisa fie fericiti.” Viziunea liberala despre stat are ca principal exponent pe J.S.Mill. Essay Long! Pincipiul fundamental pe care acestia si-au construit intreaga filosofie este libertatea individuala, suveranitatea individului, incat acesta sa actioneze pe cont propriu, functie de resursele pe care le are, asa incat sa isi satisfaca scopurile si sa imi maximizeze satisfactia. Of Essex Thesis! Statul nu trebuie sa sa isi propuna bunastarea generala a tuturor cetatenilor, care pentru liberali reprezinta o viziune utopica, imposibil de realizat. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Pentru acestia, statul trebuie sa adopte legi generale asa incat fiecare sa le poata adapta propriilor nevoi, tinand cont totusi de anumite pincipii si norme general valabile. Dissertation Statement! Cetatenii fiind liberi au la dispozitie piata libera, economia de schimb prin care isi pot satisface trebuintele, statul avand doar rolul de a veghea la respectarea legii, de a se asigura c?? fiecare respecta ,,regulile jocului”. Essay Paragraphs! Dar ce se intampla atunci cand cineva care, actionand pentru a-si atinge propriul scop, recurge la incalcarea libertatii celor din jur? J.S.Mill sustine ideea conform careia este autorizata interventia unui factor extern, asa cum este statul, atunci cand actiunile unui individ aduc atingere celorlalti. And Contrast! Din aceasta perspectiva, competitia si cooperarea sunt principalii vectori pentru dezvoltarea sustenabila a societatii, interventia statului fiind permisa doar in be 3 paragraphs, conditiile in of essex library thesis, care libertatea celuilalt este afectata de actiunile altuia.
Respingerea implicarii statului in long, problemele cetatenilor este sustinuta si de catre Friedrich Hayek in sentence, lucrarea ,,Drumul catre servitute” prin care prezinta faptul ca statul, impunand legi specifice si incercand sa rezolve probleme cetatenilor, nu face altceva decat sa produca o intreaga serie de abuzuri sistematice. Essay Paragraphs! Asadar, asa cum sustine si Mill, daca faptele sale nu ii afecteaza pe ceilalti, fiecare are dreptul de a actiona precum doreste. Compare! Daca respectivul act se rasfr??nge exclusiv asupra celui care ??l comite, societatea nu are nici un drept de a interveni, chiar daca persoana ??si face rau. Long! Totodata, acestia apara cu tarie libertatea de exprimare, spunand ca orice id??e poate contine ceva productiv, iar ascultarea tuturor acestora nu poate afecta cu nimic, din contra. A patra viziune despre stat, si ultima prezentata in allan essay, cercetarea noastra, este cea anarhista.
Acestia nu vad necesitatea unui stat si considera ca dezordinea rezultata din lipsa unei autoritati publice este mai benefica decat o putere institutionalizata. Be 3 Paragraphs! Aceasta teorie a aparut ca reactie impotriva statului minimal, reprezentand forma de organizare care nu ingrijeste de proprii cetateni. Essay! Proudhon acuza statul ca se comporta ca o intreprindere ce are ca principal obiectiv, jefuirea sistematica a cetatenilor prin taxe si impozite si tot el acuza guvernantii de impunerea propriei vointe, ce anuleaza libertatea individuala a cetateanului. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Bukunin sustine ideea conform careia statul nu are niciun fel de legitimitate, si stransforma binele public in thesis for heart of darkness, binele individual al guvernantilor sau il anuleaza. Can An Paragraphs Long! Astfel, anarhistii sustin existenta ordinii nascuta prin libertate si nu prin intermediul statului. Hypothesis! Ca unul dintre principalii reprezentanti ai anarhismului, R. Essay! Nozick formuleaza principiul dreptatii in dissertation statement, transfer ce are rolul de a conserva dreptul moral conferit de achizi??ia ini??iala atunci c??nd o posesiune trece in essay long, proprietatea altuia, ??ndrepta??irea morala este preservata. University Of Essex Library! Ca proceduri de transfer pe care Nozick se pare ca le prefera sunt schimburile voluntare efectuate in essay be 3, cadrul pie??ei. Hbs Application! ??n viziunea sa, avem astfel o condi??ie suficienta pentru dreptatea unei distribu??ii de bunuri ??i posesiuni, asupra carora fiecare este indrepta??it sa le de??ina. Trecem asadar spre a clarifica o alta problema fundamentala in can an essay be 3 paragraphs long, conturarea statului perfect si anume, autoritatea. Essay! Aceasta se bazeaza pe atitudinea de supunere a oamenilor ce este determinata de anumite motivatii, tocmai din aceasta cauza autoritatea imbraca mai multe forme, iar dupa clasificarea lui Max Weber ea poate fi traditionala, harismatica sau legala. Dar acum intervin alte doua probleme la care trebuie sa gasim raspuns. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Fara constrangere ca instrument al constituirii politice, statul dispare, locul sau fiind luat de anarhie.
Autoritatea politica este echivalenta cu capacitatea de a face sa creasca posibilitatile unu persoane sau institutii de a obtine de la membrii unei comunitati sociale, respectul si ascultarea fata de actiunile si masurile pe care acestia le adopta. Thesis On Distributed! Statul presupune in essay be 3 paragraphs long, mod necesar constrangere; precum libertatea, care in library, sens singular nu exista, ea trebuie intotdeauna raportata la ceva. Paragraphs Long! Dar nu orice constrangere sta la baza unui stat, ci doar cele considerate legitime. Library! Inseamna deci ca definitia data de Weber este ca statul este institutia care foloseste dominatia in can an essay be 3 paragraphs long, spatiu, in university library, teritoriu, in essay be 3 long, timp si istorie, detinand monopolul asupra violentei legitime. Mai mult, pentru ca statul sa existe, trebuie ca cei dominati sa se supuna autoritatii. Edgar Allan Poe Eldorado! Aceasta supunere are ca mobil autoritatea traditiei, harului sau persoanei, pentru ca statul, opus anarhiei ca situatie de organizare politica, se intemeiaza pe acceptarea constrangerii. Be 3! Iar acum, intervine inevitabil o intrebare justificata: Ce ii determina pe membrii societatii sa se supuna autoritatii celor care pretind a fi dominatori la un moment dat. Dissertation Statement! Weber explica care sunt justificarile interioare si instrumentele legitimitatii, formuland trei tipuri de mobiluri subiective:
1. Can An Be 3 Paragraphs! autoritatea traditionala, a carei legitimitate se bazeaza pe importanta trecutului si pe acceptarea acestuia. For Heart Of Darkness! Se bazeaza pe o cutuma, considerara a fi semna de urmat datorita vechimii imemorabile a acesteia si este caracteristica societatii arhaice. 2. Paragraphs Long! autoritate harismatica apeleaza la transcendenta, principiu cu ajutorul caruia conducatorul are parte de o relatie privilegiata. University Library! Se bazeaza pe harul unei persoane si pe increderea celorlalti in can an essay be 3, calitatile ale, in hbs application, taletul sau de conducator. Can An Essay! In acest caz, conducatorul detine de unul singur autoritatea, fidelii sai beneficiind doar de insarcinari exceptionale. 3. Dissertation Statement! Autoritatea legala sau rationala se sprijina pe un corp de reguli generale, legale, iar titularul lui se inscrie intr-o sfera limitat actiune. Asadar, autoritatea se bazeaza pe o atitudine de supunere a oamenilor determinata de motivatii puternic legate de temeiuri sau sperante. Incheiem aici asadar cercetarea noastra cu privire la temele de refeinta pentru un stat si vom continua prin a creiona statul perfect. Statul perfect trebuie sa aiba ca forma de guvernamant monarhia parlamentara. Can An Essay Be 3 Long! Prin aceasta modalitate, putem oferi usor raspunsuri legate de legitimitatea conducatorilor.
Statul are in sentence for heart, acest caz doi lideri, un monarh si un conducator al guvernului. Can An Essay Be 3! Monarhul se bucura de o mare legitimitate si autoritate harismatica, bazandu-se mai ales pe abilitatile de bun lider al oamenilor cultivate pe toata perioada vietii prin educatie. Hbs Application Essay! Este venit pe acesta lume cu acest scop, bine definit. Be 3! O intreaga traditie, cu nenumarate valori si principii de care se bucura un viitor monarh astfel incat, atunci cand va prelua puterea, acesta sa fie un simbol al statului pe care il reprezinta. Dissertation Hypothesis! Principala atributie a monarhului este de politica externa. Essay! Acesta trebuie sa mentina legaturile diplomatice cu celelalte state si cu casele regale. University! Seful guvernului este ales ca urmare a vointei majoritatii. Essay Be 3 Paragraphs Long! Acesta este desemnat de catre partidul care obtine majoritatea la alegerile parlamentare. Of Darkness! Primul ministru are in be 3 paragraphs, subordine cabinetul de ministrii pe care il formeaza functie de nevoile fiecarul stat si beneficiaza de legitimitate si autoritate legala. Statement! Acesta colaboreaza cu institutia monarhului privind politicile publice si problemele de politica externa. Essay: CSR vizeaza toate cele patru dimensiuni … Essay: Studiu privind inspectia fiscala exercitata asupra…
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