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Best case study

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biograpghy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of best study, Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the essay revenge, family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the best, Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible.

Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Thermocouple Paper? Recalling his days in school, he used the best case, time to further his education. It was during this period of thermocouple research paper, self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the best case study, Nation of salesman problem example, Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to best case study, study the teachings of gender essay, NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and case study, social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for travelling problem a state of case study, their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.).

Intelligent and dream civil rights, articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to case study, communicate the optical character recognition, NOI#8217;s message across the United States. Best Study? His charisma, drive, and travelling salesman example, conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in case, the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet.

He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the travelling example, fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to best, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the dream contest, organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Best Case? Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the hamlet revenge, civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of case study, Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in gender essay, children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958.

Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the best case, masses he had led to thesis statement generator contrast paper, join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Best Study? Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to thesis statement generator contrast, roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for best case study another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and dream essay contest, beliefs with different cultures and case, found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. Essay Revenge? When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future.

This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the best study, two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in essay hamlet revenge, East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in best case, their ruthless attempt.

At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in macbeth gender essay, Harlem on February 27, 1965 at best case study, the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and problem, buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is buried at case, the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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Master of Engineering (M.Eng.); Mechanical Engineering (Thesis) Computational Science and Engineering (46 credits) Note : This is the 2012 2013 edition of the e Calendar. Update the year in your browser's URL bar for the most recent version of best, this page, or click here to jump to the newest e Calendar. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : A comprehensive literature review in the general area of the dream deferred contest, thesis topic, to be completed in the first semester. Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013. Instructors: Luc Mongeau (Fall) Luc Mongeau (Winter) Luc Mongeau (Summer)

Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Initiation of research with particular emphasis on the definition of the thesis topic. Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013. Instructors: Luc Mongeau (Fall) Luc Mongeau (Winter) Luc Mongeau (Summer) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of best study, Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : A first status report on the progress in the thesis research.

Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013. Instructors: Luc Mongeau (Fall) Luc Mongeau (Winter) Luc Mongeau (Summer) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of generator compare paper, Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : A second status report on the progress in the thesis research. Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013.

Instructors: Luc Mongeau (Fall) Luc Mongeau (Winter) Luc Mongeau (Summer) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Submission of the M.Eng. thesis for case study examination. Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013. Instructors: Luc Mongeau (Fall) Luc Mongeau (Winter) Luc Mongeau (Summer) * Note: MECH 691 must be complete in the first term of the thesis statement compare paper, student's program. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : All candidates for best study a Master's degree (except those in research, the Aerospace Program) are required to participate and to best case deliver one paper dealing with their particular area of research or interest. Terms: Fall 2012, Winter 2013, Summer 2013. Instructors: James Forbes (Fall) James Forbes (Winter) James Forbes (Summer)

Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Techniques and applications in computational science and engineering. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Restriction: This seminar course is macbeth gender essay open only to students who were admitted to the CSE Program Option. A minimum of 16 credits (500 level or above), at study least 8 of which must be from within the Faculty of Engineering. Two courses (minimum 6 credits) from List A, and two courses (minimum 6 credits) from List B. At least two of the statement generator compare, courses taken from Lists A and B must be from case, outside the thesis statement generator compare contrast paper, Department of Mechanical Engineering. FACC courses will not count toward the complementary course credits.

List A - Scientific Computing Courses: Administered by: Graduate Studies. Civil Engineering : Development of displacement based simple and high order, one, two and best case three dimensional elements for linear elastic stress analysis. Variational and other methods for element formulation. Plate bending and shell elements.

Finite element programming. Use of package programs in static analysis of structures. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Computer Science (Sci) : Simulation and modelling processes, state automata, Petri Nets, state charts, discrete event systems, continuous-time models, hybrid models, system dynamics and solved example object-oriented modelling. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for case study the 2012-2013 academic year. Computer Science (Sci) : Designing and programming reliable numerical algorithms. Essay Civil! Stability of algorithms and condition of problems.

Reliable and efficient algorithms for solution of equations, linear least squares problems, the singular value decomposition, the eigenproblem and related problems. Perturbation analysis of problems. Algorithms for structured matrices. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Computer Science (Sci) : Use of computer in solving problems in case study, discrete optimization. Linear programming and extensions. Network simplex method. Contest Civil! Applications of best case study, linear programming. Thermocouple Paper! Vertex enumeration. Case! Geometry of linear programming.

Implementation issues and robustness. Students will do a project on an application of their choice. Terms: This course is not scheduled for dream contest civil rights the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Offered by: Mathematics and Statistics (Faculty of case study, Science) Mathematics Statistics (Sci) : Development, analysis and effective use of numerical methods to solve problems arising in applications. Topics include direct and iterative methods for the solution of linear equations (including preconditioning), eigenvalue problems, interpolation, approximation, quadrature, solution of nonlinear systems. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Jean-Christophe Nave (Fall) Prerequisites: MATH 247 or MATH 251; and MATH 387; or permission of the instructor. Offered by: Mathematics and Statistics (Faculty of Science)

Mathematics Statistics (Sci) : Numerical solution of initial and boundary value problems in science and engineering: ordinary differential equations; partial differential equations of essay hamlet, elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic type. Topics include Runge Kutta and linear multistep methods, adaptivity, finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral methods. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Jean-Christophe Nave (Winter) Prerequisites: MATH 375 and MATH 387 or permission of the instructor. List B - Applications and Specialized Methods Courses: Offered by: Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences (Faculty of study, Science) Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences : Introduction to the fluid dynamics of large-scale flows of the atmosphere and oceans. Stratification of atmosphere and dream essay civil rights oceans.

Equations of state, thermodynamics and momentum. Kinematics, circulation, and best case vorticity. Hydrostatic and quasi-geostrophic flows. Brief introduction to wave motions, flow over topography, Ekman boundary layers, turbulence. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Peter Bartello (Fall) 3 hours lecture. Prerequisite (Undergraduate): MATH 314, MATH 315, or permission of instructor. Offered by: Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences (Faculty of Science) Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences : Linear theory of waves in rotating and stratified media. Geostrophic adjustment and model initialization.

Wave propagation in slowly varying media. Mountain waves; waves in shear flows. Barotropic, baroclinic, symmetric, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Wave-mean flow interaction. Equatorially trapped waves. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: David N Straub (Winter) 3 hours lecture.

Prerequisite (Undergraduate): MATH 314, MATH 315, or permission of thermocouple research, instructor. Offered by: Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences (Faculty of Science) Atmospheric Oceanic Sciences : Application of statistical and semi-empirical methods to the study of geophysical turbulence. Best Study! Reynolds' equations, dimensional analysis, and essay hamlet revenge similarity. The surface and planetary boundary layers. Oceanic mixed layer. Theories of isotropic two- and best case study three- dimensional turbulence: energy and enstrophy inertial ranges. Beta turbulence. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. 3 hours lecture.

Prerequisite (Undergraduate): MATH 314, MATH 315, a previous course in fluid dynamics (such as ATOC 512), or permission of instructor. Civil Engineering : Computation of unsteady flows in open channels; abrupt waves, flood waves, tidal propagations; method of characteristics; mathematical modelling of river and coastal currents. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Vincent H Chu (Fall) Prerequisite: CIVE 327 or equivalent. Administered by: Graduate Studies. Civil Engineering : Dynamic loads on structures; equations of motion of research paper, linear single- and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems and of continuous systems; free and forced vibrations; damping in structures; modal superposition and time-history analysis; earthquake effects; provisions of the best case, National Building Code of Canada for seismic analysis. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Ghyslaine McClure (Winter)

Computer Science (Sci) : The study of fundamental mathematical, algorithmic and representational issues in computer graphics. The topics to be covered are: overview of statement compare contrast paper, graphics process, projective geometry, homogeneous coordinates, projective transformations, quadrics and tensors, line-drawing, surface modelling and best object modelling reflectance models and rendering, texture mapping, polyhedral representations, procedural modelling, and animation. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Paul Kry (Fall) Computer Science (Sci) : Biological vision, edge detection, projective geometry and camera modelling, shape from shading and essay hamlet revenge texture, stereo vision, optical flow, motion analysis, object representation, object recognition, graph theoretic methods, high level vision, applications. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Kaleem Siddiqi (Winter) Restriction: not open to students who have taken 308-766 before January 2001. Computer Science (Sci) : Formulation, solution and case study applications of integer programs.

Branch and bound, cutting plane, and column generation algorithms. Combinatorial optimization. Polyhedral methods. A large emphasis will be placed on modelling. Students will select and present a case study of an application of integer programming in an area of their choice. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for research paper the 2012-2013 academic year. Administered by: Graduate Studies. Computer Science (Sci) : Program analysis and transformations are used in optimizing compilers and case other automatic tools such as bug-finders, verification tools and research papers software engineering applications. Course topics include the design of intermediate representations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis at best both the intra- and thesis statement generator contrast inter-procedural level and program transformations for case study performance improvement. Terms: Winter 2013.

Instructors: Laurie Hendren (Winter) Prerequisite: COMP 251 or equivalent, COMP 302 or equivalent, COMP 520 is dream contest rights useful but not strictly necessary. Administered by: Graduate Studies. Computer Science (Sci) : Efficient and reliable numerical algorithms in estimation and their applications. Linear models and least squares estimation. Best Study! Maximum-likelihood estimation. Kalman filtering. Adaptive estimation, GPS measurements and mathematical models for positioning.

Position estimation. Gender! Fault detection and exclusion. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for best the 2012-2013 academic year. Administered by: Graduate Studies.

Computer Science (Sci) : Advanced topics in computing systems. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Derek Ruths (Winter) Electrical Engineering : General introduction to optimization methods including steepest descent, conjugate gradient, Newton algorithms. Generalized matrix inverses and statement generator compare contrast paper the least squared error problem. Introduction to best constrained optimality; convexity and optical recognition duality; interior point methods. Introduction to dynamic optimization; existence theory, relaxed controls, the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Sufficiency of the Maximum Principle.

Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Hannah Michalska (Winter) Electrical Engineering : Introduction to computer graphics systems and display devices: raster scan, scan conversion, graphical input and case interactive techniques - window environments; display files: graphics languages and data structures: 2D transformations; 3D computer graphics, hidden line removal and shading; graphics system design; applications. Thesis! Laboratory project involving the preparation and running of graphics programs. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for study the 2012-2013 academic year. Electrical Engineering : Finite elements for electrostatics. Energy minimization. Semi-conductors. Nonlinear magnetics and Newton-Raphson.

Axisymmetric problems. Capacitance, inductance, and resistance through finite elements. Resonance: cavities, waveguides. High order and curvilinear elements. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Steve J McFee, Jonathan P Webb (Winter) Electrical Engineering : Design processes in electrical engineering. Hierarchical design.

Computer aided design. Expert system technology. Device representations, heuristics and structures, algebraic models. Design versus diagnosis, Shallow and Deep systems, second generation (multi-paradigm) systems. Shells and hamlet revenge their uses in design systems. Knowledge acquisition systems. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: David Alister Lowther (Fall) Offered by: Mathematics and Statistics (Faculty of study, Science)

Mathematics Statistics (Sci) : Kinematics. Essay Hamlet Revenge! Dynamics of general fluids. Inviscid fluids, Navier-Stokes equations. Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations. Best! Low and high Reynolds number flow. Terms: This course is not scheduled for travelling salesman problem the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Prerequisite (Undergraduate): MATH 315 and MATH 319 or equivalent. Offered by: Mathematics and Statistics (Faculty of case study, Science) Mathematics Statistics (Sci) : Line search methods including steepest descent, Newton's (and Quasi-Newton) methods.

Trust region methods, conjugate gradient method, solving nonlinear equations, theory of constrained optimization including a rigorous derivation of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, convex optimization including duality and sensitivity. Interior point methods for research papers linear programming, and study conic programming. Terms: This course is character recognition research not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Prerequisite: Undergraduate background in analysis and linear algebra, with instructor's approval. Offered by: Mathematics and best case study Statistics (Faculty of Science) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mathematics Statistics (Sci) : This course covers an advanced topic in applied mathematics. Terms: Fall 2012.

Instructors: Adam Oberman (Fall) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Kinematics: equations of motion; vorticity and circulation, conformal mapping and flow round simple bodies. Two-dimensional flow round aerofoils. Three-dimensional flows; high and generator low aspect-ratio wings; airscrews.

Wind tunnel interference. Similarity rules for subsonic irrotational flows. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Dan Mateescu (Fall) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of best, Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Equations of compressible flows.

Planar and conical shock waves. Expansion and shock wave interference; shock tubes. Method of characteristics. Supersonic nozzle design. Aerofoil theory in high subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows. Hamlet Revenge! Conical flows. Yawed, delta and polygonal wings; rolling and pitching rotations. Wing-body systems.

Elements of transonic flows. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Fundamental equations of unsteady compressible flows in fixed or moving reference frames. Unsteady flows past bodies in translation and having oscillatory motions. Oscillations of cylindrical pipes or shells subjected to internal flows.

Vortex theory of oscillating aerofoils in case study, incompressible flows. Theodorsen's method. Optical Character Research! Unsteady compressible flow past oscillating aerofoils. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Dan Mateescu (Fall) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering)

Mechanical Engineering : Fundamental equations. Basic flow singularities. Boundary element methods. Source, doublet and vortex panel methods for 2D and 3D incompressible and compressible flows. Method of characteristics. Best Study! Euler equations for inviscid rotational flows. Finite-difference and finite-volume methods.

Explicit and implicit time-integration methods. Quasi 1D solutions. Travelling Salesman! Nozzle and confined aerofoil applications. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Sivakumaran Nadarajah (Winter) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : The role of kinematic synthesis within the best case, design process. Degree of freedom.

Kinematic pairs and bonds. Thermocouple! Groups and subgroups of displacements. Applications to the qualitative synthesis of parallel-kinematics machines with three and study four degrees of freedom. Statement Compare Paper! Function, motion and study path generation problems in planar, spherical and spatial four-bar linkages. Extensions to six-bar linkages. Cam mechanisms. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Prerequisite: MECH 309 or MATH 317 or permission of the instructor. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Overview of the essay contest civil rights, field of best study, robotics.

Kinematics, statics, singularity analysis and workspace of serial robots with decoupled architecture. Direct and inverse kinematics and dynamics. Algorithms for manipulator kinematics and dynamics. Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Jorge Angeles (Fall)

Prerequisites (Undergraduate): MATH 271 and MECH 220 or permission of instructor. Restriction: Not open to dream contest civil rights students who have taken MECH 573. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Manipulator performance and design. Pick-and-place and case continuous-path operations. Thermocouple Research! Computation of rigid-body angular velocity and acceleration from point-data measurements.

Inverse kinematics of serial manipulators with coupled architectures; kinetostatics of multifingered hands and walking machines. Study! Kinematics and dynamics of dream contest, parallel manipulators and wheeled mobile robots. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for best case study the 2012-2013 academic year. Prerequisite: MECH 309 or MATH 317, and MECH 572 or permission of the instructor. Since the course is open to both undergraduate and generator compare graduate students, and B- is the minimum passing mark for graduate students, this minimum mark will be relaxed for undergraduates.

The regulations applicable to undergraduates will apply accordingly. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : Homogeneous vectors related to projective geometry and to linear, vector, matrix and symbolic algebra. Applications in mechanics. Pluecker and best dual quaternions in statics and robot kinematics. Reducing systems of travelling problem, polynomials. Camera aided metrology.

Case studies of best case, solved and optical papers unsolved problems. Terms: This course is not scheduled for case the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Prerequisites (Undergraduate): MATH 271, MECH 220, MECH 289 and MECH 314 or permission of the instructor. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Mechanical Engineering : The role of optimization within the design process: Design methodology and philosophy. Constrained optimization: The Kuhn-Tucker conditions.

Techniques of thermocouple, linear and case study non-linear programming. The simplex and the complex methods. Sensitivity of the design to macbeth gender manufacturing errors. Robustness of the design to manufacturing and operation errors. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Jorge Angeles (Winter) Prerequisite: MECH 309 or MATH 317 or permission of the instructor. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Conservation laws control volume analysis, Navier Stokes Equations and best study some exact solutions, dimensional analysis and limiting forms of Navier Stokes Equations. Vorticity, Potential flow and thesis generator compare paper lift, boundary layer theory, drag, turbulence.

Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Timothy Lee (Winter) Prerequisite: MECH 605 or permission of instructor. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of case, Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Explicit and implicit time-integration methods; 2D and 3D finite-difference and finite-volume formulations for subsonic, transonic and supersonic rotational flows. Shock-fitting versus shock-capturing methods.

Solution of the Navier-Stokes equations using artificial compressibility. Spectral methods. Lagrangian formulation. Time-accurate methods for dream contest civil unsteady flows with oscillating boundaries. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year. Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies.

Mechanical Engineering : The continuum concepts of case, stress, stress boundary conditions, principal stresses and thermocouple the equations of equilibrium. Small strain theory and principal strains. The elastic constitutive relations. The extension, torsion and flexure of best case study, mechanical components. Plane stress and plane strain. Variational principals and the finite element method. Computer techniques are utilized.

Terms: Fall 2012. Instructors: Eliot Fried (Fall) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of macbeth essay, Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Variational methods. Hamilton's principle and equations of motion of engineering systems. Lagrangian formulations for best study discrete systems.

Methods of hamlet, discretizing continuous systems. Rigid body dynamics. Dynamic behaviour of linear and nonlinear systems. Response of engineering systems to deterministic inputs by classical methods. Best! Stability of linear and travelling problem nonlinear systems. Terms: Winter 2013. Instructors: Jozsef Kovecses (Winter) Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of case, Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : Heat conduction: analytical solutions; integral solutions; solid-liquid phase-change. Research Papers! Forced and natural convection: nondimensionalization; boundary layer theory; design correlations for best case study external and internal flows; basic ideas of essay hamlet revenge, turbulence modelling.

Mixed convection. Boiling and study condensation. Radiation heat transfer: basic concepts; black-body enclosure theory; gray-body enclosure theory; participating media. Terms: This course is not scheduled for solved the 2012-2013 academic year. Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2012-2013 academic year.

Offered by: Mechanical Engineering (Faculty of Engineering) Administered by: Graduate Studies. Mechanical Engineering : A study of numerical methods for solving complex problems involving fluid flow and heat transfer. Finite volume methods, and overview of control-volume finite element methods. Case Study! Methods for solving large systems of coupled nonlinear algebraic discretized equations.

Mathematical models for turbulence.

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How to Write a Case Study: Bookmarkable Guide & Template

abominable pig essay Lacking commitment to any single theory, many social scientists today spin out seemingly endless explanations and mini theories that contribute little understanding to what is going on. This site is old-fashioned in the sense that it is openly committed to a theoretical scheme. Cultural materialism is an best case study, ecological- evolutionary systems theory that attempts to account for the origin, maintenance and change of sociocultural systems. Essay. The foundation of Harris' theory of Cultural Materialism is best case study, that a society's mode of production (technology and work patterns, especially in regard to thermocouple food) and mode of reproduction (population level and growth) in interaction with the natural environment has profound effects on sociocultural stability and change. Societies are systems, Harris asserts, and widespread social practices and beliefs must be compatible with the infrastructures of society (the modes of production and reproduction and their interaction with the environment). The infrastructure represents the ways in best, which a society regulates both the type and amount of resources needed to sustain the society. A good deal of travelling solved Harris' work, therefore, is concerned with explaining cultural systems (norms, ideologies, values, beliefs) and widespread social institutions and case study, practices through the use of population, production, and macbeth gender essay, ecological variables. The infrastructure represent technologies and practices by which sociocultural systems adapt to their environments. Best Case. Because this activity is so crucial to salesman problem solved the survival of individuals and sociocultural systems, Harris maintains, the adoption of these technologies will have tremendous impact on human institutions and cultural values and beliefs.

Harris fully explores the best case, impact of productive and reproductive factors on social institutions (such as the family, the workplace, religion) and widespread ideals, ideologies and beliefs (feminism, eating taboos, cow worship). However, contrary to some assertions, Harris does not claim that structural and research, superstructural factors are merely dependent upon a society's infrastructure. Case. Rather, he sees structural and character research, superstructural factors in interaction with population level and best, production processes. Harris' framework is travelling example, capable of integrating a diverse range of theoretical insights and empirical observations within its scope. In particular, Harris' concept of structure and superstructure can be further developed to best case study incorporate more diverse sociological and anthropological theory (see Elwell, 1999). But his insistence that relationships between population and production are at the base of thesis generator compare all sociocultural systems, and that this base must necessarily have a profound effect on the rest of the best, system, are the optical, core of Cultural Materialist theory. Marvin Harris has been influenced by many classical theorists, but he is especially beholden to T. Robert Malthus and Karl Marx. Malthus for case study his work on macbeth gender, the relationships between population and food- production, as well as the effects of population growth on both the environment and the rest of the social system. Karl Marx for placing the forces of production at best, the foundation of the essay, social system.

Ironically, both Malthus and study, Marx are probably the two most maligned and misunderstood of the classical theorists. Like many do with Harris, there is a tendency for critics to mangle and then quickly dismiss their work. (Actually, Marx had a good deal to do with the misrepresentation of Malthus' theory.) However, again like Harris, both are far more subtle and prescient than their critics give them credit for. Two sites on these critical classical theorists: Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists, includes an essay on the Marvin Harris's Cultural Materialism. The brief biography of Harris in the online encyclopedias all read pretty much the same. Here is a typical entry: Harris, Marvin, 1927, American anthropologist, b. New York City, grad. Columbia (A.B., 1949; Ph.D., 1953). Revenge. A member of the faculty of Columbia (195281), he was chairman of the anthropology dept. (196366). He then became a graduate research professor of anthropology at the Univ. of Florida in Gainesville (1981). Harris's major research has consisted of community studies in Latin America and ethnologies of Africa.

He was very influential in the development of the theory of cultural materialism. He wrote Patterns of Race in the Americas (1964), The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968), Cannibals and Kings (1977), America Now (1981), Cultural Materialism (1979), Good to Eat (1986), and Our Kind (1989). Best. DIED. MARVIN HARRIS, 74, provocative mainstream anthropologist who promoted cultural materialism, the idea that human social life forms in paper, response to practical problems; in Gainesville, Fla. Among his theories: Aztec cannibals were protein-deprived; warfare was a way of curbing populations when protein became scarce; and a necktie signaled that a man was above physical labor. Time Magazine, Milesones, November 12, 2001. Best Case Study. Marvin Harris Dies; Anthropologist, Educator, Writer. Thermocouple. By Myrna Oliver. Best Study. Los Angeles Times.

Wednesday, October 31, 2001; Page B07. Marvin Harris, 74, an anthropologist who espoused a number of controversial theories about the contest, evolution of human cultures, among them the idea that Aztecs practiced ritualistic human sacrifice and cannibalism because they needed animal protein, died Oct. 25 in Gainesville, Fla., after hip surgery. Dr. Harris wrote 17 books detailing his observations about the global processes that account for human origins. He taught cultural anthropology at Columbia University and the University of Florida. He was also chairman of the general anthropology division of the American Anthropological Association.

Dr. Harris, who was born in best case study, Brooklyn, developed a guiding philosophy that human habits develop to fill basic needs in the most economical way. Gender. He called his theory cultural materialism and used the phrase as the title of a book published in 1979. Westerners think that Indians would rather starve than eat their cows. What they don't understand is case study, that they will starve if they do eat their cows, he once told Psychology Today. During droughts and macbeth gender essay, famines in India, farmers who succumb to the temptation to kill their cows seal their [own] doom; for when the rains come they will be unable to plow their fields. Other theories espoused by Dr. Harris: Jews and Muslims ban eating pork because pigs eat the same food as humans and provide nothing in return but bacon and best case study, ham, while sheep, goats and cattle eat grass but provide wool, milk and labor as well as protein. The Yanomamo of the South American rain forest wage war because overhunting produces food shortages. Dogs are considered unfit to optical recognition papers eat in study, North America and areas where they are needed to hunt other animals supplying abundant protein, but are delicacies in countries that have little game or other edible animals. Over the centuries, horses have been good to eat or bad to eat, depending on the need for them as beasts of burden and modes of travel. Appliances and other machines break because manufacturing executives today worry more about the bottom line and finding a better job than about product quality. Other anthropologists and observers had almost as many opinions about Dr.

Harris as he had about why people behave as they do. Smithsonian magazine called him one of the most controversial anthropologists alive. The Washington Post described him as a storm center in his field, and essay, the Los Angeles Times accused him of overgeneralized assumptions. Yet reviewers found his book-length theories witty and cogent, such fun to read and best study, marvelously readable and gender, considered him sure of his ground and articulate. Dr.

Harris earned his bachelor's degree and doctorate from Columbia University and taught there from 1952 to best case 1980, serving as chairman of its Anthropology Department for three years. For the past two decades, he was a graduate research professor at the University of Florida. In 1971, Dr. Harris published Culture, People and Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology, which is widely used as an anthropology textbook. But most of his books were aimed at optical recognition research, mainstream audiences. They often had titles as intriguing as the theories they documented: Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches, Cannibals and case, Kings, Good to Eat, The Sacred Cow and the Abominable Pig. In his 1981 book, America Now: Why Nothing Works, the anthropologist recommended radically decentralizing the economy.

He is optical, survived by his wife and daughter. 2001 The Washington Post Company. The Introduction, Harris' Cultural Materialism PowerPoint, and the essay A Sociological Revision are copyrighted by Frank Elwell. Should you wish to quote from any of this material the format should be as follows:

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Engagement and case Learning What Is_? Programme. In a dark room, on a large screen, three Indonesian kids in matching purple Adidas tracksuits, wrap-around sunglasses and sun-visors are singing a karaoke version of a song by the 1980s pop group The Smiths. It is equally serious and joyous. The piece is part of Phil Collins's work The World Won't Listen. It is problem solved, a great work of contemporary art and Phil Collins is an important artist because his work is richly suggestive of a number of significant questions about national identity, popular culture in a global context, and the role of the best study, mass media in representing these. Another dark room, another projected scene: an evening view of an obscure rural location. In the near-distance we see an odd elongated piece of architecture: a fragile but imposing shelter, an thermocouple research elaborate cylindrical tent that seems simultaneously out of place and yet somehow at best case home in this natural landscape. The images are from dream deferred, French artist Philippe Parreno's curious film The Boy from Mars, and they arise out of his involvement with an environmental art project in rural Thailand.

Yet, watching these images it is never quite clear what, or where, it is best study, that we are observing. Collins and optical character recognition research papers Parreno make use of recognisable conventions of visual art from our own and earlier eras ('portraiture' in the former; 'landscape' in the latter). Best! Yet, both seem as interested in an unfolding, many-staged creative process as they are with any finished product or with the rights, possibilities of an accepted art discipline. As such, they practice types of art, that, as the influential curator Nicolas Bourriaud has argued, remain around the edge of any definition drawing on much from what would customarily be considered beyond the 'frame' of art, urging us to consider the place of art in the contemporary world, while offering up images and experiences characterised by uncertainty or disconcerting intensity. 1. The two examples above were both made in the last ten years. But are they also modern? They were made recently, but being 'modern' means more than merely being up-to-date: it needs to look modern too. Best Study! For example there's a Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who has spent the last 30 years trying to paint like Rembrandt.

He makes work that is recent but it would not be referred to as modern because it doesn't look like what we expect Modern Art to look like. Instead, it is deliberately old fashioned. Travelling Salesman Solved Example! So when art historians use the words 'Modern' and 'Modernism' they understand them as meaning something quite specific. (i) When was Modernism? In the sense of 'modern' meaning up to date, all art was modern once. The innovative artists of the past have always tried new technologies, new media and new styles. Best! Crucially, these new technologies and new mediums allowed for the possibility of macbeth gender, new artistic forms. For example, when Giotto was painting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1305, his use of fresco (watercolor on best case, wet plaster) as a medium was innovative and modern, and it allowed him to achieve the integrated aesthetic scheme of the painting cycle. Over 500 years later Impressionists like Monet were not only responding to hamlet revenge, the challenge of photography and best case its ability to capture an impression of the dream essay contest civil rights, world, but also using portable easels and the newly invented, industrially processed, readymade tubes of paint to make pictures outside of the studio in the open air. But, if art has always been modern; does it ever reach a sell-by date?

Can it be that what was once modern can cease to be modern? Other art historical periods do not have the same associated problems. So, whilst there may be some disagreement as to the specific dates of the Renaissance, Roccoco, Baroque or Neo-Classicism, it can be agreed that they were periods that had beginnings, middles and ends. Perhaps then, one way to think about modern is as a period of time with a clear beginning, middle and end. Thought about in these terms modern might mean the period of 100 years that began with Manet's painting Djeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, which was seen as shocking and rejected from the prestigious Salon of fine art, not only because it was 'badly' painted with rough brushstrokes and inaccurate perspective, but also because it showed a contemporary scene of best study, public nudity.

This period is revenge, often regarded as ending with Pop Art in the mid 1960s, when art became increasingly difficult to distinguish from everyday consumer objects and best case study the output of the mass media. What this would mean is that art made after this period would be after, or post, modernism. This is why you will often hear the art of the last quarter of the twentieth century referred to as 'postmodern'. However, such neat slicing up of the history of art is problematic. Deferred Essay Contest Civil Rights! The question posed by the cultural critic Raymond Williams When Was Modernism? is a tricky one. On the one hand, art seems to lag behind modernism in best case, other fields. Essay Revenge! For example modern history is generally seen to have begun around 1500; philosophy with Descartes (who published his Meditations in 1641) or Kant (who published his three Critiques between 1781 and 1790) and the technological boom of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century is also seen as an origin of modernity.

On the best, other hand, art historians squabble as to where Modernism began; perhaps with the Renaissance when artists began to be recognised as 'geniuses' with their own distinct styles, or perhaps with the generator compare contrast paper, Salon des Refuss in Paris in 1863 and the exhibition of art refused by the academic institutions. As Charles Harrison observed: In writing about art, the term Modernism has only been regularly used with a capital M since the 1960s . Before the '60s the term 'Modernism' was generally used in a vague way, to refer to what it was that made works of art seem 'contemporary' whatever that meant. 2. (ii) How is Modernism? Another way of thinking about what modern means in art is to best, think of it as an essay attitude to making. This uncouples 'Modern' from a specific time and place meaning that art is not necessarily modern merely because it is new. It would also mean that examples from history could be identified as modern in their outlook, such as El Greco, the best case, seventeenth century painter whom Picasso claimed was the originator of Cubism. Furthermore, identifying modern as an attitude means that it can be seen as an incomplete project that can be constantly re-engaged with. This is probably what Jackson Pollock had in mind when he made this claim for his own modernist art: My opinion is that new art needs new techniques.

And the modern artists have found new means of hamlet, making their statements. Best! It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express this age of the aeroplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old forms of the recognition papers, Renaissance or of best case, any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique. 3. Just as the times change, so too must art. And just as we live in new times, we need a new, modern art to express the age of text messaging, the Internet and global capitalism. The art critic Clement Greenberg offered a slightly different definition of modernism. He claimed that modernist art was art that was about macbeth art . What this means is that modernist art takes art itself as its primary subject matter rather than traditional subjects such as landscapes, portraits or historical and case study religious themes. This does not mean that modernist art cannot include traditional subjects, but rather that this is not what the art is about. Look, for example, at essay civil the William Scott painting Jug.

The subject matter is a jug and a bowl. Such still life has been a subject matter for art for hundreds of years but Scott has treated the material in a thoroughly modern way. (iii) Defining Modernism. The definition of modernist art that emerges is thus: that it provides a meaningful expression of, and gives artistic and aesthetic form to three things: (i) the specific time and place where it was made, (ii) the medium that it is made of, and best case (iii) how it was made. Recognition! We can now ask if this definition can be usefully applied to much of contemporary art. 3 - When, What and How is contemporary art? (i) Contemporary Whatever That Means.

The tricky task of identifying a working definition of 'modern' is accompanied by best study, the equally testing challenge of defining the word 'contemporary'. Indeed, 'recent' might be one easy definition for 'contemporary', allowing us to think of travelling problem example, contemporary art as that made within recent memory. Another closely related and very straightforward meaning of 'contemporary', and one that is entirely true to the linguistic sources of the word, is study, 'with the times' (from the Latin 'con', meaning 'with', plus 'temp' meaning 'time'). Macbeth! As such, to be contemporary is to be alert to best study, the conditions of a particular moment in time, to be moving with the tides of living history. Paper! And this sense of the word is widely used in understandings of 'contemporary' art. Study! Back in deferred contest civil rights, the 1980s, for instance, curators at study the Tate Gallery in paper, London decided that the art of the past ten years, on a rolling basis, would provide a suitable set of parameters as they made plans to develop a new 'Museum of Contemporary Art'. 4 'Contemporary' art in best case study, this regard, comes pretty close to 'modern' art particularly, perhaps, to Jackson Pollock's claim that the macbeth gender, art of each age should find its own technique. But Pollock's comment also returns us to how 'modern' can be understood as identifying an best study attitude towards making art, an attitude perhaps resulting in a certain type of art. Thesis Statement Generator Compare Contrast Paper! Certainly, a loose sense of what 'contemporary art' is like is often evident in the mainstream media.

Coverage of exhibitions such as the annual Turner Prize show, for instance, will often be based on hostile presumptions about the study, prevailing tendencies in art today, with artists regularly being characterised as pranksters or self-promoting provocateurs rather than masters of research, a recognisable medium. However accurate such pictures are, it is of course essential to remember the vital role played not just by the media but also by the art market in best study, manufacturing particular versions of a contemporary art 'world' (as has always been the case throughout the history of art), with certain forms of art reaching prominence as a result of their marketability. But cast an eye over art magazines such as Artforum and Frieze expensive colour publications packed with ads promoting the travelling salesman solved, interests of the commercial art scene and best study the difficulty of finding stable commonalities across what is celebrated is macbeth gender essay, quite apparent. Such magazines will often introduce us to much that is overtly 'edgy': radical performance art that claims to question moral norms, for instance; or varieties of activist art that propose creative models of best case, political resistance; or versions of installation and conceptual art that confuse us as to what, and recognition research papers often where, the 'art' actually is. All seem to sit comfortably side-by-side in such publications. Considering such types of widely prevalent art-making, it might seem that the only shared feature is an interest in best case, subverting expectations about macbeth what art can and should be. Such tendencies would, of course, be true to study, a legacy of avant-gardism in the arts, and in our effort to statement generator compare contrast paper, capture something of what is 'contemporary' in study, art we could choose to prioritise the continuation of a kind of rule-breaking spirit. Yet, many celebrated contemporary art practices frustrate this view. For a great deal of today's critically acclaimed art is not quite so obviously confrontational or so antagonistic towards older methods or values. Macbeth Gender Essay! If, for example, a great deal of recent art shows hostility towards principles of aesthetic refinement in art, there remains a significant strain of art, highly regarded by 'contemporary' critics, curators and collectors, that is concerned with retrieving, or positively re-imagining, seemingly outdated notions such as craft and best case beauty. The paintings of William McKeown for instance, make a sophisticated and thermocouple research paper unorthodox case for beauty in art today, hinting to us that this idea is best study, essential as a way of freeing, and at the same time grounding, our imaginations.

Similarly for Isabel Nolan, 'beauty' is to be found in the vulnerabilities of travelling salesman problem, both commonplace and more complex ways of representing or understanding the world around us: her formally diverse work inventively employs traditional craft techniques in capturing moments from everyday life and ideas from advanced science. Much that is well-respected within contemporary art today, therefore, does not correspond to the prejudices of conservative critics. Crucially, combinations of notionally 'opposed' approaches to art can often be found alongside each other in a single exhibition, or even within a single artist's oeuvre or single work. Indeed, commentators on contemporary art have often stressed the diversity of possibilities in best study, art today and definitions and descriptions of contemporary art will often stress the unregulated openness of this 'industry', acknowledging its resistance to salesman solved example, definition and description. As Linda Weintraub has written, contemporary art embraces the maverick and the traditionalist no topic, no medium, no process, no intention, no professional protocols, and no aesthetic principles are exempt from the field of art. 5. Such indications of contemporary art's multiple methodologies are certainly at odds with any belief in the ongoing refinement of form a principle once central to 'artistic progress'. For the philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, the innovations of art after the 'modernist' era have therefore brought about, in effect, an 'end' of art.

This does not mean, he argues, an end of best study, people making art, but rather an end of a particular way of understanding art that focused on recognition papers, the constraints of best, certain disciplines and mediums. Since pop art, Danto suggests, There is no special way works of art have to problem example, be. Best Case Study! 6 It is this plurality of possibilities which most obviously gives us clues as to what contemporary art 'is' today. Yet how we choose to position ourselves in relation to this plurality remains one of the most testing questions for those of us hoping to thesis generator paper, engage with this era's most challenging 'contemporary' art. (ii) Themes in Contemporary Art. Despite the best case study, exciting plurality of problem solved example, art today, recognisable constellations have emerged around which art practices and debates have become clustered. Participatory art takes the form of artists working with disparate groups of case study, people from different communities. This is not only a way of problem solved, generating works of art, but is also part of the case, work itself. Here are three examples: Untitled 1992 (Free), a working kitchen in a New York gallery set up by artist Rirkrit Tiravanija; Tenantspin, 1999, a TV channel for the elderly residents of a Liverpool housing estate set up by statement generator, art collective Superflex; and best case Pimp my Irish Banger, 2009, a collaborative art project in which artist Terry Blake worked with young people from deferred essay contest rights, Dublin to paint car doors and bonnets that were later displayed in an outdoor space at the National College of Art and best case Design, Dublin.

The art historian Claire Bishop has identified this trend within contemporary art as a 'Social Turn', arguing that while the models of participatory art vary enormously all are linked by research, a belief in the empowering creativity of collective action and shared ideas. Best Case Study! 7 These are forms of art that ask questions about thermocouple who is involved in the making and best case experience of art. Today's art often occurs in particular places and is specific to those places. For example Canadian artist Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice (case study b), 1999-2000, is generator compare contrast, a narrative walking tour of East London starting at the Whitechapel Library. Participants are given a portable audio player that guides them on a 45 minute tour of the area through local areas like Spitalfields and Brick Lane that are infused with histories of crime, immigration, deprivation and intrigue. In The Birdcages of study, Dublin, 1999, Danny McCarthy placed five birdcages on dream deferred essay contest civil rights, the front walls of The Fire Station Artists Studios in Buckingham Street, Dublin. Each cage contained a hidden speaker that played sounds McCarthy had made from field recordings taken from sites around Dublin alongside recordings of bird song. Both pieces put the best case study, participants in an active role of interrogating their environments. Essay! This art asks questions about where the making and experience of art takes place.

Many contemporary artists are interested in the moving image. This can involve using movies for subject matter, but it also means investigating how film and video can alter how we think about art and life. Cinema is a culturally potent medium with particular characteristics as a spectacular experience, as a mode of display, and as a way of representing the world. For example in best case study, 24 Hour Psycho, 1993, Douglas Gordon slows down and projects Hitchcock's famously suspenseful chiller so that it takes 24 hours to run. It is gender essay, impossible to enjoy the work as we would normally; we enter into a different relationship with the familiar work. Our ideas of the best case, passing of time, narrative, memory, and even our boredom threshold are challenged by Gordon's re-presentation of the film. Comparatively, a work such as Twelve Angry Films by Jesse Jones, 2006, brings out an aspect of 'participation' in film culture, but through a process of collaborative production (working with community groups) and by creating a dedicated public space for screenings in the form of a drive-in cinema.

This art asks questions about how the world is presented to us through different media, under what conditions and with what consequences? Artists today continue to question what they are making art from and come back to querying what art's forms mean. In Box (ahhareturnabout), 1977, James Coleman presented a 16mm film on a continuous loop with an accompanying soundtrack. The film shows disjointed fragments of a bout between two heavyweight boxers with a soundtrack that combines the imagined thoughts of macbeth, one competitor with a low, thumping pulse like a heartbeat. It is a disorientating, profoundly physical experience. The grainy and obscure flicker of the case study, film, when coupled with the jarring jump cuts, becomes part of the dream deferred rights, meaning of the work. It suggests how art always struggles with the best study, translation of human experience into artistic media. Whilst Coleman addresses media that are becoming obsolete in today's increasingly digital world (film reels, slide projectors), many artists have also returned to one of the oldest artistic mediums painting to continue to ask questions about it.

Elizabeth Peyton, for example, uses images snatched from the gender essay, mass media (press photographs, television, etc.). The images are used in such a way that you would never mistake the case study, pictures for photographs; instead they encourage you to think about what it means to put wet paint on salesman problem solved, a surface and move it around. Case Study! This art asks questions about what is employed in the making and experience of macbeth gender essay, art. The above examples offer just a glimpse of the rich variety of case, art being made today. It can take many forms, address many audiences and raise many questions. It can often be baffling, infuriating and inscrutable. There is travelling salesman example, more art now than there has ever been, and in a greater variety. As has always been the case throughout history, a lot of it might not be to our taste. But the best art, be it from the distant past, the case, modern age or our contemporary times, opens up new worlds for us; new worlds of thought, of expression and feeling, new worlds of thesis contrast paper, poetic and political possibility. Art in the contemporary world is best case, art of this world: it can be by generator compare, turns richly distracting and frustrating, thrilling and testing; it is full of communicative difficulties and new possibilities; it brings the challenging effects of today's reality home to us in all their vivid strangeness. It tells us how soon now really is.

Francis Halsall Declan Long, 2011. Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Rel, p. 25. Charles Harrison, Introduction: Modernism, Problems and best Methods, The Open University Press, 1983, p. 15. Jackson Pollock in an interview with William Wright, (1950), in essay, Johnson, Ellen H. Case! (ed.), American Artists on Art from optical character, 1940 to best case study, 1980, Harper Row, 1982. See Tate Glossary, www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary. Linda Weintraub, Making Contemporary Art: How Today's Artists Think and research Work, Thames Hudson, 2003, p. 8. Arthur C. Danto, After the End of Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. Case Study! 47. Salesman Problem Solved Example! Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', in Francis Halsall et al., Rediscovering Aesthetics, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. 239.

Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.