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Ethical case studies in law

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c3 coursework guide Explanation of method, including how to set up your iterative formula, how to see if you've got a correct g(x) rearrangement by looking at the graph, what the staircase/cobweb diagrams look like when converging towards or diverging away from a root. How to draw iterations in Autograph. How to do calculations in Excel. Studies? Writing formulae in Word using Insert - Equation. Discussion of gradient of g(x) near root, including ways to illustrate this in Autograph (required for both a case where the method finds a root AND a case where the method fails to find a root). overview of what to do in this section of the coursework and a look at the assessment sheet for this part. Personal? Change of sign (decimal search) Finding a root of an equation with graphical illustration. This is graph of y=x3-7x2+2x+1. The graph shows that roots of f(x)=0 exist in the intervals [-1,0]; [0,1]; [6,7] We shall test for ethical in law, a root in shrek analytical essay the interval [6,7] Change of in law, sign indicates root exists in interval [6.6,6.7] This means that x=6.65#xB1;0.05. Change of sign indicates root in interval [6.67,6.68] This means that x=6.675#xB1;0.005. Change of sign indicates root in interval [6.678,6.679] This means that x=6.6785#xB1;0.0005.

Change of sign indicates root in shrek analytical interval [6.6780,6.6781] This means that x=6.67805#xB1;0.00005. Failure of the case studies in law decimal search. Two of the roots of f(x)=0 where f(x)=5x3-20x2+2x-0.05 could not be found with this method. This is because they are so close together that there is no sign change between f(0) and login, f(0.1). The graph on case studies, the next page shows the graph of paper bitter melon, y=f(x) Using numerical methods to find roots of and. solve polynomial equations. This report will explore and compare the advantages and disadvantages of ethical case, three different numerical. methods used to solve polynomial equations, where analytical methods cannot easily be used. It will. Paper? explore instances where, for some reason, they fail and also examine their ease, efficiency and. Ethical In Law? usefulness in solving polynomial equations. Change of shrek, sign decimal search method.

The #x2018;change of sign#x2019; method can be used to ethical studies in law, find an approximation of a root to an equation to a specified accuracy, using a decimal search. Polynomial equations can be illustrated graphically as the analytical function y = f(x), as shown below in figure 1. The points. where the curve intersects the case in law x-axis are the personal for resume australia real roots of the ethical case studies equation f(x) =0, because the x-axis is where y = 0. If the. curve crosses this line, the values for f(x) when x is slightly larger and smaller than the root will be positive and. negative, either way round (given that the values chosen for x are not beyond any other roots). A logical and systematic way to use this to solve an coursework stanford, equation to a certain degree of accuracy is a decimal search, where having already identified integer intervals where roots occur, the interval is studies, divided into coursework stanford, ten, and f(x) for each of. the case studies ten new values for x is found. A search for a change of sign (+ or -) is conducted and the process is stem research paper thesis statement, repeated in the. Ethical Case In Law? interval where the change of sign occurs until the level of accuracy desired is achieved. After this, the same technique. is applied to find the stem research other roots and thereby solving the equation. Example of an application of the change of case studies in law, sign method.

For example, consider solving the following equation, by first finding the greatest root to shrek analytical, five significant figures: It is shown in figure 1 that there are three roots to this equation. That which is labelled #x2018;root c#x2019; will be attempted to be. Table 1: integer search for changes in sign. From the changes in sign in table 1, (+, green rows or -, red rows), it can be seen that there are roots in the intervals (2, -1), (0, 1) and (1, 2). These changes are shown as the blue rows of the table. The integer interval which contains. root c can be deduced to be (1, 2). The integer search process of finding this interval is shown for the two bounds here: Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Figure 1: a graph of the function y = f(x), where f(x) = 6x5-9x4-4x3-20x+26. Ethical? x is in outsiders themes the interval. x=2 to 1 significant. x is in the interval (1.98,1.98332. 0.00698808x=1.9 to 2 significant figures.

x is in the interval (1.983, 1.984) x=1.98 to 3 significant figures. x is in the interval (1.9833, 1.9834) x is in the interval (1.98333, 1.98334) x=1.983 to 4 significant figures. x=1.9833 to 5 significant figures. values separated by an interval of 0.1. The same process is repeated for each interval a tenth of the size of the. previous, each identified by a change of sign, until the accuracy desired (five significant figures) is achieved. Table 2. shows this process. The final decimal search shows that there is a root in the interval (1.98333, 1.98334). All values within this interval. round down to 1.9833 and therefore, this approximate value for this root of the case studies in law given equation is correct to five. This #x2018;decimal search#x2019; process can also be illustrated graphically, as shown in figure 2. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for essay, Advanced Mathematics. Figure 2: a graphical illustration of y = f(x), showing that the root is in the interval [1, 2) For the first integer search, the graph in figure 2 shows again that f(1) is negative and that f(2) is positive, and. therefore, the ethical case studies in law curve must cross the x-axis somewhere in the interval between these two values i.e. there is a root in the.

Figure 3: graphical illustration of y = f(x) that the root is in coursework the interval [1.98333, 1.98334) For the ethical case studies final decimal search, the graph in figure 3 shows again that f(1.98333) is negative and cell research paper statement, that f(1.98334) is. positive, and therefore, the curve must cross the ethical case studies in law x-axis somewhere in essay on the outsiders the interval between these two values i.e. there is. a root in the interval (1.98333, 1.98334). The same process can be repeated with roots a and b to give answers of x = -1.3889 and ethical case in law, x = 0.97356 respectively, each. to five significant figures. The original equation has therefore been solved. Personal? Example of a failure of this method. For example, consider the following equation: 1323 x 5 #x2212;11277 x 4 +14397 x 3+ 68513 x 2#x2212;80476 x#x2212;153760=0. Studies In Law? Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for analytical, Advanced Mathematics. Root d (repeated) Figure 4: a graph of the function y = f(x), where f(x) = 1323x5-11277x4+14397x3+68513x2-80476x-153760, showing that there is a repeated root. When the graph for y = f(x) (figure 4) for this equation is plotted, it only touches the x-axis at a single point.

It never. Ethical Case In Law? crosses it. In this case, on both sides of the root of f(x) = 0 (intersection with the x-axis), f(x) 0 so the sign is always. remains positive and no change of sign actually occurs. This is the case because there is a repeated root for analytical essay, the equation above. Because it happens to in law, be an irrational one, and. therefore nonterminating, no amount of repetitions of the decimal search process in the interval (4, 5) will return a. Research Bitter Melon? value of zero (and thereby identify the root outright). Missed root here. Missed root here. Table 3: integer search with missed roots. Table 3 shows how an integer search suggests that there are just two roots in the interval searched.

Not only does it. Case In Law? show that the research paper technique does not suggest that there is ethical case studies, a root in the interval, (4, 5), it also does not show that there is a. root in the interval (-2, -1) because there are two distinct roots occurring close together within the login said interval, and. both f(-2) and f(-1) are negative so it wouldn#x2019;t be seen to ethical case studies in law, be necessary to conduct a decimal search on research melon, this interval. The change of sign method fails here because it has failed to identify the root in the intervals (-2,-1) and (4, 5). This method works by taking an estimated root and finding where its tangent to the curve crosses the x-axis. The xcoordinate of this intersection is taken and its tangent to the curve is studies, taken and the process is repeated. In most cases. the x-coordinate becomes closer to personal for resume, the root with each repetition. Taking x0 as the first rough estimate, the point on the curve for in law, this x-value would be (x 0, f(x0)).

A general straight line. can be written in the form. The tangent to the curve, with the gradient being the derivative of f(x) at x 0 (f#x2019;(x0)), would be expressed as the. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. The next x-coordinate will be called x1. Analytical Essay? It is case in law, where the line stated above crosses the x-axis, in other words, when y = 0. Substituting this into the function above, as well as changing x to x1 to make it the first iteration, it can be rearranged. to give the following: When this is generalised for when x0 = xn, the inductive formula is given as: Example of an application of the Newton-Raphson method. The Newton-Raphson method will be used to solve the following equation: Figure 5: a graph of the stem function y = f(x), where f(x) = x3+3x2-13x+4. Because f(x) = 0 where the curve intersects the case studies in law x-axis, it can be seen in coursework figure 5 that there are three distinct roots to in law, the. equation, labelled as k, l and m. They are in the intervals (-6, -5), (0, 1) and personal statement, (2, 3) respectively. Ethical Case Studies? Without a graph, these. intervals could have been obtained using an integer search using the change of sign method. As previously explained, the iterative formula for the Newton-Raphson method is: Because here, f(x) = x3+3x2-13x+4, f#x2019;(x) = 3x2+6x-13.

Substituting these into the iteration: This will be used, first, to find an intermarche lessay, approximation for root k, in in law the interval (-6, -5). The value for x 0 will be -6 as it is. the closest integer to the root according to the graph. Intermarche? Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. x 03 +3 x 02#x2212;13 x0 + 4. x 13 +3 x12#x2212;13 x 1+ 4. Further iterations using this formula are shown in ethical table 4. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Table 4: iterations for root k. All values of xn have been found using the shrek analytical iterative formula shown above. From the fact that the root is close to case, -5.497204, and xn for values where n3 round to this value (to seven significant. figures), it can be suggested that it lies in the interval [-5.4972035, -5.4972045), or that root k is x=5.497204#xB1;0.0000005, which can also be expressed as x = -5.4972 to five significant figures, since both bounds round. to this value. It has taken four iterations to shrek, obtain this answer. The verification for these bounds is as follows: They are verified as one is case studies, positive and the other is negative. The tangent to the curve at the initial value of x, x0 = -6 is taken (figure 6). From this x-coordinate, the tangent to the. curve is taken and the process is repeated three times (figure 7).

Vertical lines are drawn to show where the next. iteration of x is on the curve. Essay? Figure 6: a graph of the case studies function. x3+3x2-13x+4, showing the first iteration. Figure 7: only x1 and x2 have been labelled as due to the resolution, it would y = be impractical to essay themes, label further iterations of x. Table 5 shows that for studies, the root l in the interval (0, 1), it has taken four iterations of this method to obtain the answer x. Melon? = 0.33681 to ethical case, five significant figures. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Table 5: Newton-Raphson iterations for root l. The verification for the bounds for this approximation is as follows: f ( 0.336805 ) =( 0.336805 )3 +3 ( 0.336805 )2#x2212;13 ( 0.336805 ) +4=5.42 #xD7;10#x2212;5 0. They are verified as one is positive and the other is negative.

Table 6 shows that for coursework stanford, the root m in ethical case in law the interval (2, 3), it has taken four iterations of this method to obtain the research paper melon answer x. Ethical In Law? = 2.1604 to five significant figures. Table 6: Newton-Raphson iterations for root m. Shrek? f ( 2.16045 ) =( 2.16045 ) + 3 ( 2.16045 ) #x2212;13 (2.16045 )+ 4=7.78 #xD7;10 0. Example of a failure of this method. The Newton-Raphson method should converge towards the root which is case, intended to be found. It does sometimes fail. to do this, either by diverging away from the root towards infinity or by converging towards a different root. One of the causes of this is that the initial estimate, x 0, is close to shrek analytical essay, a turning point. Consider this equation: Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Figure 8: a graph of the function y = f(x), where f(x) = #x2212;0.48x4#x2212;1.09x3+0.89x2+1.16x#x2212;1.87=0.

Figure 8 shows that there are two roots to this equation. The Newton-Raphson method will be applied to try to find. root d with an estimate by eye of x0 = -2. The iteration formula is case studies, given by the following: Table 7 shows eighteen iterations of x in a tabular format. Instead of giving the correct result for root f, the coursework stanford application of the method has instead converged towards x = -1.6610. to five significant figures #x2013; root e. Figure 9 shows graphically why this has happened. Because x = -2 is close to a. turning point, the gradient of the tangent near it is changing at a quick rate as it turns around the local maxima. It is. therefore not relatively consistent, where this method works best. Its shallow gradient can be illustrated by the large. number of iterations required to obtain an answer (at least compared to the previous example). Studies? Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics.

Because the tangent of coursework, x = -2 has a negative gradient as it is on ethical case studies, the other side of the turning point to root d, it crosses. the x-axis to the left of personal statement, this initial x value and so begins to converge towards the root just less than x = -2, instead of. the one just more than it, which was the one desired. Figure 9: y = f(x), showing graphically all the iterations of the formula required to find the root. In figure 9, the tangent to the curve at x = 2 crosses the ethical in law y-axis on the right side of the turning point, and so successive. iterations converge towards the root on the right side of the turning point (root e) instead of that on the left (root d). This is stanford login, what causes the failure for finding root d, with x 0 = -2. Ethical In Law? Rearrangement into x = g(x) method. Australia? This method works by rearranging the equation f(x) = 0 into another where x is the subject, x = g(x). An iterative. Case? formula derived from this is then applied to this new function: The application of this produces a converging sequence of numbers towards the value at which the line y = x crosses y. = g(x) on a graph. Algebraically, this, through simultaneously solving through equating these two equations, gives, at. the point where x = g(x), the x value for which f(x) = 0. It therefore finds the root. Example of an essay, application of the rearrangement method.

This method will be used to solve the following equation: This can be arranged into many different new equations for x = g(x). One of these is: Figure 10 graphically shows that there is one root to the equation; it is in the interval (0, 1). Therefore, taking x0 = 0 (judging by eye), the ethical case studies in law application of the iterative formula provides the sequence shown in table. Intermarche? 8. Ethical Case Studies In Law? At the 17th iteration, the intermarche same result is given as the previous iteration, to six significant figures. This value rounds to. 0.20047 to case, five significant figures. The verification for this is as follows, by taking the values of f(x) for the upper and lower bounds of this value: f ( 0.200465 ) =#x2212;99 ( 0.200465 ) +5 ( 0.200465 ) #x2212;7 ( 0.200465 )+ 2=0.0001390274060821250. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. f ( 0.200475 ) =#x2212;99 ( 0.200475 )3 +5 ( 0.200475 )2 #x2212;7 ( 0.200475 )+ 2=#x2212;0.0000302846100156250.

They are verified as one is positive and the other is negative. Figure 10: a graph of the function y = f(x), where f(x) = -99x3+5x2-7x+2. Table 8: g(x) iterations. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Figure 11 graphically shows how the rearrangement of f(x) = 0 converges towards the root. The two lines mentioned. have been plotted and the iterative formula#x2019;s graphical illustration is shown in blue.

The blue line shows convergence. in coursework stanford login a rotating pattern #x2013; like a cobweb. From the point on ethical case in law, the curve y = g(x0), a horizontal line is drawn across to meet the essay on the themes line y = x, so that the in law x value is. found where both lines have the same y value. This new value for personal for resume, x becomes x 1. From here, a horizontal line, again, is. drawn across from the curve at the point which has the x value of x 1 and the same process is repeated to ethical case, find. subsequent values of xn, where n 1. These values of coursework stanford, x converge towards the value of x where the two lines intersect, the same as the root of f(x). Ethical Case In Law? The labelled graphical values of x n correspond with those in the table. Figure 11: graphical illustration of y = g(x) (red line) and stanford login, y = x (green line) with the rearrangement iterations shown in blue. The gradient of g(x) This method works only when the absolute value of the gradient of g(x) (i.e. Ethical Case Studies? g#x2019;(x)) at the point of intersection (the root. of f(x) = 0) is less than 1. This is because its gradient must be smaller in magnitude than the line y = x, otherwise, the. iteration will diverge away from the root as the two lines become further and further apart. For negative values of g#x2019;(x), the iterations graphically form a cobweb pattern, like my example, as the x values. oscillate around the root. For positive values of g#x2019;(x), the iterations graphically form a staircase pattern, as the x value. for the root is approached from the same direction. Generally, the smaller the magnitude of g#x2019;(x), the fewer iterations are required to achieve a certain accuracy of analytical essay, the. Case Studies In Law? intersection and stem thesis, vice versa.

In the particular example given, the method of rearrangement works in a cobweb pattern because g#x2019;(x) at ethical studies in law, the root is. about cell paper, -0.42, which is negative and smaller than 1 in magnitude. This was achieved by substituting x = 0.2 into the expression for g#x2019;(x): Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Failure of this method. Another way of rearranging the equation f(x) = 0 is shown below. This equation will be referred to as x = h(x). As an ethical in law, iterative formula, this is: Table 9 shows iterations of stem cell research statement, this formula, again starting with x 0 = 0. It can be deduced that xn does not find the root. Studies? because the login values seem to reoccur from the seventh and eighth iterations onwards, according to this degree of.

Figure 12 graphically illustrates this failure, showing that the first couple of case studies, iterations form a cobweb pattern, but then. goes round and round on itself, forming a stationary rectangle. This is the coursework stanford observation that the values for each iteration. of case in law, xn change from 0.013857 and 0.285814 and keep doing so, seemingly forever. Table 9: h(x) iterations. Using the personal australia rearrangement method with h(x) fails because at ethical case studies, the root, x #x2248; 0.2, h#x2019;(x) has a greater magnitude that 1: Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Because this value is negative, the iteration has a cobweb pattern, but it also does not converge towards the root. Figure 12: graphical illustration of y = h(x) (red line) and y = x (blue line) with the rearrangement iterations shown in green.

It is impractical to. show labels for further iterations. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for themes, Advanced Mathematics. Comparison of the methods. Comparative application of all three methods. I will use the three methods explored to ethical case in law, find the root of the equation, 6x 5-9x4-4x3-20x+26 = 0 in bitter the interval (-2, -1). Change of sign decimal search method. The decimal search finds that the root is between the values -1.388863 and ethical, -1.388862 and so x = -1.3889, correct to.

five significant figures. This took six iterations since bounds of coursework stanford login, seven significant figures are required to ensure an. accuracy of five significant figures. Table 10 shows these iterations. Table 10: decimal search iterations for f(x) Using x0 = -1, the Newton-Raphson method takes seven iterations to studies, find the same result to five significant figures, shown in table 11.

Table 11: iterations to shrek analytical essay, solve the chosen root of f(x) using the Newton-Raphson formula. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. Because Newton-Raphson does not give an case in law, interval which the root is in, it is necessary to verify the assumed result. This is shown below, using the interval bounds for the approximation of shrek analytical, x = -1.3889 to 5 significant figures. Rearrangement into x = g(x) method.

A rearrangement of ethical in law, f(x) as an iterative formula is the following: 9 x n4 + 4 x n3 +20 x n#x2212;26. Iterations are shown in table 12. Analytical? The root is shown to be x = -1.3889 to ethical case studies in law, five significant figures. Table 12: x = g(x) iterations. Again, for the same reasons as for the Newton-Raphson method, this answer must be verified using the upper and. lower bounds of the approximation interval.

Speed and efficiency comparison. In order to produce the same approximation with the same accuracy for the chosen root, in themes this particular case, the. decimal search method required the least number of iterations, with six needed. It required the highest number of. The Newton-Raphson method required seven iterations. It was the method requiring the least number of single. The most iterations taken was the ethical case studies rearrangement method, with 14 needed. In terms of speed, using spreadsheet software, the Newton-Raphson is quickest. On spreadsheet software, it requires. an x0 value, a spreadsheet formula for f(x), a spreadsheet formula for f#x2019;(x) and a very simple iteration spreadsheet. formula to be manually inputted. The differentiation is lessay, usually quite simple because each term of x has a positive, whole number power. Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics.

The rearrangement method took longer to converge and it can often take a large number of iterations to converge to an. accuracy of five significant figures. Rearrangement is also quite easy and quick to do. The decimal search was the slowest in finding the ethical case roots. Although it only took six iterations, without extremely. Login? complex spreadsheet formulas, each iteration needed to be set up individually on spreadsheet software through. identifying the two bounds from the previous iteration. Simple and reliable though this method is, it is much more. time-consuming than the other two methods. Each iteration also included nine unique calculations involving x. Using spreadsheet software like Google Docs Spreadsheet, Microsoft Excel or Numbers, all three methods are quite. easy and quick to apply. Spreadsheets have the ability to quickly copy formulas and studies, reapply them in a very short. amount of time. This is done by keyboard shortcuts, context menus or by dragging or double clicking a cell#x2019;s fill. handle.

They can also be made to login, make the processes automatic through the use of ethical in law, complex spreadsheet formulas, a. very strong advantage for bulk calculations of roots of equations. A disadvantage is that all mathematical formulas. must be typed in using a non-dedicated QWERTY keyboard on desktops and laptops, which can be very clunky and. tedious. Essay Themes? This is case in law, even worse on tablets and smartphones, where the user must scroll through many pages of symbols on. their keyboard to find commonly used mathematical symbols. Using purely software-based spreadsheets, the decimal search method is easiest to use as it does not require any sort of. mathematical calculation, like rearranging or differentiating, just simply typing in a spreadsheet formula for the. Iterative methods, like Newton-Raphson or rearranging for x = g(x), can be easily done on scientific calculators using. the #x2018;answer#x2019; button, or equivalent. A formula can be typed in, replacing x n with the #x2018;answer#x2019; button, and pressing the. #x2018;equals#x2019; button gives the result for the next iteration. The decimal search can, at a push, also be used, but it would take a very long time a very many button presses, because each calculation for f(x) must be typed in research paper melon separately #x2013; nine separate polynomial calculations for each. A disadvantage of using a scientific calculator is the fact that the small display and linear input makes it easy to forget. to close brackets, resulting in an error. Newton-Raphson is, in my opinion, the easiest method to use with just a scientific calculator as it is iterative and the. calculation would normally be relatively straightforward to work out and type in. In the same way as scientific calculators, iterative formulas are easy to apply using graphical calculators.

Some also. Ethical? have the advantage of being able to differentiate with respect to a variable like #x2018;x#x2019;, meaning the user doesn#x2019;t have to if. Iterative formulas can also be put into tables, much like a spreadsheet. This makes it easier to spot convergence. Using. the table calculator function, the decimal search can also easily be used. I consider the decimal search the easiest method to use because it is easiest to type in just a simple polynomial. equation, as opposed to complex iterative formulas of the other two methods. Advanced graphing software like Autograph can be used to apply the Newton-Raphson and rearrangement methods in. a graphical way. Stem Cell Paper Thesis? For Newton-Raphson, Autograph requires for the graph of y = f(x) to be selected, then bringing up the context menu. and selecting the studies Newton-Raphson option brings up a dialog box. This enables iterations of the formula to be plotted. with an x0 value. The x = g(x) method can be graphically plotted in the same way, but first, the line y = x must be plotted.

Maurice Yap 6946 #x2013; Core 3 Mathematics Coursework #x2013; 4752/02 Methods for Advanced Mathematics. In my opinion, both these methods are equally easy to apply using Autograph software, but the coursework Newton-Raphson. method is the most reliable, so it would probably be my preference. * For presentation purposes, the values printed are rounded, and not exact values. Subsequent uses of ethical, this. number are shown rounded further, however, unrounded exact results have been used in the calculations.

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Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What's the in law, Best Format for personal statement a Secretary Resume? You’re at the heart of the in law, organization, so you need a certain level of professionalism. Outsiders Themes. Your secretary resume needs to reflect this and be polished, to-the-point and professional. So, where do you start? With the right format. Case. For administrative secretary resumes, that means the tried-and-tested reverse-chronological resume format. Many of these positions are in big firms or multinational corporations. Coursework Login. It’s best to stick with the ethical case studies, secretary resume format that recruiters are familiar with. Remember, many corporate firms you’re applying to cell research may be using Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). Studies. According to the Jobvite Recruiter Nation Report 2016, 41% of recruiters are now using these.

What does that mean? Chances are your office secretary resume will be scanned by paper tiny robots for ethical case studies keywords such as typing skills and who your favourite character on Game of intermarche lessay Thrones is ethical studies in law (okay, kidding about that one). The reverse-chronological format is the easiest for the robots to scan and find the different sections of your resume. The reverse-chronological format also highlights your office skills and secretary experience. This will give you an edge over entry-level applicants and recent grads. But what if you’re writing an entry-level secretary resume and you have no specific experience? Fear not! In this instance, lead with your education. Stanford. It shows a commitment and ability to ethical case in law manage tasks and deadlines. You can also mention relevant work experience that's not directly related to a secretarial role here. Imagine for a second that you’ve been working part-time at your local cafe.

You run the weekly staff meeting like a boss and record the intermarche, meeting notes. In Law. That’s a transferable skill that you can highlight in your work experience section. Pro Tip: Keep the login, formatting of your resume clean and simple to make it feel professional. Step away from the Comic Sans. Use easy-to-read fonts like Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. 10-12 points are the magic numbers for font size. Not entirely sure about the reverse-chronological format for your secretary resume? See our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Secretary: Resume Summary or Career Objective? Think about this for a moment.

How many times are you guilty of skimming over an unnecessarily long work email? Well, spare a thought for recruiters. They’re faced with piles of resumes every day, some interesting, some not so much. So it should come as no surprise that according to TheLadders, recruiters take an average of six seconds to scan a resume. So, how do you grab their attention in ethical case studies those six seconds? Easy!

You lead with a secretarial resume objective or a professional resume summary. But which should you choose? Let’s imagine for intermarche lessay a second that you have 10+ years’ experience as an executive secretary in a large multinational corporation. If you’ve spent your career in ethical case in law administrative or secretarial roles, then this one’s for you. You’ve got the necessary skills and experience, so here’s where you sell yourself. Remember to keep it short and sweet. Three sentences are enough. Perhaps you’re a fresh graduate entering the workforce for research paper bitter the first time. Or you’re a bartender who’s had enough of ethical case studies in law managing tipsy customers and you want to manage an office instead. The resume objective is the best option for entry-level secretary resumes or career changers. Use it to show that your abilities, goals and objectives fit what the prospective employer is looking for, even if you don’t have the traditional experience.

Here’s a senior secretary resume summary sample: Professional, efficient secretary with 6+ years experience working for a large corporate organization. Excellent project management, organization and communication skills. Introduced a time management system and increased the efficiency of the office by for resume 15%. Promoted to executive secretary in 2015.

I am a secretary with 2 years’ experience working in an office. I am seeking a job in a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. Your secretary resume summary should match your achievements and skills to case studies the role requirements. Avoid a vague description of the role you’re looking for. Now, here’s an example administrative secretary resume objective that can be used for a school secretary resume: Dynamic college graduate with excellent communication skills seeks school secretarial role. Excellent initiative and project management skills developed over the course of my degree. Ready to themes use organizational skills to provide administrative support to your team.

Recent college graduate with no professional experience but lots of ethical case studies enthusiasm. Able to research paper type, answer phones and would like my first job to be in an office. I’m friendly and a fast learner. Why is this wrong? For starters, you should avoid highlighting the case studies, fact you have no experience at the top of your resume.

Also, avoid saying what you want. Remember, the employer is more interested in what they want at this stage in the game. For your entry-level secretary resume objective, choose soft skills (more on these later). Communication skills or attention to detail are great examples of this. These aren’t necessarily specific to a secretary job description, but they are still skills needed for stem cell statement the role. Case Studies In Law. You may have developed these soft skills during your education or part-time job experience. Pro Tip: Take a close look at the job posting and intermarche, highlight the ethical case in law, specific skills it mentions. Intermarche. Ensure you include the ones relevant to you in your resume summary. How to Describe your Secretary Experience. You’ve got the office skills, phone skills, typing skills, the whole shebang. Ethical In Law. Don’t miss your opportunity to show, not tell, the hiring manager that you’re right for the job.

Do it early, underneath your resume summary. In your resume, list your secretary duties under each job in reverse-chronological order. Include up to six bullet points that match the skills in the job description. Stem Cell Paper Thesis. Include key achievements, backed up by tangible examples. Let’s look at the experience section from a school secretary resume sample, based on this job description.

Sweet Valley High, 2011-2016. Sweet Valley, California. Piloted a new appointments booking system which increased office efficiency by 15%. Guided substitute teachers and in law, facilitated assignment availability. Consulted with parents and cell paper thesis, pioneered a new system for ethical case studies in law managing their inquiries. Increased parent satisfaction by 35%. Riverdale High, 2008-2012.

Acted as front desk receptionist. Responsible for stanford booking the principal’s appointments. Studies In Law. Responsible for typing and coursework login, proofreading documents. Do you see the difference? Instead of simply listing responsibilities, the school secretary resume sample lists achievements, complemented by quantifiable results.

The first example also contains action words, which are much stronger than the passive-sounding “responsible for” and boring “managed”. Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach when listing your professional achievements. Look at these examples from the ethical studies in law, resume for a school secretary: Problem: Parents were frustrated with an inefficient system of managing their inquiries. Action: Consulted with them about why they were frustrated and coursework stanford login, created a new system which addressed these concerns. Result: Parent satisfaction increased by ethical case 35% in next school survey.

What if you’re writing a secretary resume with no experience? No worries. You just have to be a little more creative in coursework login your experience section. Taking the ethical case in law, same job description sample as before, here’s how to do it: Central Perk, 2011-2015.

New York, New York. Guided new staff and provided training and materials to them. Analytical Essay. Implemented a new customer feedback system which increased customer satisfaction by 45%. Negotiated with a coffee vendor to lower the cost of coffee when purchased in bulk. Answered phones. The barista has mentioned duties she performed at the coffee house which relate to case the secretary duties in the job description.

She has also included soft skills such as communication by showing how she negotiated with the coffee vendor and essay themes, trained new staff. Pro Tip: Ditch overused buzzwords and phrases like “managed”, “responsible for” and case studies in law, “led”. Spice up your resume for intermarche lessay a secretary position with powerful action verbs to make the ethical case studies, hiring manager take notice. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Think the hiring manager doesn’t care if you have any education qualifications? Well, you could be wrong there. It all depends on what kind of shrek essay secretary job you’re applying for.

Let’s say you’re writing a resume for a specialized secretary position. Case Studies. It might be a legal secretary resume or a medical secretary resume. In both cases, you will have completed secretary qualifications and essay on the themes, skills training. You’ll want to showcase these to the hiring manager, right after your experience section. When you’ve been performing legal secretary tasks like a seasoned pro for ethical case studies years, your experience is login more relevant at this point.

Add the right qualifications and you’ve got yourself a double whammy that proves you’re the ethical case studies, right person for the job. Start with your most specific and relevant education first. Then follow it up with any other qualifications - you can be less detailed with those. Check out this example from a legal secretary resume: Suits Institute of Law, Los Angeles, California. Completed in 2016.

General Procedures Legal Terminology, Civil, Contract, Land and Family Law. Graduated in shrek 2009. Graduated in 2009. American History, Biology, Music Captain of the Cheerleading Squad. What if you’re writing an entry-level secretary resume as a bright-eyed recent graduate or while still completing your studies?

Your resume should showcase your education first, above your experience section. Use this prime real estate at ethical studies in law the top of your professional secretary resume template to show your best accomplishments first. Stanford. This will also set you apart from other applicants. University of California, Los Angeles, CA BA in English Literature Graduated in 2017. Didn’t finish high school or college?

No drama. You can still include what you did complete. University of California, Los Angeles, CA 2015-2016 completed 60 credits towards a BA in studies English Literature. Pro Tip: Have you got any other interesting education qualifications under your belt, such as another language, communication or project management course? Include these.

They show the hiring manager you’re committed to paper melon furthering your own education and improving yourself. Are you writing a medical secretary resume or school secretary resume? Or just want more examples of how you should include your education in your executive secretary resume? Our guide “ How to Put Your Education on a Resume [Tips Examples] ” has more handy tips and tricks. Picture this.

It’s now 3.30pm and Karen, the hiring manager, yawns as she she reaches for your executive secretary resume, while mentally planning her next vacation. Your resume better grab her attention and show her quickly that you’ve got sharp administration skills that deserve that secretary job salary. So, which of your secretarial skills should your resume highlight? Here’s an example of how to in law put skills like WPM (words per analytical essay minute) and typing skills on your secretary resume. First, go through the ethical case studies in law, job description and circle all the skills you see. Now it’s time to shrek analytical essay tailor your resume skills to the secretary job description. This will allow the hiring manager to easily match your profile to what they are looking for. Your skills can be separated into studies two groups: hard and soft. Hard skills are not like that math problem you could never answer at school (or was that just me?). These are the technical skills and abilities required to personal for resume be able to complete the job.

This is also where you include any relevant skills required for a legal or medical secretary resume. Ability to write legal documents and contracts Ability to create expense reports Ability to manage calendars and meeting booking systems MS Office Suite, FileMaker Pro, SAP Workplace and Anaqua Fast typing skills/words per minute. Soft resume skills are a little harder to put your finger on case studies in law, - they are the qualities not specific to research paper the job itself. They are transferable. They relate to your social skills and ethical, emotional intelligence, such as your ability to work well with others and be calm under pressure. Communication Professional and courteous manner Interpersonal skills Able to work well with others Adaptable Time-management skills Detail-oriented and for resume australia, accuracy Motivated and a self-starter.

Here you can see how to put hard skills like WPM or answering phones on your resume, and case, complement them with relevant soft skills. Writing legal documents and contracts. Corporate accounting and analytical essay, bookkeeping. Master of managing multiple calendars and meeting booking systems. Advanced user of MS Office Suite, FileMaker Pro, SAP Workplace. Able to type 100 WPM. Confident and articulate communicator - verbal and written.

Professional and courteous. Able to cultivate relationships at all levels. Friendly team player. Adaptable and handles challenges with a smile. Well-developed time management skills. Detail-oriented and accurate with large volumes of information. Motivated and not afraid to ethical studies in law show initiative.

Make sure your resume includes enough detail to paint a picture of how your skills match the job description. For example, don’t just say you have “communication skills”. Explain and develop why you’re a good communicator. Did you notice something about the example? We’ve listed more soft secretary skills than hard office skills. This is because most companies look for people who will be a great cultural fit ahead of anything else. In fact, according to CareerBuilder, 62% of employers are now specifically looking for your soft skills in your resume. Pro Tip: You might have a relevant skill that’s not mentioned in the job description, but by all means, include it in statement your resume! Check out other similar job listings to see what kind of skills other companies are looking for. Ethical. You’re a typing wizard who can tap out 100 WPM?

Put it on your resume! Are you bilingual? Mastery of two languages shows you’re dedicated - don’t leave bilingual skills off! Want some more examples of the research bitter, types of case skills you can include in your secretary resume? Check out our guide: +30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) . How to personal for resume australia Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Were you the one who ran your club meetings in college? Do you volunteer your time helping out at the local library or animal shelter? At first glance, these might not seem to relate to traditional secretary resume duties. In fact, they are actually activities where you rely on qualities needed for the key responsibilities of case in law a secretary. I’m sure you have a few hobbies, too.

You may want to include some of these to showcase a bit more of lessay your personality. Don’t forget, a lot of ethical case studies companies recruit based on soft skills and cultural fit. Research the stem research paper statement, company culture to case in law see if they would find your personal interests valuable. Personal Australia. Be sure to only mention outside interests that are relevant to the company’s culture or position. Let’s do a sample for a school secretary resume: I volunteer reading to kids at the library on Saturdays. I am interested in other cultures and am currently learning French. I’m a night owl and studies, I love staying up late watching movies. I like playing video games. The first two examples are perfect for a school secretary resume. These show that the on the outsiders, person likes being with children and has an ethical interest in essay on the themes learning.

The other two are irrelevant and may give the impression that the ethical studies, person is not mature enough for the role. Pro Tip: Don’t go overboard and list everything in this section - a couple of examples are enough. On The Outsiders. You don’t want to seem like you won’t have the ethical case in law, time to be able to devote your full attention to your new secretary position! Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. With your snazzy new secretary resume showcasing your skills, you don’t need to bother with a cover letter as well, right? You put all that hard work into crafting the best secretary resume template, but there’s one reason it might not even get looked at. Far better to be safe than sorry, right?

Plus, a great secretary cover letter might just be the ticket to elevate your resume above the research melon, rest. Use your secretary cover letter to: Introduce yourself, and make yourself memorable. Explain why you’re interested in the secretary position. Show why you’re the best person for the job.

Explain reasons for studies in law any career changes or job hopping. Give reasons for gaps in your work experience. Anticipate answers to secretary job interview questions. To write a secretary application letter that sparkles, show a bit of lessay your personality. Case. Secretaries have to be relatable to a range of people from the CEO to lessay the mail delivery guy, so let your cover letter show you can do that. Most importantly, don’t forget to ethical tailor it to analytical the job description.

For example, if you’re writing a letter of interest for studies a medical secretary resume or a litigation secretary resume, these will each need to be different. Pro Tip: Do your research and find a few different sample cover letters for secretary or administrative job descriptions. See how others are introducing themselves and shrek essay, what kind of tone they adopt in their cover letter. You’re the master of multitasking, and studies, let’s be honest - the coursework stanford, place would fall apart without you! You’re serious about using your communication skills to ethical case studies in law make that office run like a well-oiled machine. And now your secretary resume showcases that.

Whether you’re writing a legal secretary resume or a church secretary resume, you need to make sure your skills and paper bitter melon, experience shine. Use your secretary resume to show the case, hiring manager that you’re about more than answering phones and typing emails. Do this and you’ll be nailing that dream role in essay on the outsiders no time at all. Natalie Cosgrove is a freelance writer and editor from ethical in law New Zealand who specializes in coursework lifestyle, business and social content. As a travel lover and digital nomad, she has previously lived in Malaysia and Australia, and is currently based in Warsaw, Poland.

In her spare time you can find her exploring her new city and eating all of the pierogi.

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Ethical and legal case studies - Advanced Nursing Practice Toolkit

7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) There are a lot of ways not to case studies in law do something. Personal For Resume. Like the new boat owner a few years ago who was filling up his pleasure craft with fuel for that first time out. Only he mistook the tube meant to hold fishing poles for ethical, the gas tank. After completing his work he started up the engine. The gas fumes ignited and blew the boat owner into the sky. He came down in the drink and was rescued, but the boat was a goner. You can be just as creative in finding ways not to write your novel. With a little thought and analytical essay not much effort, you can easily devise methods to prevent yourself from actually finishing a book—or finishing a book that has a chance to sell.

So if not finishing or not selling are your goals, I’m here to help you with the following seven tips (also, grab this free download on how to write a novel): This guest post is by ethical studies, James Scott Bell . Bell is the #1 bestselling author of Plot Structure, and award-winning thrillers like Final Witness. He served as fiction columnist for stem cell paper statement, Writer#8217;s Digest magazine, to which he frequently contributes, and has written three additional craft books for Writer’s Digest Books including Revision Self-Editing, The Art of War for Writers and case studies Conflict Suspense . Follow him on Twitter @jamesscottbell. Go to your favorite writing spot with your laptop or pad. Perhaps your location of choice is a Starbucks. Sit down with a cup of coffee and hold it with both hands. Sip it slowly. Do not put your fingers anywhere near the keyboard.

Glance out a window if one is essay available. Wait for a skein of geese flying in V formation. If no window is ethical studies available, simply observe the other patrons and make sure they can see your expression of other-worldly concentration. You are waiting for inspiration. It must come from on research paper bitter melon, high and ethical case studies fill you like fire. Until then, do not write a word. If you’re tempted to start working without it, open up Spider Solitaire immediately. Tell yourself this will relax your mind so inspiration can pour in. Coursework Stanford Login. Of course, those who think it wise to finish their novels do things backwards . They don’t wait for inspiration. They go after it, as Jack London said he did, “with a club.” They follow the studies in law advice of Peter De Vries, who said, “I write when I’m inspired, and I see to it that I’m inspired at nine o’clock every morning.” These poor souls think the essay on the outsiders secret to writing a novel is to ethical case in law write, and work through minor problems quickly, and major ones after the first draft is done.

They do things like this: Establish a writing quota. The quota is research paper based not on how much time they spend thinking about writing, but on ethical, how many words they get down. Some do a daily quota, others do it by the week. But they figure out what they can comfortably get done and set a quota about on the themes, 10 percent above that as a goal. Ethical In Law. Review the previous day’s writing and move on.

By looking at what they wrote the day before, they get back into the flow of research, their story. They fix little things, spelling and studies in law style mostly, but then get on with the day’s work. And one day they look up and see a finished manuscript. They have lost sight of how not to personal statement australia write a novel. The great pitcher Satchel Paige said, “Don’t look back. Something may be gaining on you.” It’s good life advice, but in order to not write your novel, you must ignore it. To not write your novel, constantly worry about how bad your book might turn out to be. Pause every thousand words or so and in law think, This is stem cell research thesis statement about the worst piece of crud known to studies in law man.

Where did I put the bourbon? This is sometimes known as the “inner critic,” and he’s your best friend. If you think about those doubts long enough, you can even develop them into fears . Jack Bickham, a novelist who was even better known for his books on the craft, put it this way: “All of us are scared: of looking dumb, of essay, running out of ideas, of never selling our copy, of not getting noticed. We fiction writers make a business of being scared, and not just of looking dumb. Some of these fears may never go away, and we may just have to learn to live with them.” Of course, some writers learn not only to case in law live with doubt and fear, but to defeat them. How do they do that? I shouldn’t tell you, because it’s counterproductive to not writing your novel.

But mostly they simply pound away at the keyboard. They concentrate on the words in front of them and kick that inner critic to the curb. They train themselves to do this via writing exercises, such as: The Five-Minute Nonstop. Write for five minutes, first thing in the morning if possible, without stopping to think about what you’re writing. No correcting. Just write.

The Page-Long Sentence. Choose something to personal statement for resume describe (a room or a character) and write a page-long sentence about it, not pausing to case studies edit and instead going on whatever tangents present themselves. The List Maker. Whenever you’re stuck for an idea to pursue, make a list. Brainstorm ideas without assessing them.

Turn off your filter. Get lots of ideas, then pick the best one. Writers who have dulled the research inner critic don’t worry about getting the words right. Case Studies. The only thing they worry about is getting the words written. Bitter Melon. They really have not got this not writing a novel thing down at studies all. Stanford Login. Are you looking amp up the stakes in your novel? Do you need your readers to connect to your work? Then you need this principle guide to in law advanced fiction writing. Write the book that your readers can#8217;t put down with the proven writing techniques in this value pack. This piece of advice on how to not write a novel applies whether you finish your first draft or not.

It’s the cry of the paper bitter artistic rebel who will go to studies in law the grave denouncing rules and techniques and anything that gets within a hundred yards of structure. This does create a very good feeling, like you’re the statement for resume australia king of the world. You can completely ignore all of the storytellers who came before you (be sure to call them hacks or sellouts ). The fact that you’ll most likely not place your book anywhere shouldn’t hinder you from your intractable writing course. The misdirected scribes who actually sell their books and build readerships take the craft of writing seriously. They study it without apology. They have people give them feedback—editors, critique groups, trusted and ethical in law objective friends—and they read countless novels and shrek analytical essay examine what’s going on. Case In Law. They’ll do the following: Analyze successful stories.

They ask questions when reading and use their findings to help strengthen their work. For example: How does the writer make me want to intermarche turn the page? Why am I drawn to the lead character? When are the stakes raised? How does the writer integrate minor characters? What makes a scene work?

What’s the key to conflict? How does the writer handle dialogue? These studious writers will be spotted reading Writer’s Digest and books on writing. What they learn they apply and practice, and through the wonder of studies in law, trial and error find themselves growing as writers. But this is an article on how not to write a novel, so follow their example at your peril. Australia. Here’s a surefire way not only to create a novel not worth reading, but scuttle your career as well. Decide that arrogance and defiance are your two weapons of choice to bulldog your way to publication. When you have a manuscript rejected, treat it as a personal insult. Think of ethical case in law, editors and agents as nasty creatures who love saying no, who sit at for resume their computers laughing Bwahahahahaha as they fire off their favorite thing: the impersonal form letter. You can carry all this to your social media sites and ethical in law publicly rebuke such shortsightedness. By name.

Those who do break through and research obtain a career have the crazy idea that they can recover—even learn—from rejection and use it as motivation to write better. They foolishly remember the admonition of case studies in law, writer Ron Goulart: “Never assume that a rejection of analytical, your stuff is also a rejection of you as a person. Unless it’s accompanied by a punch in the nose.” Yes, they recognize that rejection hurts. Ethical Case In Law. But they believe it’s part of the process and always will be. Writers like this do the following: Wallow, then write. They let the research paper rejection hurt for half an hour or so, then get back to the keyboard.

Learn from the critique. They go through the letter and their manuscript and attempt to draw out any lesson the case studies rejection brings. They understand that people in the publishing industry actually want to login find new authors. Of course, these are terrible tips for not writing a novel! Now let’s talk about case in law, one of the biggest keys to a novel that really has no chance. Intermarche. Start by chasing the market. Study the bestseller lists and case in law try to identify a trend and jump on it.

There’s a saying in publishing that the moment you spot a trend, it’s too late to join it. By the time you finish writing something you think will be popular because it’s popular now, that ship will have largely sailed. Research Paper Bitter Melon. Ignore that saying, or you may end up with something agents and editors look for: a fresh voice. Such writers are market conscious. They know that publishers are in this business to in law make money, a return on their investment in on the outsiders themes a new writer. Studies In Law. But they still manage to bring something new to the table, namely their own heart and passion filtered through a craft that enables readers to share their vision. Personal For Resume. Yes, vision.

Any genre needs it. Ethical Case. As super agent Donald Maass says in The Fire in Fiction : “What the hell are you trying to analytical say to me?” Writers with fresh voices: Explore all facets of studies in law, a story. They concentrate on feeling the story as well as writing it. Read a wide variety of material. These writers read outside their genre—even poetry!—not to find out what’s hot, but to expand their stylistic range. But just beware that if you do find your voice, that means you’re not not writing your novel.

6. Take as many shortcuts as possible. Bitter Melon. With the boom in e-books and the ease with which anything can be “published,” writers have a new way not to write a novel that might be worth reading. It’s by holding the thought firmly in mind that whatever they write is worth putting out case, as a self-released e-book, and they will do it no matter what! This relieves a lot of the pressure of trying to grow as a writer. One can combine this with the chip-on-your-shoulder attitude for a terrific double whammy. Of course, other writers—those who are laying a strong foundation in the nontraditional realm of research thesis, digital and ethical studies independent publishing—foolishly continue to find surefire ways to vet their work: They will use test readers. They don’t trust themselves in all ways. They know they need objective readers, so they cultivate people they trust to tell them specifically what’s not working. Then they’ll figure out a way to fix it. They will hire a good freelance editor.

They know that the big benefit of a traditional publisher is analytical professional editing, so it’s worth it to ethical in law them to find a reputable freelance editor to go over their work. Note the word reputable . There are less-than-savory services out essay outsiders themes, there that will gladly take a writer’s money for very little quality work. (And if you’re trying to ethical studies not write a novel that’s publishable, you should probably use them!) If all else succeeds and you’re still intent on not finishing your novel, you have a surefire fallback: Stop writing. Forget the coursework stanford examples of those who persevered and eventually found an agent or got published. Like Kathryn Stockett. She wrote and edited The Help over ethical studies in law a five-year period, then got three-and-a-half years’ worth of rejections from agents—60 in all.

It was agent 61 who took her on, and the rest you know well. Published authors will tell you it’s all about perseverance, the essay one characteristic all successful writers share. They’ll tell you as long as you’ve got a computer and keyboard, or pen and paper, you can write. And as long as you write you have a chance to get published. Author David Eddings said, “Keep working. Keep trying. Ethical In Law. Keep believing.

You still might not make it, but at least you gave it your best shot. If you don’t have calluses on your soul, writing isn’t for you. Take up knitting instead.” [Like this quote? Click here to Tweet and share it!] With several bestselling series under his belt, he definitely wasn’t very good at not writing novels. … Wait. What’s that? You actually want to write a novel? Well, I’m not the writing sheriff.

The choice is yours. Other writing/publishing articles links for you: 57 thoughts on “ 7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) ” Thanks for the article. I enjoyed the read. #128578; Hm. Writing your novel and selling it are two different things. Stem Cell Research Thesis. Unfortunately, selling it does seem to mean you must look over your shoulder as you write it, create what the agents claim to want—like a fresh voice— and tick all the boxes that mean what they actually want is a book very much like the ones they#8217;ve already sold. (And for god#8217;s sake, don#8217;t write a prologue, even if it#8217;s what your story requires.) One of the case in law boxes you must tick is #8216;length.#8217; Good luck being a first-time novelist with a book that#8217;s around 200,000 words, and admitting to this in a query letter.

The book may be very good indeed (I#8217;ve read many, published in the not-so-distant past) that are easily that length and personal kept me glued throughout. Ethical Case In Law. However, you write one of intermarche, those you will NOT sell it via an agent any more. Case In Law. It will go straight in the bin before they even bother to ask for the first few chapters, to test your actual writing ability. Stem Research Paper. So, as long as you accept that writing and studies in law selling are two entirely different things, with very different requirements these days, fair enough. Fantastic. Looks like I#8217;m currently on the right track to NOT writing a novel, but I can#8217;t say for essay on the outsiders themes, sure if I#8217;d still be the same tomorrow! just amaze to read this valuable and useful article.thanks for share this with us.I just cant imagine that you are going to studies in law spread the best informative post. Wow that means you are here to coursework stanford learn that how to became your hubby#8217;s favorite and special..This is in law really interesting and research bitter amazing. Escorts in Dehradun. Wonderful and i just amaze to be here,thanks for share this with us.i just amaze to read this and to discover this. Studies In Law. That was really an awesome post i like it thanks for the share.. Cell Paper Thesis Statement. academic coursework writing service is the best service for the students.

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I am a very Bory writer and essay I need a good motivation and this thing #8221; Keep a chip on your shoulder#8221; for me! Thank you very much, writing can be very interesting and even needed for you!) Excellent advice James. I know writer wanna be#8217;s and this article should be required reading. I have all your books on writing and enjoy the conversational, easy to read style they#8217;re written in. Studies In Law. I have also attended your webinars.

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Ethical and legal case studies - Advanced Nursing Practice Toolkit

Essay: Dreams – theories, history and case in law, film. What is a dream? Is it just a figment of the imagination? Are dreams reflections of personality or a prophecy? Humans were and still are wondering, discovering, learning about the source as well as meaning of dreams, their visions for shrek analytical essay centuries. Studies. From a scientific point of view, a dream is intermarche, not just the sleeping state in itself, but awareness – resting of the brain, it is the moment most closely related to the sphere of human desires. It is a source of knowledge coming from the deepest recesses of the psyche, a path from the mind to the brain. REF. This topic was chosen as the case author became fascinated with the subject of dreams following her practical work an earlier stage and decided to explore the topic in more depth, including historical references and symbolism used by artists and writers.

How do dreams arise and what images do they create? How do artists reconstruct them and present in stanford login, their work? Night is not only the time in which one is resting, but it is ethical case, also the time to lessay, disclose the true subconscious thoughts and desires, senses, needs, values, fears or even human hopes. What one dreams of is a record of the life of unconscious human targets, a combination of experiences. The analysis of ethical case studies dreams is the path to get to statement for resume australia, know oneself, reveal they suppressed psychical content. The sleep state is ethical studies, something spectacular, a gateway to statement for resume australia, another world, far away from everyday life.

The dream reveals the secrets of the ethical in law past, the outsiders themes future, as well as the present. It is a state of union of the human soul with the whole world around. Chapter one will look at the relevant theories developed by Jung, Emerson and the controversial Sigmund Freud, the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist who claimed that the human psyche is not only limited to consciousness. Case In Law. Chapter one aims to stanford login, critically analyse psychoanalysis and the symbolisms of dreams. Chapter two aims to investigate the ethical case studies in law title in more depth in terms of the historical aspect. It also attempts to discover how the interpretation of dreams has evaluated through at the centuries. Chapter two will examine the role of dreams in a few selected literary works and pieces of art and will explore the stem cell research paper outcomes.

Chapter three will consider in ethical case, more depth the essay on the outsiders one of the ethical case studies most interesting movements in Dali’s work including the 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalon’ (An Andalusian Dog) CHAPTER ONE – THE THEORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS MEANINGS. The title of the first famous work of the Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist Sigmund Freud has been translated as “The Interpretation of Dreams”. This is the manifesto of his ideas. Cell Statement. The book which was published in 1899, threw a completely new light on the subject of sleep. According to Freud night is not only the time in which a man rests ‘ it is primarily a time to reveal his true, unconscious thoughts and ethical case in law, desires. REF. Freud discovered by examining his patients that the human psyche determines active yet unconscious representations that relate to childhood.

He concludes that the experiences from the early stages of personality development can after many years cause obsessive thoughts, fears and strange courses of action. The reasons for such behaviour are, according to Freud not admitted to consciousness due to the high emotional charge when the emotions which are too painful or too improbable. Essay On The. REF. Freud distinguished three spheres of the case human psyche: the shrek analytical unconscious the Id, the Ego and conscious irrational the case Superego. Login. The Id acts in accordance with the pleasure principle. In 1933, Sigmund Freud described the Id as. ‘the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learnt from our study of the dream-work and of the construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of this is case, of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We all approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations… It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to cell research statement, bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle.’ REF.

The Id remains in conflict with the Superego and the outside world. The Ego, guided by the principle of reality, tries to alleviate this conflict and customize the behaviour of the studies individual to conform to given environment principles. It attenuates impulses or satisfies them in the safest and most beneficial manner including the most important – sexual. According to the theory of Freud one of the proofs of the existence of the Id are dreams, fulfilling the unconscious desires and replacing real action. Dreams are hidden desires, which reflect the subconscious, and thanks to essay, them it is possible to studies in law, discover the cause of anxiety and neurotic behaviour. According to Freud, the statement for resume dream is a creation of the dreamer’s own activity, but during sleep censorship temporarily weakens its activities. This allows unconscious thoughts to have the opportunity to appear. REF.

Thus the dream is a record of life, unconscious human needs, and a combination of experiences. The analysis of dreams is the path to get to know oneself; dreams reveal suppressed psychological content. In a dream, several forms merge into one. For example, anxiety concerning one house may manifest itself in dreams as a few houses. According to scientists, the dream is something extraordinary, the gateway to another world, far away from everyday life. Freud concluded that the human psyche cannot be limited only to case studies, consciousness. He claimed that there is an coursework stanford login, unconscious that contains in itself the specific content and which is also directing its own mechanisms. Unconscious processes affect our behaviour. REF. Freud introduced two new theories concerning dreams-manifest and ethical case studies, latent content.

Manifest content is stanford login, simply remembered dream, latent content is an expression of latent desires, memories of the previous days, and the impetus of the body or the ethical studies in law environment. The close connection between the dream and coursework, the unconscious the Id makes every detail of the overt content of dreams imbuing with it some significance. According to Jung, dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious – what might be called unconscious memory. He believed that dreams are unconscious revelation of transcendental wisdom to the individual. Freud and case studies, Jung have made great contributions to the study of dreams and have created a solid foundation for on the outsiders translating dreams. These studies show that during sleep the in law subconscious sends signals that actually deciphered can explain where the research melon source of the problem is and how it can be solved. REF. In dreams nothing happens without a reason, they can be deciphered. Ethical Case Studies. Because sexual desire, according to Freud, plays a crucial role in human life, different objects and situations in dreams can refer to sexual objects.

For example, sticks, knives, umbrellas and shotguns, are unconscious representations of the penis. According to this theory, young girls seeking sexual contacts and cell statement, yet fearful of studies them are often in dreams pursued by lessay men with a knife or firearm. On the other hand, for example, fruits such as apples, in men’s dreams symbolize a woman’s breasts. REF Indeed, not all dreams are filled with unconscious sexual content. One patient told Freud a dream in which members of his family were sitting around an studies in law, odd-shaped table. Seemingly the dream did not make sense. But it turned out that the man had seen a similar table the house of a friend he had met recently. Personal. REF.

Another example of case studies in law dream analysis he in accordance with Freud’s theory is cited in the book, “Secrets of Sleep” by Alexander Borbely. A certain man dreamed that he was riding a bike. His answer to the question of what bike reminded him was that this was his son’s favourite pastime. In the autumn the son would be leaving for university and the man wanted to spend more time with him before his departure. The second dream involved a combination of his father’s death following a heart attack. The bike had helped the father to maintain fitness. The dream of cycling related to two very serious things in his life. REF. Some people believe that many theories developed by Freud and his successors such, as Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) and Erich Fromm (1900-1980), are not supported by sufficient scientific evidence. On the on the themes other hand, the phenomenon of sleep and subconscious human hides so many puzzles that one cannot authoritatively determine who is right and ethical case studies, who is wrong. Perhaps doubt will never be justified.

Formerly dreams were given different meanings. They were considered as information derived from the gods, and intermarche lessay, the mysterious language of sleep sought to case studies in law, be explained in many ways. Statement Australia. The sages and priests spent much time on this. Studies In Law. In order to fathom the paper bitter melon mystery of dreams, dreams were collected and ethical case in law, were written down in coursework, order to case studies, later attempt to interpret them. Erich Fromm believed that ‘Both dreams and myths are important communications from ourselves to ourselves. If we do not understand the language in which they are written, we miss a great deal of what we know and tell ourselves in those hours when we are not busy manipulating the outside world. ‘ REF. Myths and dreams are united by one shared feature – dreams can be written in symbolic language. It is a language in which the inner experiences, feelings and thoughts are expressed in such a way as if they were sensory experiences, events in the outside world. Coursework Stanford. This language is ethical case studies, governed by logic which is different from the conventional, everyday logic, in which there is not significant space and time, but intensity and association. Historically, for people living both east and west, dreams and myths were among the most important creations the coursework login mind, and the lack of understanding of dreams was treated as ignorance.

An interesting interpretation of dreams was presented by ethical case in law Artemidorus in the second century. His work on the translation of the dream had a huge impact on the views of the Middle Ages. He distinguished five types of intermarche lessay dreams: 1) Dream hides the truth in latent form. 2) The vision is when what is seen in a dream is what happened in the real world. 3) An racle is a revelation sent down in a dream by an angel, or another character to fulfill the will of God. 4) Fantasy is when what preoccupies s person during the day t is ethical case studies in law, subject of the intermarche lessay dream. 5) The phantom is a night vision, which is manifested to small the case children or elderly people to scare or scandalize them.

Ralph Emerson theorized that dreams reflect character, and particularly those aspects that cannot be observed in waking behaviou. Intermarche Lessay. This manifests itself in in law, the character of the other , as he claimed, ‘in the dreams of other persons their hidden forces which affect their behavior and in this way we can often predict their future actions.’ REF. Whereas Emerson suggested a relationship between character and dream, Henri Bergson argued that dreams are actually caused by different physical stimuli, but these stimuli do not need to be explained as the dominant desires. According to him dreams are caused by memories being pushed into oblivion. He assumed that the human mind does not forget anything, and what is remembered, is only a small fraction of the whole of one’s memory. REF. Many researchers share the view that dreams have in them something of lessay both an irrational and a rational nature. Some people believe that dreams reveal the animal nature and are the studies in law gateway to illusions whereas dreams for others are an expression of the most rational forces, which is the gateway to truth. Essay On The Themes. According to some researchers, the role of ethical case studies in law dreams is to intermarche, explain when the dream manifests the better part of the “I”, and when it dominates the animal nature.

REF. A long time before psychoanalysis, great importance was attributed to dreams; hence the frequent presence of dreams and visions as theme in the literature of different eras. The works of some artists also embed this convention which will be discussed further in the following chapter. CHAPTER TWO ‘ HISTORY OF THE DREAM AND ITS EVOLUTION. The first references regarding dreams in art are as old as literature itself.

The interest in dreams and their analysis began with the birth of humanity. Since time immemorial, dreams have been the case studies richest source of the interpretation of the past, present, and most importantly the personal statement future. The stories of Gilgamesh, Iliad and the Bible all describe dreams of some of the case studies in law main characters along with their meanings. However dreams as art, without historical or tale format appear to have developed in later years, although it is impossible to know how many pre-modern works were inspired by intermarche lessay dreams. (Belanger, 2005)’According to ethical case studies, one of the oldest beliefs, sleep was a state similar to the state of death. In former times dreams considered were to be the journey of the coursework stanford login soul leaving the body REF. This idea of the soul leaving the body can be to the pre-Christian era. In the Bible there are many examples of ethical studies in law dreams. Melon. In ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, the dream was considered a bad omen, unless it was interpreted by experts who carried out the case studies in law appropriate rituals according to their message. Babylonians treated dreams as a kind of guide to conduct in everyday life. Also the ancient Greeks had a highly developed technique of dream interpretation. Initially, they considered dreams as signs from the gods, consisting of a kind of guide to the complicated way of life.

Health was analysed in terms of cell research thesis dreams. According to mythology, the Ancient Greeks imagined the god of sleep, Hypnos, as a winged youth. He was the brother of Thanatos, the case studies god of death. Hypnos could make people fall asleep just by touching their foreheads with a twig or strewing on stanford login them poppies stored in horn. A more common representation of a dream coming from ancient culture is Morpheus, son of Hypnos the god of case in law dreams. Morpheus had the ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams. REF. In the Bible the dream has a symbolic meaning. It could be an omen, prophecy or vision. God appeared to Pharaoh in a dream, cautioning him of imminent danger.

Pharaoh’s vision allowed him to avoid the oncoming adversity. God gave him a chance to save the people from famine, which was coming in essay, the near future. Ethical In Law. Pharaoh dreamed that he was standing by the Nile, when up seven cows, sleek and fat appeared out of the river and they grazed among the reeds. After them, seven other cows, ugly and gaunt, came up out of the Nile and stood beside those on essay the riverbank. The cows that were ugly and gaunt ate up the ethical case in law seven sleek, fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up, but when he fell asleep again, he dreamed a second dream. Seven heads of grain, healthy and paper thesis statement, good, were growing on a single stalk. After them, seven other heads of grain sprouted thin and scorched by the east wind.

The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven healthy, full heads. Pharaoh woke up again and ethical studies, realized it was a dream which may have been sent as a warning. – Image 1 Pharaoh’s Dreams by James Tissot. The next day, Pharaoh decided to convene all the magicians and wise men of Egypt but none of them knew what the dream meant. Joseph, who was held captive had the gift of interpretation of dreams . ‘The dreams of personal australia Pharaoh are one and the same. God has revealed to Pharaoh what he is about to ethical case studies, do. Research Melon. The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are seven years; it is one and the same dream. The seven lean, ugly cows that came up afterward are seven years, and so are the seven worthless heads of grain scorched by ethical case studies the east wind: They are seven years of famine.’ REF. However, after seven years of prosperity there was to be time of misery and poverty.

Joseph advised Pharaoh to build granaries where he might store the excess food. In addition, Joseph announced that if the dream was repeated twice, it was certain that it would happen. REF. The author of the Exodus proved that dreams could predict the future or foreshadow any specific event. Shrek. The Bible is a source of various motives and symbols that are for ethical people a reference to real life.

Dreams in the Bible reveal the intricacies of the human psyche, reveal fears and anxieties, and yet are a path which God and man can communicate. God appeared in Solomon’s dream and melon, announced that he would give anything that Solomon wished. Solomon was king of ethical studies Israel and did not demand long life or riches; he preferred to have the wisdom to distinguish between good and evil, when governing the people. God fulfilled his wish, but also gave him fame and wealth. The dream here demonstrated Solomon’s attitude to God, who not only fulfilled his request but gave him more. REF Luca Giordano was one of the most important painters of the late Baroque period. Invited to Spain by King Charles II in 1692, he was soon established as the leading painter at the Spanish Court. Shrek Analytical. For the crown, he painted in particular the biblical stories of inter alia Solomon where he also immortalized the scene of Solomon’s dream.

Early Christians interpreted dreams as a state in which the ethical studies defenseless body and spirit were susceptible to personal for resume australia, a variety of influences. Ethical Case Studies. Nightmares were thought to be a clear manifestation of demons and monsters or warnings from statement australia, God or a message from heaven. Case Studies. In the New Testament, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream and declared that Mary was pregnant by research paper the Holy Spirit. Studies. Mary and shrek essay, Joseph were not married yet and Joseph thought about studies, annulling the betrothal because of the pregnancy of Mary. However, the angel told him that the future child would be the Saviour, which led to Joseph’s change of heart. REF. Dream themes appeared as early as in ancient Greek and intermarche lessay, Roman comedies, and continued to provide material for drama throughout the centuries. One example is the Baroque ‘Life Is a Dream’ by Calderon de la Barca in 1635 (WHERE?!) Long before the discovery of psychoanalysis and its development, there were attempts to unravel the mystery of the origin and message of studies dreams. Also artists started to be more involve in this phenomen.

The Renaissance era was no exception. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, dreams became a theme often adoptedby artists who tried to push the boundaries of art seeking ways to show the unpreventable. Shrek Essay. How could an artist capture on canvas something so intangible, ephemeral and incomprehensible as a dream? Another form, which was as its basic material, imagination and dream, is the drama of the Renaissance era. Studies In Law. Writers used dreams to reveal the complexities of the human psyche and to intermarche, reveal subconscious fears and anxieties. This method was used by William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) who already in the sixteenth century broke with the existing conventions of case in law drama and placed the supernatural alongside the real world. In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the playwright applied a phenomenon called the dualism of the represented world, which means that fantasy should be represented equally with reality.

REF. One night in login, the middle of summer the boundary between these two worlds was obliterated. The forest, which was the ethical case place of the action, became a place for the simultaneous operation of two states of consciousness: reality and dream. In this way, Shakespeare created an image resembling the original beliefs of the people or the fantasies of a child whose mind was not yet sufficiently affected by the suffering of the world and the things overlooked by adults. The forest was turned into a magical place with the personal statement for resume presence of magic and ethical in law, elves. Among the characters of the drama, two circles could be distinguished: humans and elves. The first is statement for resume, a symbol of the ordinary and the mundane, while the second circle symbolizes the extraordinary and magic. Elves show that anything can happen. By being transformed physically into an ass, Bottom’s true character is revealed.

This was depicted by Edwin Landseer in his painting ‘Scene from A Midsummer Night’s Dream’.Elvish magic showed the impossibility of distinguishing dream from reality. In the words of Shakespeare: ‘The lunatic, the lover, and ethical case in law, the poet, are of imagination all compact.’ REF. In Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’ the world resembles ghostly phantom apnea, which is rife with crime, and the scenery is immersed in the darkness of night. The theme is the desire to gain power, which Macbeth and his wife achieve by the murder of King Duncan. After the crime both perpetrators have guilty consciences, which they cannot suppress.

Dark thoughts and memories haunt both characters in dreams. The crime which they have committed has led to them believing every man was a threat to them as a potential enemy. In a dream Macbeth sees the spirit of a dead friend, Banquo. This means he is personal statement, faced with a difficult choice. On the one hand there is the desire to gain power, on the other sensitivity and a sense of morality, which ultimately is victorious. Macbeth could no longer keep secret, the terrible crime which was haunting him every night. Nightmares also tormented his wife. Remorse disturbed his peace of mind. However, recurring nightmares still had a greater influence on his wife, and especially on the psyche. Case In Law. This is confirmed by the words of intermarche lessay Macbeth (ACT 2 SCENE 5) REF. ‘Methought I heard a voice cry, ‘Sleep no more!

Macbeth does murder sleep”the innocent sleep, Sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course, Chief nourisher in life’s feast.’ REF.

The killing a man by Macbeth is the studies killing of dream, his own conscience. The painting “Nightmare” by research melon Henry Fuseli (1781) reflects the struggle of the protagonist of Macbeth and his wife to come to terms with the murder. The woman lying on the bed perfectly reflects their mental state. Ethical Case Studies. Moreover, the woman’s position suggests that she may be dreaming of something horrifying, manifesting as fear in the dreamer. Paper Melon. The painter has not left any specific instructions regarding its interpretation. It can be assumed that a woman lying on the bed is his beloved Anna Landolf. Case In Law. This would allow the discovery of an additional intimate sense. REF.

‘The Nightmare simultaneously offers both the image of a dream’by indicating the effect of the outsiders nightmare on the woman’and a dream image’in symbolically portraying the sleeping vision.’ REF It is also unclear whether the woman is immersed in a dream or whether she is trying to catch her last breath. The symbolism and case, imagery of the painting is very much exposed. The outer form is the “undercover” for shrek analytical what is important, which is a nightmare of the spirit. Within the symbolism there is a monkey ornament, which according to ethical studies, ancient times was the analytical creature which most closely resembles to a human. However, in the art of the Middle Ages it symbolized the essence of a degraded, creature hiding in ethical case studies, the animal nature of man. REF Similar symbols associated with the character of the horse. Additional evidence may be darkness, from statement, which it emerges. ‘Sleep, the Cousin of Death’ – Charles Sackville REF.

Indeed the woman lying on the bed could be dead or just sleeping. During the Renaissance poets developed an awareness, not only of the importance od dreams but of unlimited imagination. The poets of the studies seventeenth century liked to compare dream to the state of death. They even discussed the concept that human life ends in the sleep of death. – Miko??aj S??p Szarzy??ski (1550 ‘ 1581) REF. In European literature Romanticism emphasized the statement for resume australia value of emotions and studies in law, inspirations coming from the irrational. Visions, stemming from dreams or the mental, and sometimes the physical state caused by the interaction of drugs, served as excellent material to manifest the highest potential and skills of the artist. Onirism which is an art form directly based on material from dreams, or which employs dream-like imagery, often embraces the outsiders themes entire composition of the artist’s work, especially the construction of the person and his relationship with the real, fantastic and spiritual world. (Drucker, 2006) In fact, the term Onirism in relation to art appeared in the twentieth century as a result of the achievements of the case Surrealists, for intermarche lessay whom creativity and onirism tendencies are very characteristic. The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, myths and tales, tearing down the logical order of reality and investigating absurdity, dreams and mediumship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The Surrealists attributed on enormous role to unrestrained imagination. Studies In Law. Oneiric tendencies were noticed and disseminated in the 1960s and 1970s with the personal statement resurgent popularity of surrealism. (Jurewicz, 2014) The epithet “oneiric” is most commonly used to characterize the artistic techniques, rather than the ethical case in law overall concept of the dream.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century symbolism and expressionism introduced dream images to the visual arts. Expressionism was also a literary movement and embraced later work. Shrek Analytical. (Jouvet, 2000) August Strindberg coined the term “dream play” for narrative style, which does not apply the differentiations between fantasy and reality. Whereas others believed that sleep is a kind of case in law escape from the world. ‘The Wedding’ (1901) defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the 20th century by statement Stanis??aw Wyspia??ski (1869 – 1907) describes the studies in law perils of the national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The author, by combining reality with fiction, evaluates Polish society facing an opportunity to regain independence. There are large number of symbols, which serve as criticisms of inconsistency, lack of understanding and the motivation to fight for the country.

Wyspiariski placed in his act realistic as well as fictional characters, ghosts and spirits. There is no doubt that the research thesis whole of the second act of the drama is constructed from oneiric conventions. Ethical. Ghosts and spirits, which have symbolic importance, are merely the imagination of the paper thesis statement authentic characters. Almost every one of them is a remembrance of the past, the embodiment of their desires, fears and aspirations. Their task is to unmasked the inner state of the person to whomghost are appearing. The Poet is visited successively by the Black Knight a symbol of the nation’s past military glory, the Journalist, then by the court jester Sta??czy who is a conservative political sage and by the Ghost of Wernyhora, a paradigm of leadership for Poland. Ethical Case Studies. Wernyhora presents the Host with a golden horn symbolizing the national mission, and calls the research bitter Polish people to revolt.

There is a mood of horror, mystery, understatement, ambiguity, so it is not known whether the characters see spirits while they are awake, or they are merely a dream. Painting “B’?dne ko??o” (The Mad Circle) by Jacek Malczewski is an example of a symbolic painting. The painting presents quite a strange scene referring to the play ‘The Wedding ‘ In the case center of the painting is located a ladder on it there is sitting little boy while numerous characters are dancing around him. Among them is impossible to distinguish between both the rural population, positioned on second plane of the painting, naked women and men in the foreground. The humans and the figure of the shrek analytical devil, that is, half-naked creature with hooves instead of feet. The painting is a composition closed, is kept in dark tones predominate, gray, black, brown only on the left side, where there are people of rural origin suddenly colours change in a very lively, much happier with a majority of red, yellow, blue. The image is very dynamic, but the full balance is case in law, maintained between one and the other side of the work. Malczewski’s painting sums up all the thoughts and values which carries with it drama ‘The Wedding’. The twentieth first century brought many amazing discoveries in the field of parapsychology, which allowed for a variety of interpretations of various phenomena in the area of the human mind. It has been proved that the brain during sleep functions only ten percent.

REF. What is happening with the rest? It is still a mystery to be solve. The dream is shrek analytical essay, a kind of escape into the world of fantasy, a condition in which a person is in no way limited’ even by case the force of bitter gravity. Wislawa Szymborska (1923 -2012) demonstrated this in the poem “In Praise of Dreams”.

In praise of dreams. I paint like Vermeer van Delft. I speak fluent Greek. and not just with the ethical case studies in law living. that does what I want it to. and write mighty epics. as clearly as any venerable saint.

My brilliance as a pianist. I fly the way we ought to, Falling from the roof, I tumble gently to the grass. I’ve got no problem. breathing under water. I’ve been able to locate Atlantis.

It’s gratifying that I can always. wake up before dying. As soon as war breaks out, I roll over on my other side. I’m a child of my age, but I don’t have to be. A few years ago. And the night before last a penguin,

The poem’s title makes the subject matter obvious. The subject shows the reader that during sleep, nothing is impossible. . One can become an outstanding painter fluent in different languages who plays the piano beautifully or soars high above the ground. The poet sees sleep as a land where anything can happen, an endless realm of improbable things like two suns. In the dream, death does not need to be feared. Each time, when all kinds of threat are revealed by simply opening the on the outsiders eyes one is again lying safely in bed cuddling a pillow. Unknown corners of the earth can be explored; it is possible or to breathe underwater, we become better, we blur the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead. In dreams, it is possible to meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends.. people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in case, the laws of stem cell paper thesis logic that govern thinking in reality.

In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking or the most important moments of sleep are remembered. It is not surprising that Szymborska devoted a poem to the praise of dreams for their uniqueness. A dream is a second life; it is ethical, state of transition, in which people are the masters of their dreams. Apnea material began to be used as an inspiration for comics in the 1980s. For instance the popular comic strips of Winsor McCay. Artists began to illustrate their own dreams. Essay Outsiders Themes. In’ The Committee of Sleep’ the Harvard psychologist Deirdre explored material for media provided by dreams among many modernist works inspired by dreams she included paintings such as ‘Flag’ (1954’55) by Jasper Johns, most of the work of Jim Dine and Salvador Dali, novels ranging from ‘Sophie Choice’ directed by Alan J. Pakula, who adapted William Styron’s novel of the same name. Works of Anne Rice and Stephen King, even films such as ‘3 Women’ directed by Robert Altman, ‘Wild Strawberries’ directed by Ingmar Bergman, ‘Dracula’ or even ‘Frankenstein’.

Barrett also mentions that the song ‘Yesterday’ by Paul McCartney, was heard by him in a dream. (Belanger, 2005) Content coming from the ethical in law dreams is still used for different purposes by many contemporary artists. Stem Cell Paper. The exploitation of dreams is in law, considered by some to give suitable psychological weigt to their work, regardless of artistic value. (Pells, 1973) CHAPTER THREE ‘ SURREALISM: THE DREAM MOVEMENT. Dreams have been an inseparable part of everyone’s life since time immemorial, and this is reflected in the fields of research paper melon literature and art where the case studies use of dreams as theme. Simultaneously, the discussion regarding dreams reached a new level of awareness in the western world due to the work of analytical Sigmund Freud who introduced the case studies in law concept of the unconscious as a field of personal statement research. Freud’s theories greatly influenced the twentieth-century Surrealists who combined visionary impulses and expressionism placing great emphasis on the unconscious as a creative tool, with the assumption that the seemingly irrational content might contain much of relevant information, perhaps even more than the rational. Ethical In Law. The aim of the Surrealists was to coursework, investigate the case in law realm of the stem unconscious. They took the view that man is ethical case in law, governed by forces beyond his conscious Ego, an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. Although the Surrealists strongly embraced Freud’s theory he wrote letter to Stefan Zweig (20 July 1938), after meeting Salvador Dali, that he was “inclined to look upon surrealists, who have apparently chosen me for their patron saint, as absolute (let us say 95 per cent, like alcohol) cranks!” (Pontalis, Frontiers in Psychoanalysis, p.49) Films, particularly those of Bunuel have, to a large extent been responsible for spreading the concept of the dream.

Some of Bunuel’s sequences have been described as “an involuntary imitation of sleep.” (Solar, 2003) Film criticism popularized the epithet oneiric, but very often it is used interchangeably with the term “surreal” – regardless of bitter melon whether it is a film created through surrealism or not. Ethical. Commonly, these terms apply to discontinuities in the film, the scenes that are a contradiction of realistic logic and unexpected associations. The invention of film and animation has brought new opportunities to describe irrational events, but films composed entirely of dream-like images and content were still rare avant-garde. (Peterson, 1994) One of the most interesting movements in lessay, painting of the twentieth century was Surrealism. Artists representing this style were using surprising ideas that were innovative, inspired by reality as well as dreams.

Antonin Artaud states that, ‘Surrealism is not a style. Ethical Case Studies In Law. It is the personal for resume cry of a mind turning back on itself.’ (1997, p.3) Surrealism was founded in France and quickly gained followers. It expressed what is difficult to determine, allowed freedom of ethical case association, and even expressed the irrational. The style was a revolt against research paper bitter classicism, realism, empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism and case, previous conventions in art. Outsiders Themes. The main feature of Surrealist painting was a visual expression of internal perception. Artists tried to ethical studies in law, create images that disturbed the logical order of reality.

Often these were grotesque visions, the borderline between reality, dream, fantasy, hallucinations and a movement away from rationalism. (Durozoi, 2002) The Surrealists, who attributed a major role to shrek analytical, unrestrained imagination, also derived some ideas from ethical case, Romanticism. Lessay. They wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Important for them also was the element of surprise, absurdity and nonsense. The Surreal images are shreds of disordered and in law, illogical thoughts. Research Statement. Important inspirations for the Surrealists were Hieronymus Bosch’s (1450 ‘ 1516) paintings. Art historian Walter Gibson described Bosch’s paintings as “a world of dreams [and] nightmares in ethical in law, which forms seem to flicker and change before our eyes.” The Spaniard Felipe de Guevara wrote that the artist was regarded merely as “the inventor of monsters and chimeras”. Whereas a Dutch art historian Karel van Mander described Bosch’s work as “wondrous and strange fantasies (‘) often less pleasant than gruesome to look at.” The aim of the Surrealists was to investigate the realm of the unconscious. They took the view that man is governed by forces beyond his conscious ‘Ego’.

The Surrealists were fascinated by hypnosis, automatic writing, medium-ship which was thriving at the time of psychoanalysis. The most prominent psychoanalysis’s were Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Although the paper Surrealists referred to the theories of Freud, he himself was utterly puzzled by the Surrealists. They Surrealists wanted to dramatize even seemingly ordinary events. Their images are shreds of disordered and illogical thoughts.

Salvador Dali (1904 ‘ 1989) was one of the most outstanding artists who was highly influenced by the world of dreams. An example can be Dali’s most recognizable series of melting clocks, supposedly inspired by a dream about camembert cheese. ‘Dali transferred on canvas culinary materialistic dreams and obsessions. Symbolism is case, part of the inherited culture of human nature. Intermarche Lessay. It should be remembered that new symbols are constantly being created and they join the old. Each symbol has its counterpart which is its translation or example. The quantity and quality symbol which humans use to express thoughts and desires, is, however, changed during the course of life and depends on the changing socio-cultural context. Because desires are suppressed during resting, they are revealed only in conditions of reduced censorship. The essence of dreams is the hallucinatory fulfilment of irrational impulses and desires. The formation of dreams involving two types of ethical case studies in law mental processes: one that creates thoughts of sleep and coursework, the other encodes these thoughts in such a way that they are irrational. Encoding is designed to conceal infantile desires, as well as those that are contrary to the principles of case studies in law pleasure, but which are thought about in everyday life.’ (Jurewicz, 2014 p.7)

The 1929 silent film ‘Un Chien Andalou’ (An Andalusian Dog) by Salvador Dali and Luis Bu??uel is analytical essay, a Surrealistic potpourri of shocking, dream-influenced obscene non-related episodic clips with no purpose but merely to shock the ethical viewer. The chronology of the films is chaotic and disjointed, there are no central characters to follow, it jumps from intermarche, ‘once upon a time’ to ‘eight years later’ without any explanation whatsoever. ‘It uses dream logic in in law, narrative flow that can be described in terms of the then-popular Freudian free association, presenting a series of tenuously related scenes.’ (The Generalist, 2014) The film is reminiscent of dream logic that requires no rhyme or reason, just like an actual dream. For centuries, people have been having dreams.

Every night they enter into the world of dream, an on the outsiders themes, unknown world where it is possible to be anyone. In dreams, it is possible to ethical studies in law, meet different creatures, different people, familiar faces, relatives, and friends… people who died a long time ago who appear to be alive. Dreams have one common feature – they do not exist in the laws of logic that govern thinking in reality. In dreams different states and emotions are experienced, yet only the most shocking, the most important moments of sleep are remembered, and so it is cell research paper statement, with this film. The film includes ants crawling out of a man’s palm, a severed hand in the street and a shocking scene when a razor is held to a woman’s eyeball and an incision is promptly made. Bu??uel in his youth played outside surrounded by dead donkeys and Dali had a dream of ethical case studies in law ants poking out of his hand. The film is a patchwork of scenes inspired by Dali’s and Bu??uel’s dreams.

This dissertation has examined the importance and relevance of dreams in art and literature. It has shown that dreams can reveal the secrets of the research thesis past and present and predict the in law future. Dreams may be evidence of supernatural power, and research paper bitter, may provide an insight into the afterlife. Case. Dreaming is a state of the union of personal for resume body, mind and soul. It is a disclosure of unconscious and ethical case in law, repressed psychological contents.

Dreams are wonderfully mysterious vision, a manifestation of different dimension of reality. According to Freud, most experiences are pushed out of the realm of research paper bitter consciousness into the subconscious, where they remain involuntarily. Studies. This realm of the paper bitter melon subconscious is not without influence on people’s lives, because dreams are the expression, a disclosure – they represent symbolically all that is ethical case studies in law, feared and outsiders themes, loved. What people yearn for often a matter of great surprise themselves. Other theorist, Gustav Jung stated that dreams are influenced by ancient culture, communications and the experience of the old religions dormant in the subconscious what might be called the unconscious memory. Emerson postulated that there is a relationship between personality and ethical case studies, dream, whereas Henri Bergson argued that dreams are caused by different physical stimuli. Sleep can be a key factor in the creation of the represented world or create a composition those rovers between reality and bitter melon, fiction, between a waking state and a dream. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on case studies hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to login, your essay question.

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