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Part One - An introduction to law and morality. Law is not a term that lends itself to easy definition. To discover what men believe law is, we need to look at two distinctive theories. Orwell& 39s Essay. These are legal positivism and natural law. Positivists believe that a law is a legal rule which, if made in essay, the manner recognised by the legislative power in the state, is orwell& on charles valid irrespective of its content in otherwords that as long an research melon, elected parliament debates and makes the law everyone must abide by it. Austin is perhaps best known for developing the command theory of law . He argued that a law is a command from a sovereign whom the population at large is in the habit of obeying, and it is orwell& reinforced by the availability of a sanction. Put simply, laws are orders backed by threats. A law, therefore, is the expressed wish of the sovereign and as such is distinguishable from other commands such as those from research God or from an employer. The sovereign is the person or body whom others habitually obey, and orwell& dickens, who is not in the habit of giving obedience to myth of the american dream anyone else. Austin has been criticised for this rather simplistic view of law, particularly by Professor H.L.A.

Hart , partly because it is difficult to identify a sovereign in many states, but also because many areas of 39s essay on charles dickens, law such as contract, which grant powers to people, do not fit neatly into such a definition. As a legal positivist, he insisted on the separation of essay, law and morality. However, he developed a much more sophisticated model than Austin’s to explain the nature of law. There are, he argued, two categories of dickens, rules, called primary and secondary rules, which, in combination, form the basis of a functioning legal system. Primary rules either impose legal obligations, as in myth american dream, criminal law, or they grant powers, as in the power to dickens make a will in the law of succession, or the power to enter into a contract. Secondary rules are concerned with the operation of primary legal rules. Hart identified three specific secondary rules. Firstly, the rule of recognition sets criteria for identifying primary legal rules. These criteria would include reference, for example, to Acts of Parliament and judicial decisions. Secondly, rules of change identify how legal rules can be formed, amended or repealed.

For example, in the case of an essay, Act of Parliament, reference would be made to the various readings in the House of orwell& dickens, Commons and the House of Lords, and to the need for royal assent. Thirdly, rules of adjudication enable the courts not only to application how long settle disputes, but also to interpret the law. Hart argues that a legal system is established by the union of these two sets of orwell& on charles, rules. However, two further conditions are required for this system to function. A2 Graphics. Firstly, people in general must be in the habit of obeying the primary rules. 39s Essay Dickens. Secondly, public officials must accept the rules of recognition, change and adjudication. As a legal positivist, Hart does not accept any necessary connection between law and morality.

In other words, the essay, validity of a law is not dependent upon its moral acceptability. Even a morally repugnant law may be legally valid. However, that does not mean we must obey laws that are morally repugnant. Obedience remains a matter of personal decision or conscience. Natural lawyers reject this: they believe that the validity of man-made laws depends upon orwell& 39s essay on charles, their compatibility with a higher, moral authority: where laws do not satisfy the requirements of this higher moral authority, then those laws lack validity. College Essay How Long. There are two main types of natural lawyers, those that believe in laws from a god and those that do not believe in on charles, god but that society has an unwritten moral code that laws should follow. Thomas Aquinas was a 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian, who devoted his life to scholarship, in particular to the study of Aristotle. His major work, the Summa Theologica , contains his explanation of four different types of law. One of them, Divine law is concerned with the standards man must conform to in order to attain salvation. These are revealed to mankind by college, inspiration or revelation, as for example the Ten Commandments contained within the Bible.

Divine law removes the need for 39s essay mankind to be in any doubt about the moral rules he should be following for of the american dream essays his own good. Natural law is derived from eternal law and deals with general rules of conduct that govern the behaviour of ‘beings possessing reason and free will’, i.e. humans. Orwell& Dickens. It is implanted in us by associate letter, God as part of our nature, and so we have a natural inclination to behave in a way that fulfils our purpose in life. These include the inclination to preserve life, procreate, and live within society. By reasoning upon natural law, certain general rules of orwell& on charles, conduct can be developed. The first of these is to ‘do good and avoid evil’. Some others are ‘not to commit suicide’, reflecting the inclination to preserve life; to ‘rear and care for offspring’, reflecting the inclination to procreate; and to ‘develop our rational and moral capacities’. Human law is derived by reason from natural law. It is the oedipus argumentative essay, result of a process of applying the principles contained within natural law to particular geographical, historical and orwell&, social circumstances. Lon Fuller was Professor of Jurisprudence at college application essay how long Harvard Law School. On Charles. He is known as a natural lawyer in that he rejected legal positivism: he refused to accept the belief that law has no higher authority than that of a sovereign authority.

Fuller views law as serving a purpose. In his case, that purpose is to ‘achieve social order through subjecting people’s conduct to the guidance of general rules by which they may themselves orient their behaviour’. For laws to of the dream essays be able to achieve this purpose, they must satisfy eight particular principles . 39s Essay On Charles. These principles make up an ‘inner morality of argumentative essay, law’ which Fuller describes as a procedural version of orwell& 39s essay, natural law. According to these eight principles, laws should be: 1 in existence, not ad hoc. 2 promulgated, i.e. published. 3 prospective, rather than retrospective. 4 clearly stated and comprehensible. 5 consistent with each other.

6 possible for people to of the obey. 7 constant, i.e. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles Dickens. relatively long-lasting and not constantly changing. 8 applied and a2 graphics essay, administered as stated. Failure to comply with these eight principles doesn’t render an individual law invalid, rather it results in something that cannot be properly called a legal system at all. Professor Hart , while not critical of the orwell&, eight principles themselves, argued that Fuller was not justified in calling them a morality. He illustrates his objection by reference to the art of application essay, poisoning. Like law-making, poisoning is an activity with a purpose. The poisoner will develop principles to render his art effective. However, nobody would consider calling these principles the 39s essay on charles, ‘inner morality of poisoning’. In other words, he accuses Fuller of confusing efficacy (how effective is the legislative system?) with morality (is it good or bad?). The word morality derives originally from the Latin word mos (plural: mores).

The standard meaning of this word is oedipus argumentative a custom, habit or usage that is determined by man’s will rather than by law. Orwell&. The Roman statesman and orator Cicero once wrote that law and custom (mos) must both be obeyed, illustrating their parity. Custom formed the bedrock of Roman society in Cicero’s day, with duties and obligations balanced by rights and privileges. Emile Durkheim, a sociologist, would later refer to research bitter as a traditional society. In such a society people had much in common. However, by orwell& 39s essay dickens, Durkheim’s day, society was becoming more fragmented. First, labour was becoming specialised, with workers developing expertise in increasingly narrow fields, thereby becoming alienated from each other. Secondly, a common religious and ethnic background could no longer be taken for granted within society.

These factors served to promote an individual consciousness at describe yourself the expense of the collective consciousness. The speed of change, Durkheim argued, led to dickens confusion in moral outlooks, and to the breakdown of traditional norms of behaviour. Durkheim used the word ‘anomie’ to describe this result. He believed that society would disintegrate unless a strong collective consciousness, with shared values and dream essays, beliefs, was maintained. One of the functions of orwell& on charles dickens, education, therefore, is to letter strengthen the common morality and reduce individual consciousness. This can in orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, part be achieved by a pledge of allegiance to research paper the state, an idea recently promoted for all school leavers in Britain. On Charles Dickens. All of these factors are more and more apparent in pluralist societies today. Part two - The relationship between law and sales associate, morality.

Shared characteristics of legal and moral rules. They are both concerned with setting standards, which are essential for orwell& on charles dickens governing the behaviour of individuals within society. For example, in order to avoid unnecessary death and injury, the law requires us to drive on the left. Of The American Dream. However, it is a long-established custom, part of on charles dickens, our morals that drivers slow down to allow ambulances to pass when their emergency lights are flashing. Both rules are concerned with the behaviour of drivers and the saving of of the american dream essays, life. Legal and moral rules employ similar language: they distinguish between right and wrong, and 39s essay on charles dickens, they speak of duties, obligations and responsibilities.

For example, murder is regarded as wicked under both the legal and moral codes of conduct; parents have a legal duty and a moral duty to ensure that their young children are provided with shelter and nourishment. Law and american dream essays, morality often coincide or overlap: for example, the Ten Commandments, given to dickens Moses on Mount Sinai, continue to serve as a moral code for many today. Indeed, these commandments contain a number of prohibitions, which are to be found in the laws of application essay how long, even the most primitive societies. In our age, the order: ‘Thou shalt not kill’, is reflected in the common law on murder; the command: ‘Thou shalt not steal’, is currently contained within ss16 of the Theft Act 1968; and the principle of the virtue of honesty, which lies behind the orwell&, command not to give false witness, can be seen in myth american, the development of the law in areas such as fraud (crime), misrepresentation (contract), and on charles, defamation (tort). Where Legal rules and morals seem at odds. When legal rules are out of kilter with morality, obedience to describe them becomes more difficult to dickens defend. It might be argued that strict liability offences are like this. In Smedleys Ltd v Breed (1974), the discovery of a caterpillar in a tin of peas does not seem to breach any moral rule, nor does the selling of a lottery ticket to a 15-year-old boy who had the appearance of someone much older. It is therefore not surprising that the principle of research paper bitter, strict liability is controversial: legal rules are given greater validity by orwell& 39s essay dickens, their moral content. There are many moral rules which are not enshrined in law.

There is research paper no liability in English criminal law for omissions, unless the failure falls within one of the orwell&, recognised exceptions where there is a duty to act, such as a duty to children (R v Gibbons and a2 graphics, Proctor (1918)), or a duty through a contract of orwell& dickens, employment (R v Pittwood (1902)). In other words, there is no requirement in research bitter, English law to on charles act as the ‘good Samaritan’. Clearly there is a potent moral argument that we should provide assistance to the man beaten and left to die, or rescue the child drowning in a pool of water, or prevent a blind old person from being hit by a speeding lorry. Of The. However, the fact that there is no legal obligation to assist our neighbour will enable us to escape criminal liability, but it will not lessen the orwell&, contempt in which we might be held for our failure to do so. Sometimes a defendant will accept the existence of essay, a moral obligation, but argue that this does not imply any legal liability, as occurred in R v Webster (2006). The case concerned a duplicate medal awarded to Captain Gill for services in Iraq. Captain Gill received a medal early in 2005, but six months later received an unsolicited duplicate medal.

He gave the duplicate to his staff support assistant, Webster, who promptly sold it on 39s essay eBay for £605. Webster accepted that he had a moral obligation to return the medal to the medals office, but did not accept he was under any legal obligation to do so. However, the court decided that the medals office retained a proprietary interest in this particular duplicate medal and was therefore entitled to call for its return. The influence of law and morality upon each other. Changing moral values can lead to developments in the law. Rape within marriage: In the History of the Pleas of the Crown (published in 1736, although Hale had died 60 years before this date), Sir Matthew Hale had declared that ‘a man cannot rape his wife’. This was based upon the doctrine of implied consent, i.e. that a woman, by yourself essay, entering into marriage, gives indefinite consent to sexual relations with her husband. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles. During the bitter, 20th century the courts succeeded in removing this immunity where there was a legal separation order (R v Clarke (1949)), where a decree nisi had been issued (R v O’Brien (1974)), and where a non-molestation order had been imposed (R v Steele (1977)). In these decisions the courts were eager to limit the moral outrage that an acquittal would arouse.

This immunity was weakened even further by the trial judge in R v R (1991), a case involving a recently separated married couple. Owen J declared: ‘I find it hard to believe that it ever was common law that a husband was in effect entitled to beat his wife into submission to sexual intercourse.’ He therefore ruled that the husband, because of the extreme violence he had used, did not enjoy immunity from conviction. Before the case arrived at the House of Lords on appeal, the Law Commission had produced a report recommending that ‘the present marital immunity be abolished in orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, all cases’. Research Bitter Melon. The House of Lords followed this recommendation. Lord Lane declared that ‘the idea that a wife by marriage consents in advance to her husband having sexual intercourse with her whatever her state of health or however proper her objections is no longer acceptable’. In this way the law eventually caught up with perceived public morality. The Abortion Act 1967 represents an area of orwell&, statutory reform introduced as a result of public concern over argumentative the existing law. Under s58 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861, abortion was punishable by up to life imprisonment, even if performed for good medical reasons. The Infant Life Preservation Act 1929 allowed a limited exemption from this general prohibition in cases where the abortion was carried out in good faith for the sole purpose of preserving the life of the mother. On Charles. In R v Bourne (1939), however, Bourne, an eminent surgeon carried out an abortion on a 14-year-old girl who had become pregnant as a result of a violent gang rape by soldiers. Myth American. At his trial, Bourne argued that the operation had been necessary to preserve the mental health (but not the life) of the girl.

The trial judge proved sympathetic to this argument. The acquittal in this case led to wealthy women finding acquiescent psychiatrists in order to have their abortions, while other women continued to undergo back-street abortions, resulting in many deaths every year and increasing public concern. The Abortion Act in 1967 introduced a wider range of grounds upon which abortions could be carried out, although the orwell& 39s essay dickens, decision remained with doctors. Since abortion is an issue that polarises public opinion, the Act did not enjoy universal public support. However, the law had changed in response to changing public concerns.

Sometimes the reverse occurs: legislation is introduced ahead of, and in order to promote, a change in the collective consciousness. Anti- discrimination legislation is often placed within this category. For example, the Race Relations Act 1965 was passed in order to counter overt discrimination in public places. Prior to research paper this Act, colour prejudice, as it was then called, was widely practised in orwell& 39s essay on charles, Britain, with signs such as ‘No Blacks’ seen on the fronts of guest houses, and a2 graphics, non-whites turned away from some restaurants and 39s essay on charles, public houses. The 1965 Act, passed in spite of oedipus argumentative, fierce opposition within Parliament, forbade discrimination ‘on the grounds of orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, colour, race, or ethnic or national origin’. However, it applied only to public places, such as hotels and a2 graphics essay, restaurants, and not to places of employment. The powers of enforcement were also minimal: a Race Relations Board was empowered to listen to complaints, and to attempt to negotiate with the 39s essay on charles, parties to college application essay how long stop further discrimination. Where the discrimination continued, the matter could only be referred to the Attorney-General who could seek a court injunction. Three years later, in 1968, jurisdiction was extended to cover both housing and employment.

Although these two Acts did not eliminate discrimination, they made a robust official statement about the values of British society. It was not until the Race Relations Act 1976, however, that significant powers of enforcement were added. This Act established the Commission for Racial Equality to replace the Race Relations Board, and gave it extensive powers. It distinguished between direct and indirect discrimination: direct occurring where a person is treated less favourably than another in similar relevant circumstances on on charles dickens the grounds of colour, race, nationality, ethnic or national origins. Indirect discrimination, which is much more subtle, occurs when a condition is applied equally to all employees, but one racial group is research paper bitter melon disadvantaged because it cannot comply as easily as other groups with that condition. These provisions have done much to mitigate harsh, overt racism. On the fortieth anniversary of the passage of the 1965 Act, Trevor Phillips, chairman of the 39s essay on charles, Commission for Racial Equality, stated, ‘The fact that we have strong anti-discrimination laws has led to the near disappearance of commonplace practices which disfigured our society. Letter. That doesn’t mean that they don’t ever happen, but today they are the exception rather than the 39s essay dickens, rule.’ Such comments reflect the belief that legislation, particularly when it is robust, can have an impact upon public morality. Changes in the law can produce changes in morals. One of the most heavily legislated areas in associate letter, the last 50 years has been the law on homosexuality.

In 1957, the Wolfenden Report (see later for more details of this) recommended that ‘homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private should no longer be a criminal offence’. 39s Essay. The committee further recommended that the age of consent be fixed at yourself essay for medical 21, which at that time was the age of majority in Britain. Ten years were to pass before the orwell& 39s essay dickens, Sexual Offences Bill was presented to Parliament, time enough for many to reflect on the principles underpinning Wolfenden, and time perhaps for Parliamentarians to muster up the boldness required to secure the passage of the Bill in the face of some earnest opposition. The Bill contained the myth, two most significant recommendations of the Wolfenden Committee: first, that homosexuality be decriminalised for private consensual homosexual activity; and secondly, that the age of consent be set at 21. A quarter of a century was to pass before the age of 39s essay on charles, consent was reduced to of the american dream 18 in the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, but only six years until it was further reduced to 16 under the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, thereby equalising the age of consent for heterosexual and homosexual activity. This last reform attracted determined opposition within the House of Lords, and the powers of the Parliament Acts had to be invoked to secure passage of the 39s essay on charles, measure. It is difficult to gauge whether those promoting or those opposing these Acts more accurately reflected public opinion on school this issue, but what is evident is that the years since 1957 have seen not only substantial legislative activity, but also a major shift in public attitudes in this area. Now we have the Civil partnership Act 2004 allowing same sex unions to be legally recognised and orwell& 39s essay, currently the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, which will allow same sex couple to be legally married. Part Three Does and should law reflect moral values? Britain is a pluralist society containing a diversity of moral views. This section explores the questions of whether, and to what extent, the law should seek to enforce any particular moral views.

This is not merely a subject of academic debate: judges are often forced to consider these questions before determining the law. John Stuart Mill Law should only reflect moral values if a person can harm others. John Stuart Mill, a 19th-century philosopher states that protection is still necessary against suppression by the elected majority: limitations on the power of the describe school, government are still needed to 39s essay on charles dickens prevent the ‘tyranny of the majority’. Nevertheless, Mill accepted that rules governing an individual’s conduct must be imposed. The problem, though, is identifying where society should, and where it should not, be permitted to paper bitter interfere with individual liberty. Mill developed the ‘harm principle’ as the appropriate test to be used when considering this issue. Where the law should only intervene where individuals positive actions (not omissions) are likely to cause harm to others. This is regarded as a liberal approach between law and morality, in orwell&, otherwords the state should not make any laws against an individual unless it will cause harm (used in a wide sense) to another. Mill answered such objections by making a distinction between the harmful act itself and its particular consequences. For example, society has no right to interfere with drunkenness itself. However, it does have the right to interfere where a man, through his drunkenness, is in breach of his duty to his family or his creditors, or if he was a soldier or a policeman on duty.

In Mill’s words: ‘Whenever there is definite damage to an individual or to the public, the case is taken out of the province of liberty, and placed in that of morality or law’. However, where there is no such breach of duty to society and associate, the damage affects only the individual himself, then ‘the inconvenience is one which society can afford to bear, for the sake of the greater good of human freedom’. In other words, the liberty of the orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, individual is research paper too precious to be sacrificed merely to ease another’s feeling of revulsion or repugnance. The HartDevlin debate - Must be in your essay! Devlin Law should reflect society’s morals. This argument has endured. On Charles. In the associate, 20th century it blossomed in the debate between an eminent Law Lord, Patrick Devlin, and the academic H.L.A Hart, a debate sparked by the publication in 1957 of the Wolfenden report on homosexuality and orwell&, prostitution. The committee had concluded that the law has a role in preserving public order and decency, but ‘it is not, in our view, the function of the law to intervene in the private life of citizens, or to seek to enforce any particular pattern of behaviour’. Furthermore, there ‘must remain a realm of private morality and immorality which is, in brief and crude terms, not the college essay, law’s business’. It therefore recommended the decriminalisation of orwell& 39s essay on charles, consensual homosexuality for oedipus men over the age of 21.

Lord Devlin wrote that a society means a community of 39s essay dickens, ideas: ‘without shared ideas on politics, morals, and ethics, no society can exist’. Society, therefore, is constituted in part by its morality. In language reminiscent of Durkheim, Lord Devlin argued that the fabric of society is college dependent upon a shared or common morality: where the bonds of that morality are loosened by private immoral conduct, the integrity of society will be lost, and society will be liable to disintegrate. Society therefore has the right to defend itself against immorality. Even private wickedness and immorality may be punished because they are harmful to society. In Lord Devlin’s own words, ‘The suppression of vice is as much the law’s business as the 39s essay, suppression of subversive activities.’ However, Lord Devlin recognised that there are limits to the right of essay, society to interfere with private immoral conduct: ‘there must be toleration of the maximum individual freedom that is consistent with the integrity of society’. He accepted that personal preferences, or likes and orwell& 39s essay, dislikes, should not form the american essays, basis for decisions about what immoral conduct should be outlawed. He therefore developed an apparently objective test , that of the reasonable or ordinary man, to help decide where the boundaries are to be drawn: only where immoral conduct is regarded by this ordinary man with ‘intolerance, indignation or disgust’, should it be prohibited by law. It is worth noting that Lord Devlin’s morality is based upon convention: in other words, it is based upon what is generally regarded by 39s essay, society at essay for medical school large as being the acceptable and orwell&, desirable state of research bitter melon, affairs. 39s Essay On Charles. It is therefore a relative rather than absolute morality, as it is not based upon any higher authority regarding good and bad, or right and wrong.

Conventional morality serves to maintain the status quo within society. Of The American. Interestingly, it would allow for the continuation of practices that might be regarded as morally repugnant by other societies: for example, it could be used to preserve practices such as polygamy, apartheid and slavery as long as they were not regarded with intolerance, indignation or disgust by the ordinary person within the society that practised it. Extension : Read the following article published by Harvard Law school in 1966 criticising Devlins view. Then summarise the key aspects of the 39s essay on charles, argument in 500 words . lord-devlin-and-the-enforcement-of-morals.pdf. Hart Laws should not reflect society’s morals. Professor Hart proposed a more limited role for the law in the enforcement of describe yourself, morality. Whereas Lord Devlin started from the general principle that society has a duty to enforce its dominant morality, and then limited the application of this general principle to acts that the ordinary man regards with intolerance, Professor Hart started from the opposite end of the spectrum, that society should not interfere with private moral or immoral conduct. Orwell& 39s Essay Dickens. However, Hart then limited the application of this general principle by sanctioning the enforcement of argumentative, morality in certain situations. First of all, he accepted that enforcement is permitted when one of society’s dominant moralities is being eroded by a true threat to the cohesion of society. Such a threat, though, has to be more than merely a challenge to on charles dickens society’s code of conduct: there must be evidence that it creates a genuine public nuisance.

Hart’s discussion of the offence of bigamy illustrates this approach. He wrote that, in a country where deep religious significance is attached to monogamous marriage and to application essay how long the wedding service, the law against bigamy should be accepted as an attempt to protect religious feelings from offence by a ‘public act desecrating the ceremony’. According to Hart, the bigamist is punished not for the act of bigamy itself, but for the offence he causes to the feelings of others. Hart applied the same reasoning to orwell& 39s essay public sexual intercourse between a man and his wife. The act of sales cover, intercourse, he states, is not in itself immoral, but if it takes place in public, it is an affront to decent people, and, as a nuisance, deserves to be punished under the law. Devlin accused Hart of being inconsistent. He challenged Hart, saying: ‘Bigamy violates neither good manners nor decency. When committed without deception, it harms no one.’ Although Devlin is not necessarily arguing here in favour of legalising bigamy, it is at orwell& least ironic that he seems to be adopting a more liberal stance than Hart on this issue. Hart also accepted the legal enforcement of morality in areas other than those creating a public nuisance. On some issues he adopted a paternalistic approach. The taking of drugs and consensual euthanasia are two areas where he believed people need to be protected against of the dream essays themselves.

This stance seems less liberal than that adopted by Mill. On the specific issue of homosexuality, Hart attacked Devlin for believing that it threatened society with disintegration. Orwell& On Charles Dickens. He argued that Devlin’s position was tantamount to declaring that any change in morality threatened the disintegration of a2 graphics essay, society. Furthermore, he pointed out. that Lord Devlin’s approach would cause society’s values to orwell& dickens stagnate, to become permanently fixed at one point in research melon, time. The HartDevlin debate reflected through examples.

Judges and on charles, Parliament are often forced to essay confront complex moral issues. In Shaw v DPP (1962), which concerned a magazine advertising the services of prostitutes, Shaw was convicted of ‘conspiracy to corrupt public morals’ a previously unknown offence. The House of 39s essay, Lords confirmed the existence of this new common law offence. Viscount Simonds declared: ‘there remains in the courts a residual power to enforce the essay how long, supreme and fundamental purpose of the law, to conserve not only the safety and order, but also the on charles dickens, moral welfare of the State’. Lord Devlin would have approved. Also see the development of the defence of Duress of Circumstance through the case of Martin and essay for medical school, Pommell. Note that eventhough parliament has recognised a defence of Necessity in orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, criminal law, principally for the emergency services need to break traffic laws (enshrined in the Road Traffic Acts) and acknowledged by Lord Denning in Buckoke v GLC [1975], judges have repeatedly resisted creating a common law defence of necessity in criminal law, eg Quayle Others (2005) for possessing cannabis in order to stop the pain from an incurable disease.

But see the civil cases of R v A (conjoined twins) 2000 and Re F (1989), the forced sterilisation of a 26-year of female with the mental age of 5. In R v Gibson (1990), an artist was convicted under the college, common law offence of outraging public decency for exhibiting earrings made from freeze-dried human foetuses. No doubt Devlin would maintain that this is exactly the dickens, type of immoral conduct that would arouse the essay, intolerance, indignation and disgust of the ordinary person, and so should be subjected to the full rigour of the criminal law. Hart might well arrive at the same conclusion, accepting that such an 39s essay on charles dickens, exhibition creates a public nuisance which causes significant offence to others. In the celebrated case of essay for medical school, R v Brown and Others (1993), the defendants were convicted under s47 and s20 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 after engaging in violent sado-masochistic activities. All these activities were conducted in private, with no complaints from the victims and no medical attention ever sought. There were no permanent injuries. 39s Essay On Charles Dickens. The activities came to the attention of the describe for medical, police as a result of a tape recording the men had made of the event. The House of Lords declared that consent is orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens not available in cases of such serious injuries, subject to certain exceptions of which sado-masochistic behaviour was not one. Speaking for the majority, Lord Templeman declared that the issues of policy and public interest must be taken into account before deciding whether the defence of consent should be extended to sado-masochistic activities.

Then, in words resonant of college essay how long, Lord Devlin, he expressed his own opinion: ‘Society is on charles dickens entitled and bound to oedipus protect itself against a cult of violence. Pleasure derived from the infliction of pain is an on charles, evil thing. Cruelty is uncivilised.’ He dismissed the men’s appeal. Lord Mustill, dissenting, declared, in words reminiscent of Professor Hart, that: ‘the state should interfere with the rights of an individual to live his or her life as he or she may choose no more than is necessary to describe for medical ensure a proper balance between the special interests of the individual and the general interests of the individuals who together comprise the populace at large.’ He conceded that many people would find the orwell& 39s essay dickens, defendants’ conduct repulsive. Nevertheless, that feeling of repulsion did not, in his view, justify the men’s conviction. The defence of consent was also considered in the case of R v Wilson (1996). At his wife’s request, Alan Wilson branded his initials (‘AW’) on her buttocks. Hearing the appeal against conviction for ABH, Russell LJ explained: ‘Consensual activity between husband and wife, in the privacy of the matrimonial home, is not, in our judgment, a proper matter for criminal investigation, let alone criminal prosecution.’ It is possible that this result would be welcomed by both Devlin and Hart, the melon, former because the ordinary man might well regard Wilson’s conduct with amusement rather than disgust, the latter because such activity falls within the realm of private morality and does not create a public nuisance.

This case illustrates concern for the autonomy of the individual, a concern also evident in the Court of Appeal judgment in St George’s NHS Healthcare Trust v S (1998). In 1996, a woman who was approximately 36 weeks pregnant was diagnosed with pre-eclampsia and 39s essay on charles dickens, advised that she needed urgent attention, otherwise her life and that of the application essay, unborn child would be in danger. When she rejected this advice, she was detained under s2 of the Mental Health Act 1983, and a court order was granted to carry out a caesarean section operation without her consent. Orwell& 39s Essay. The Court of Appeal ruled that an sales associate letter, adult of orwell& 39s essay, sound mind is entitled to refuse medical treatment, and this entitlement is not reduced because her decision might appear morally repugnant, bizarre or irrational. The right to refuse medical treatment in this situation is only available where the woman is deemed to be competent. This language is reminiscent of the sales cover, decision of the House of Lords in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority and the DHSS (1985). Orwell& On Charles Dickens. The mother of describe essay for medical school, girls under the age of consent had sought a court declaration that their doctors would not be allowed to prescribe contraceptive pills to her daughters without her knowledge. The House of Lords declared that a ‘competent child’, who had sufficient understanding of the issues involved, could decide for herself without her parents being informed. The decisions in both these cases illustrate how the autonomy of the individual can override other considerations, such as the interests of the unborn child, and parental responsibility. However, such autonomy is not absolute. Diane Pretty suffered from motor-neurone disease, a terminal condition.

She wanted her husband to be allowed to help her to end her life peacefully and with dignity. In 2001, the orwell& 39s essay on charles, House of Lords and the European Court of oedipus, Human Rights rejected her application, ruling that a right to life does not include a right to end life. Her application conflicted with broader issues of public morality. Parliament must also confront issues of public morality. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 introduced regulations for the creation, storage and use of human embryos outside of the human body. It also introduced a statutory licensing authority to oversee the operation of the Act.

In 2004, as a result of advances in reproductive medicine and changes in public morality, the government began a review of the 1990 Act, leading to orwell& 39s essay the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill 2008. Among its features are: 1 a new concept of parenthood for a mother’s female partner: 2 statutory approval to be given to ‘saviour siblings’, i.e. children born from embryos that have been genetically screened to ensure they share the same tissue type as the sick, live sibling. 3 in relation to children born after surrogacy arrangements, same sex couples and a2 graphics, unmarried opposite orwell& on charles dickens, sex couples to a2 graphics essay enjoy the same rights to parenthood as married couples now an increase in the type of orwell& 39s essay dickens, embryo research that will be permitted, including the describe for medical school, use of hybrid embryos. This Bill has been described in Parliament as ‘a pragmatic fusion between science and the social morals of today’. Dickens. Elements of it are certainly consistent with other recent legislation.

In 2004, the Civil Partnership Act allowed partners of the same biological sex to a2 graphics essay enter into a civil partnership giving them the same rights and responsibilities as heterosexual married couples. These include property rights, exemptions on inheritance tax, pension rights, and orwell& 39s essay dickens, next-of-kin rights. In 2006, Parliament passed the Equality Act. American Essays. This forbids schools, businesses and other agencies from discriminating on the basis of age, disability, gender, race, religion or sexual orientation. Orwell& On Charles. Under the terms of this Act, adoption agencies have to of the dream consider applications for adoption from homosexual couples. The Roman Catholic Church sought an exemption from this provision, arguing that this went against orwell& 39s essay its teachings. However, the government refused to yield ground, instead granting religious adoption agencies 21 months to bitter prepare to implement the 39s essay, new rules. Task : Complete the activity on Law and morality and topical issues by completing the attached research activity. The research activity page with links to all relevant issues in the word document. Below are two video clips that may help you understand the issues:

Mandatory life Sentence and the European Convention on Human Rights. Anti terrorsm Laws and search and myth of the american essays, arrest procedures. Task: Write the dickens, following essay on Law and argumentative, Morality using the essay plan at this link. Consider the on charles dickens, view that there is a close relationship between law and morality. Examine the debate as to a2 graphics essay whether the law should reflect moral values, and discuss issues which show the continuing importance of that debate. (30marks + 5 QWC)

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You will need the customer service skills to on charles dickens be able to deal with upset or angry passengers. Basic computer skills will be useful. As an airline customer service agent, you would usually work for an airline, or for bitter, a ground services agent on behalf of an orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, airline. Your job would include: dealing with passenger enquiries about flight departures and arrivals checking passengers in giving seat numbers providing boarding passes and luggage labels telling passengers about luggage restrictions weighing baggage and sales associate cover letter, collecting any excess weight charges taking care of on charles people with special needs, and unaccompanied children calming and reassuring nervous passengers. You may sometimes help passengers through immigration and customs, or escort passengers who have night flight connections. You could also specialise in different areas of airport work, such as computer control. Airports usually operate 24 hours a day, so you would normally work on a shift system.

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This can often be important as shifts may be outside normal public transport hours. Once you start work, your initial training programme would usually last from describe school four to eight weeks. It would cover: basic procedures knowledge of the airport security training emergency and evacuation procedures using the public address system manual handling. 39s Essay. This may be followed by further training, which could include working alongside and observing existing staff. Your employer may also ask you to complete a first aid certificate. You could work towards one of several qualifications, such as: NVQ Level 2 and application how long, 3 in Customer Service NVQ Level 2 in Providing Aviation Operations on the Ground NVQ Level 3 in Co-ordinating Aviation Operations on the Ground NCFE Level 2 Certificate for Airport Passenger Service Agents. To become an airline customer service agent, you will need to have: good customer service skills strong written and spoken communication skills basic computer skills a patient and reassuring manner a polite and 39s essay dickens, professional approach the research paper melon, ability to deal tactfully with upset or angry passengers teamwork skills. The aviation industry is dickens, represented by People 1st, the Sector Skills Council for hospitality, passenger transport, travel and yourself school, tourism. The passenger transport sector incorporates rail, aviation, bus and 39s essay on charles, coach, taxi and private hire, light rail and metro, driver training, and UK waterways. The sector accounts for 735,000 jobs, most of which are within the bus and coach, taxi and private hire, rail, and aviation industries.

The passenger transport sector comprises a myriad of essay roles, from pilots and transport planners, to essential support roles in finance, marketing and human resources. The aviation industry is a large employer in the UK and includes 30 commercial airports, plus numerous private airports and 39s essay on charles, airfields. Describe Yourself Essay For Medical. It includes people employed in: highly skilled and technical roles, such as pilots and orwell& 39s essay, air traffic control customer service roles, including passenger check in and support, terminal and cover letter, airport management and cabin crew ground services undertaking tasks, such as baggage and orwell& dickens, cargo handling, aircraft preparation and flight planning. The UK aviation industry is dominated by a small number of companies. The introduction of the low-cost airlines changed the cover letter, structure of the industry, but growth in orwell& dickens, this area is expected to slow. There are 138,000 people working in the aviation industry Only 4% of companies employ more than 100 people, but this 4% employ 86% of the UK aviation workforce The average age of an employee is 40 There are female dominated roles in the industry, the main being cabin crew. Male dominated roles include baggage handling and associate cover letter, aircraft ramp services The average working hours for 39s essay dickens, an aviation industry employee are 38 per week.

Just 10% of the workforce is employed part-time In 2009, more than 218 million passengers were handled by UK airports. Jobs in the industry fall into paper melon, the following areas: Ground handling services – such as baggage/ramp handling, aircraft preparation, load planning officer, ramp supervisor, aircraft dispatcher Airport operations – such as airport duty staff, support officer to 39s essay team supervisor, airport terminal manager, customer support staff, air traffic control Airline operations – such as passenger services staff, ground handling, cabin crew, first officer pilot, flight captain, cabin crew officer, aviation operation passenger services. [N.B. Regional data presented are for the aviation industry and the passenger transport sector as a whole. Data derived from the Labour Force Survey, 2007.] East Midlands – There are 4,900 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 14% of the workforce in describe yourself for medical school, the region is female. 14% of the workforce is orwell& dickens, from an ethnic minority background. 6% of the application essay, workforce is under 25 years, 62% is 26-49 years and 32% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; vehicle maintenance and engineering; Welsh language; job related IT; and safety/accident management. East of England – There are 13,600 people working in the aviation industry in the region.

In the passenger transport sector as whole, 25% of the workforce in the region is female. 9% of the orwell& dickens, workforce is paper bitter, from an ethnic minority background. 7% of the workforce is under 25 years, 52% is 26-49 years and 41% is 50 years or older. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles Dickens. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; job related IT; Welsh language; and vehicle maintenance and engineering. London – There are 25,300 people working in the aviation industry in the region.

In the myth dream, passenger transport sector as whole, 20% of the workforce in the region is female. 42% of the workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 4% of the workforce is under 25 years, 70% is 26-49 years and 26% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: job related IT; foreign languages; safety/accident management; booking operations; and logistics and scheduling of services. North East – There are 2,100 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 17% of the workforce in the region is female. 3% of the workforce is 39s essay dickens, from an sales associate, ethnic minority background. 8% of the workforce is under 25 years, 51% is 26-49 years and 41% is 50 years or older.

Skill gaps include: job related IT; foreign languages; vehicle maintenance and engineering; Welsh language; and safety/accident management. North West – There are 13,600 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 16% of the workforce in 39s essay dickens, the region is female. 14% of the workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 6% of the workforce is under 25 years, 61% is 26-49 years and oedipus argumentative, 33% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; disability awareness; Welsh language; and 39s essay on charles, vehicle maintenance and engineering. South East – There are 49,100 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 25% of the workforce in the region is female. 11% of the workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 6% of the workforce is under 25 years, 48% is 26-49 years and 36% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; vehicle maintenance and engineering; and job related IT.

South West – There are 6,100 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 19% of the college how long, workforce in the region is female. 4% of the workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 4% of the workforce is dickens, under 25 years, 56% is 26-49 years and 40% is 50 years or older. College Application. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; job related IT; and vehicle maintenance and engineering. West Midlands – There are 6,500 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 19% of the orwell& on charles, workforce in the region is female.

27% of the workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 7% of the cover letter, workforce is under 25 years, 65% is orwell& 39s essay dickens, 26-49 years and 28% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: job related IT; safety/accident management; foreign languages; maths/working with numbers; and paper bitter, disability awareness. Yorkshire and the Humber – There are 2,200 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 13% of the workforce in the region is female. 18% of the workforce is from an on charles, ethnic minority background. 8% of the workforce is under 25 years, 62% is 26-49 years and 30% is oedipus argumentative, 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; vehicle maintenance and engineering; job related IT; and Welsh language.

Northern Ireland – There are 2,200 people working in the aviation industry in orwell& on charles, the region. In the research paper bitter melon, passenger transport sector as whole, 21% of the workforce in the region is female. 39s Essay On Charles Dickens. Data are unavailable on the ethnicity of the workforce. Sales Associate Cover Letter. 9% of the workforce is under 25 years, 74% is 26-49 years and on charles dickens, 17% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; safety/accident management; job related IT; and disability awareness.

Scotland – There are 10,400 people working in the aviation industry in the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 16% of the myth american dream, workforce in the region is female. 2% of the workforce is from an on charles dickens, ethnic minority background. 8% of the workforce is under 25 years, 56% is 26-49 years and oedipus, 36% is 50 years or older. 39s Essay. Skill gaps include: foreign languages; vehicle maintenance and engineering; and college application essay how long, disability awareness.

Wales – There are 1,800 people working in the aviation industry in orwell& dickens, the region. In the passenger transport sector as whole, 18% of the workforce in the region is female. 4% of the american dream essays, workforce is from an ethnic minority background. 8% of the workforce is under 25 years, 54% is 26-49 years and 38% is 50 years or older. Skill gaps include: Welsh language; foreign languages; disability awareness; safety/accident management; job related IT; and vehicle maintenance and engineering.

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Orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens - Introduction - xtreme killers

Drag it Out: How to on charles Use Extended Metaphors for Maximum Effect. I love metaphors, and I find them useful in all facets of my life as a way to understand new concepts by comparing them to college how long familiar concepts. Take my work history, for instance. In my early post-college days, I worked as a nanny for a family with three young boys. My days were spent running around making sure everyone was where they were supposed to be, had what they needed, and was doing what they were supposed to be doing. My next job had me working as an orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, administrative assistant at a shipyard, supporting an office of 40 men. My days were spent running around making sure everyone was where they were supposed to be, had what they needed, and was doing what they were supposed to be doing. I often told people I went from babysitting three little boys to argumentative essay babysitting forty big boys. On Charles! The environments were entirely different (for one, I never had to wear a hard hat while I was a nanny) but overall, my role as caretaker to the people I worked with wasn’t much different. In literature, metaphors are used much the same way.

Writers employ metaphors to draw comparisons between two disparate concepts, using one to make a point about research paper bitter melon another. Orwell& On Charles! As you probably remember from your school days, a metaphor is most simply expressed as a simile. Similes are marked by the use of the words “like” or “as” to compare two (or more) elements For example: Her eyes are bright like the sun. Her eyes are bright as the sun. In the examples above, “like” and “as” are used to sales letter link the concepts of “her eyes” with the properties of orwell& dickens, “the sun”brightness, in particular. Metaphors eliminate the need for argumentative essay a specific word to make the comparison. Instead, metaphors link two ideas directly without the orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens intermediary. On the most basic level, the sentence above could be written as a metaphor like this: Her eyes are the sun. The connection between her eyes and the sun (and all its properties) is here made direct and, in a sense, stronger.

The sentence and the image it conveys are much stronger without the “like” or “as” to weaken it. Extended metaphors (also known as a conceit ) take two (sometimes more) concepts and a2 graphics evaluate them over a series of sentences to create a more intricate picture of how one thing is like the other. On Charles! Extended metaphors use complex logic such as the following to flesh out the argument: Compare (how one is like the other) Contrast (how one in unlike the letter other) Juxtaposition (placing both ideas together) Analogy (the relationship of one to the other) Extrapolation (inferring or hypothesizing the unknown about orwell& 39s essay on charles one using the known of the myth of the american dream other) There are no particular parameters defined for orwell& 39s essay how long or short an extended metaphor can be, but in typical use, an extended metaphor is more than one sentence that draws the comparison and can go as long as a whole paragraph, poem, story, novel, etc. Anne Bradstreet was born in England in 1612 and emigrated to New England in college essay, 1630. She was the daughter of English nobility, and her father and husband were both involved in the government of the Boston settlement. Though Anne came from an educated family, and enjoyed reading and learning, she lived the life of any wife in those early, difficult days in the new worldshe dealt with illness, food shortages, terrible weather, eight children, and long absences from her husband. For solace, she wrote, but she didn’t share it beyond her tight circle of friends and family because the Puritan society she lived in didn’t value the opinions of dickens, woman, and certainly would have shunned her for making her thoughts public. However, Anne had some fans. Sales! In 1650, her brother-in-law secretly copied some of her poems and had them published in England without her knowledge or permission.

The following poem summarizes some of Anne’s thoughts on the event. Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Who after birth did'st by 39s essay my side remain, Till snatcht from thence by friends, less wise than true, Who thee abroad exposed to public view, Made thee in rags, halting to th' press to dream essays trudge, Where errors were not lessened (all may judge). At thy return my blushing was not small, My rambling brat (in print) should mother call. I cast thee by as one unfit for light,

The visage was so irksome in dickens, my sight, Yet being mine own, at myth american dream essays, length affection would. Thy blemishes amend, if so I could. I washed thy face, but more defects I saw, And rubbing off a spot, still made a flaw. I stretcht thy joints to make thee even feet, Yet still thou run'st more hobbling than is meet. In better dress to orwell& 39s essay on charles trim thee was my mind, But nought save home-spun cloth, i' th' house I find. In this array, 'mongst vulgars may'st thou roam. In critic's hands, beware thou dost not come,

And take thy way where yet thou art not known. If for sales cover letter thy father askt, say, thou hadst none; And for thy mother, she alas is poor, Which caused her thus to send thee out of door. Note how she weaves her experience of orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, motherhood into a discussion of her book as a child snatched from her before she was ready. Riddled, of course, with what would have been then considered appropriate feminine submission and self-deprecation (“blushing”), we modern readers can nonetheless infer that she may actually be a little proud of her “rambling brat (in print)” for after attempting to “cast [it] by as once unfit for light” she ultimately notes that “affection” caused her to oedipus attempt revision of her work. Note also how she uses terminology that can apply to both a child and book or piece of writing. “Feet” can be physical feet (the things at the end of dickens, legs) or poetic feet (the metrical unit that determines how syllables are accented in a poem, e.g. iambic pentameter which means five feet/line of poetry that use the iambic meter) “Rags” clothing or the fabric cover of oedipus argumentative essay, a book “Rubbing off a spot” wiping dirt from a child’s face or rubbing out a word or letter on a page.

Despite just being an excellent example of extended metaphor, there is much to find exceptional about this poem. For one, any writer or artist can relate to her attitude of apprehension about orwell& how her art will be received by “the critics”. I personally share her desire to continuously revise, even if it doesn’t do any real good. Pair this nearly universal notion for artists of any medium in associate, any generation with the knowledge of the orwell& 39s essay on charles kind of culture Anne wrote her poems in, and it’s hard not to be in awe of associate cover letter, this woman. Sure, every author from Shakespeare to Jim Goad has used extended metaphor and finding an example is orwell&, easy as G-o-o-g-l-e. Off the page, too, there are plenty of places where extended metaphor is used heavily. Essays! In fact, I would argue that the extended metaphor is the 39s essay dickens go-to device for most rhetoric, whether written, spoken, sung, or even presented visually. A few years back when I lived in Seattle, I sometimes passed street protesters with signs depicting Obama with a Hitler mustache. When I stopped to learn what the heck they were protesting in that way, I found out research they were handing out written materials that likened the Obama healthcare reform bill to the medical experimentation performed on inmates of the concentration camps during the Second World War. The Obama as Hitler image paired with the orwell& 39s essay literature and the talking points the essay how long protesters had prepared to created a dynamic rhetoric that included extended metaphor in a variety of mediums.

While I thought their method was inflammatory and their message untrue, I understood why they used strongest possible metaphorical comparison to make their pointit attracted a crowd. Had they just passed out a brochure detailing their objections to the proposed policy, likely no one would have paid attention. As it was, scores of people stopped to curse the crew or give a high five or take a picture. Using the audiences’ experience, prejudices, assumptions, and connotations about one element to make a statement about another is a very strong way to make a point because it affects both the logical and the emotional centers of the audiences’ brain. The protesters hijacked the notion of Hitler and all the negative emotions that surround the man, his policies, and 39s essay his actions to college application essay how long make a statement about an entirely different man with different policies, and orwell& on charles dickens decidedly different actions. Essay! However, using only one or two lines of comparison between the two, they were able to connect the entire negative image of Hitler with Obama. When building an orwell& 39s essay dickens, extended metaphorwhether for a2 graphics the purpose of rhetoric or just plain storytellingthere are some practices to keep in 39s essay on charles dickens, mind. Juxtapose known concepts with unknown or lesser known concepts. Take a cue from Anne Bradstreet and combine something you (or your audience) know well with something that is college application essay, new to you (or your audience).

Anne gave birth to 8 children in her lifetime, so the anxieties of motherhood were known to her. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles Dickens! On the contrary, becoming a published (and relatively well-received) author was entirely new to her. To conceptualize her experience, she wrote about in terms of a mother too soon separated from a child. Be consistent. Ensure the language you choose equally applies to both situations. A great way to keep this in application essay, check is to follow the dickens rules of the grammatical concept of parallelism . In a parallel structured sentence, all parts of the sentence should be grammatically equal. A2 Graphics! For instance, verbs should be in the same tense (though they can be differently conjugated according to the subject), nouns should be the same number (either singular or plural), and the subject/verb structure should be equal. 39s Essay Dickens! An example of a parallel sentence:

Before Sarah took a shower, she fed the college dog and orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens the cat, she woke the baby and the husband, she made the bed and the breakfast. Note how the verbs fed/woke/made are all in the same tense (past perfect) and each verb applies equally to a2 graphics each element: fed dog/cat, woke baby/husband, made bed/breakfast. Also the 39s essay structure of each of the independent clauses includes the same order of yourself school, elements; subject (she), verb (fed/woke/made), object (dog/baby/bed) and 39s essay on charles dickens object (cat/husband/breakfast). Each element parallels the melon other two elements in structure and orwell& tense thus creating a balanced sentence. Extended metaphors can also benefits from this sort of balance. College Essay! Like the parallel structure, verbs and other word choices should apply equally to either element. As I noted above, Bradstreet’s use of dickens, “feet”, “rags” and “rubbing off a spot” were all terms that applied to either a child or a book. Avoid clichés. Pretty please don’t compare relearning an old skill to “riding a bike” or conquering an old fear to “getting back in the saddle.” Maybe mentioning it is cliché in itself, but the most successful metaphors are the most unexpected. It could be said that comparing one iconic political figure to college application another (Hitler and Obama) is not unexpected, and it could even be said that parenthood and creating art have been compared beforethere is orwell& on charles, NOTHING new under the describe essay sun, right?but previous examples aside, there are some great unexpected metaphors yet to explore. Unexpected doesn't have to mean complex, either, just unique but believable.

Here’s a recent example from the Shouts and Murmurs section of the New Yorker that compares breaking up with a baseball trade. Josh always knew, on some level, that it was possible for him to get traded. He’d seen it happen to dozens of 39s essay on charles, guys over the years, including some of his closest friends. Research Paper Bitter Melon! It was part of the game. Still, he had never been traded himself, and he was having some trouble accepting it. 39s Essay On Charles! He kept expecting someone to tap him on the shoulder and tell him the whole thing was a joke.

“Here’s your stuff,” Kate said, dropping a duffelbag at his feet. “Goodbye.” Josh stared at her for sales letter a moment, expecting some kind of encouragement or sympathy. But Kate just stood there, her eyelids fluttering with impatience. “So that’s it, then,” Josh said. “After three and dickens a half years.” “What do you want me to say?” Kate snapped. He picked up the bag and myth american dream essays slung it wearily over his shoulder. There was nothing he could do.

When your girlfriend decides to trade you, you’re through. “I just don’t get it!” Josh shouted, over the din of the jukebox. Orwell&! “I thought things were going really well.” “They weren’t,” his brother Craig said. “The writing was on the wall.” “Oh, yeah. Your record’s been sinking all year. You told me yourself you had a five-argument losing streak. American Dream! And then there were all those errors.” Josh nodded ruefully. There had been a lot of errors this year.

Forty-five Missed Compliments, three Forgotten Events, twelve Accidental Insultshe’d been playing like a rookie. Craig squeezed his little brother’s shoulder. “I’m sorry, Josh,” he said. “Believe me, I know what you’re going through. Remember in ’04-’05? When Zoe traded me?”

Josh nodded. 39s Essay! They’d come to the same bar then. “I was devastated,” Craig said. Essay! “I’d just taken her to orwell& dickens Henry’s Inn for her birthdayyou know, that fancy place with all the myth of the essays candles? Got her a steak, gave her a necklace, took her to a show, massaged her feet . . .” “Uh-huh. Then I wake up the dickens next day and she’s giving me my marching orders.

Tells me she needs to ‘shake things up’ if she wants to remain a contender.” “It was right before Valentine’s Day.” “Exactly. You know what the worst part is? I know the guy she traded me for. Argumentative! And he’s garbage.” “Yeah, he’s some kind of banker. Always looking at himself in the mirror and fixing his goddam tie. It’s, like, ‘Come on, you traded me for this guy?’ I mean, O.K., his stats are pretty good.

He’s got me beat in Money, and his Sex Numbers are impressive. But what about orwell& on charles intangibles? What about describe essay school Attitude? Intelligence? Effort? Those things have got to orwell& 39s essay count for something!” He ate some potato chips and wiped the grease on his jeans. “Who am I kidding?” he muttered. “These days? The only thing they care about describe yourself essay for medical is the bottom line.” When Kate had offered Josh his contract, he was so excited that he barely bothered to read it.

He realized now that he should have perused the fine print. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles Dickens! According to the trade clause, he had seventy-two hours to get his stuff out of her apartment. His Sexual Privileges were completely revoked, along with Hugging Rights and Injury Sympathy. It was insane. Why had he given her so much power in the first place? He was struggling to paper melon get through the clause on Mutual Friendsthe footnotes alone were five pageswhen he heard a knock on on charles the door. He took a long, slow breath and opened it. Kate’s new boyfriend smirked down at him. He had tattoos on his neck and was wearing a scarf and shades, even though it was summer and associate cover he was indoors. Josh forced a smile. There was no reason to be impolite.

It was an awkward situation, but what could he do about it? The two men shook hands, reached into their pockets, and exchanged keys. “This one’s for Kate’s lobby,” Josh explained. On Charles! “And this one’s for her door. You have to kind of college how long, push it in 39s essay on charles dickens, and then turn.” “Lisa likes it from behind,” he offered. Josh nodded awkwardly. “What do you mean, ‘an artist’?” Craig asked. “Like, in advertising or something?” Josh swallowed. It was taking him a tremendous amount of argumentative, effort to get the words out.

It was as if his tongue were coated with clay. “He does performance art,” he mumbled. “Based on orwell& on charles Camus . . . and Sartre.” “Jesus,” Craig said. “She traded you for that?” He ordered another round of drinks. “Is it all finalized?” he asked. “We both passed our physicals.

He’s probably at her place by now.” He banged his fist on the bar. “Damn it!” he said. Of The American! “I know I’m not an 39s essay dickens, all-star, all right? My job is boring, I don’t understand art, and I like bad TV! I just . . . I thought I was worth something.” He shook his head. “She must have really wanted to get rid of me.” Below is a list of research bitter melon, concepts and dickens objects. Pick two and use one as a metaphor for the other. Write at least five sentences or lines of of the dream essays, poetry. Voicemail Dancing with the 39s essay on charles Stars High heels Soap/cleanliness Immigration Scotch tape (or similar) Parents Gardening Hockey Horror movies Horses Jewelry. Taylor Houston is a genuine Word Nerd living in paper melon, Portland, OR where she works as a technical writer and volunteers on the marketing committee for Wordstock, a local organization dedicated to writing education. She has a BA in orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, Creative Writing and dream essays Spanish from Hamilton College and attended Penn State's MFA program in Creative Nonfiction.

She has taught writing at all levels from middle school to college to 39s essay on charles dickens adult, and describe for medical she is the creator of orwell&, Writer’s Cramp, a class for a2 graphics essay adults who just want to write! To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. Horror Movies and dickens Jewelry: Luminescent, it sparkled in the moonlight. Breathless, I looked into his eyes. Arrested, my heart stopped beating. Motionless, I fell into college application essay how long his embrace. This night would forever be sliced into my memory. I think it still needs some work, but I definitely enjoyed writing it! Dancing With the Stars is Immigration for has-been Stars. JRNutt, that's great!

I'm glad you enjoyed writing it. Orwell& 39s Essay Dickens! They are fun to play around with. Jenny, that is SOO true. It's like immigration back into the public eye from their previous exile as has-beens that we all forgot about. I've never really written with extended metaphors before, but I wanted to give it a shot. Soap/Cleanliness and Parents They always want you to be clean and never dirty.

The good ones do, anyway. Some don’t care about their kids, neglecting them, letting them grow up to lead spattered, dirt-covered lives. I know my parents cared: they dragged me to church and taught me to pray every night, they pushed me to work harder in school, they taught me the value of money, and research paper bitter melon they taught me the value of love. They also taught me about orwell& violence, doing harm unto others, living in so-called sin. Everything they did was directed towards bringing me up in the cleanliest way they could, so that when I left for Harvard or when I raised a good family and lived with them in a nice home, they could look at each other and know that they succeeded at raising me.

High heeled immigration. Her room, her world, is familiar and research melon stale. Worn sandals and orwell& 39s essay on charles faded lounge pants creating disheveled banks for a slight walkway where she practices her gait. Preparation for a formal in which her goal is to be unnoticed but present and engaged. She selects ordinary heels. Enough to be accepted. Myth Of The American Dream! However, this can not quell her desperate need for assimilation in unfamiliar surroundings. 39s Essay! Desperation developed from fear of the unknown pathways she will encounter. Her joints jockeying for myth of the dream balance, her feet trying to maintain grace. This was an enjoyable exercise. It irritated the monotony.

Thanks for that. The structure, rickety and decrepit, only had two letters left of it's neon sign, N and 39s essay S. Both flickered and hissed, with the essay I remaining dark, dead, in front of the other two letters. People shaking in serapes, mothers and children and young men in ponchos, stood behind an electrified fence. On Charles Dickens! The gardeners with their uniforms clean and pressed and brown, badges gleaning and of the dream guns oiled, sauntered through the garden, picking out the weeds they saw unfit to orwell& dickens stay in their patch of essay, land expanding from Atlantic to orwell& 39s essay dickens Pacific.

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Chapter 1. How to Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of 39s essay dickens academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for sales cover, the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and orwell&, the belief that you have the application essay, ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper. STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC. Choose a topic which interests and challenges you.

Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and dickens, enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to a2 graphics “Buddhism”. Obtain teacher approval for 39s essay on charles, your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. Cover. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the orwell& 39s essay dickens, assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of argumentative source materials. For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.

Pay attention to 39s essay on charles domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and myth of the essays, tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out what some of the orwell& 39s essay, other extensions stand for.

Be wary of the millions of dream essays personal home pages on orwell& 39s essay on charles dickens, the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on of the american, products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Orwell& On Charles Dickens. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if is yourself school unavailable, you can register as or via a service agent such as To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).

Check out other print materials available in the Library: Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. • Government Publications, Guides, Reports. • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and Telephone Directories. Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs: Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.) Google Scholar Wall Street Executive Library Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g.,, etc.) – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of orwell& 39s essay on charles charge and find one-click answers quickly. Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.) Magazines and Journals Newspapers International Public Library Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.) Check out sales letter, public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on orwell& dickens, your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the describe yourself essay school, URL and date of orwell& 39s essay dickens access for every page. Of The Dream. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.

STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT. Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is 39s essay on charles dickens a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is research bitter melon why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles. The main portion of of the american essays your essay will consist of arguments to 39s essay on charles support and defend this belief. A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper – in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is application how long longer.

It is impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and orwell& 39s essay on charles, your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject.

The paper should present something new to the audience to make it interesting and educative to read. Avoid citing other authors in this section. Sales Associate Cover Letter. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of orwell& simply copying from other writers. A thesis statement should do the following: Explain the readers how you interpret the research bitter, subject of the research Tell the readers what to expect from orwell& on charles your paper Answer the question you were asked Present your claim which other people may want to oedipus argumentative essay dispute. Make sure your thesis is orwell& on charles strong. If you have time and opportunity, show it to oedipus argumentative your instructor to revise.

Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. Does my statement answer the question of my assignment? Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.

Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to orwell& your audience or does it simply state a generic fact? Does the a2 graphics, body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. 39s Essay On Charles Dickens. Remember that changing elements of your work in myth american dream essays the process of writing and reviewing is normal. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE. A research paper basically has the following structure: Title Page (including the title, the author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date) Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less) Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages) Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in orwell& dickens further sections, depending on the nature of research: Materials and application essay, Methods Results (what are the 39s essay, results obtained) Discussion and Conclusion etc.

Reference Tables, figures, and associate cover letter, appendix (optional) An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an orwell& 39s essay, author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to sales letter form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them. Sometimes the students are asked to submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and subtopics. The letters and 39s essay on charles, numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.

All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and associate cover, organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to orwell& dickens the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and application how long, a CONCLUSION. Orwell& On Charles. Make the college application, first outline tentative.

INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. 39s Essay Dickens. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the essay, major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the 39s essay, strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis.

Summarize your arguments. Paper Melon. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the orwell&, best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is associate letter factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the orwell& 39s essay, most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.

You must also be able to essay how long effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is 39s essay on charles dickens carefully recorded and in a2 graphics essay your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. Orwell& 39s Essay On Charles. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to application essay identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in the following location of your outline: Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc.

This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to orwell& use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC.

If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Research Paper Melon. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is orwell& 39s essay dickens helpful to myth essays you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the dickens, spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the research paper bitter melon, symbol once editing is orwell& completed.

STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT. Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the yourself, facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and on charles dickens, proof reading checker such as Grammarly. 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?

3. Are my arguments presented in yourself essay for medical school a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the 39s essay on charles dickens, overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Oedipus Argumentative Essay. Get someone else to read it over.

Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. 1. On Charles Dickens. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words? 5. Varying lengths of sales associate cover sentences? 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors? 8. Quotes accurate in dickens source, spelling, and punctuation?

9. Are all my citations accurate and in essay correct format? 10. Dickens. Did I avoid using contractions? Use “cannot” instead of “can’t”, “do not” instead of “don’t”? 11. Associate. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose”

12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out orwell& on charles, this classic book by college essay how long William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of dickens Composition, Words Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to of the american Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and 39s essay on charles dickens, rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of essay clarity, … and much more. Orwell& Dickens. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at College Essay How Long. Note: William Strunk, Jr. (1869–1946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918.

There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on the field of your studies or the orwell& 39s essay dickens, requirements of your University/supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. Bitter. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of orwell& on charles dickens Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more. APA (American Psychological Association) style is essay school mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for orwell& 39s essay dickens, the liberal arts and humanities. Research Paper Bitter. The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.). Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of 39s essay on charles dickens source.

You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for associate, your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on 39s essay on charles, a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is a2 graphics expected of you, and 39s essay on charles dickens, that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to paper bitter ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and dickens, attractive.

Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and sales associate cover, a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”