Chapter 2 thesis literature review
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How to Write a Literature Review -- Dr. Guy E White
Dr. Guy E. White of The Dissertation Mentor® ( ) discusses How to Write a Literature Review. This
Writing chapter 2: the literature review - Dissertation Writing
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Writing Chapter 2 (Review of the Literature) - Nova Southeastern
How to Address an Incomplete Degree on chapter a Resume. Posted April 29, 2014. Q: I attended college for 3 years but never finished my degree. Effects. Should I still include this on my resume? A: While it depends on 2 thesis literature the situation, the answer is most likely yes. Juvenile Crimes. There are a few questions to ask yourself when deciding how to word the education section of your resume.
First, does the degree you were working towards align with your career goals and the specific position you are applying for? If it does, then you definitely want to include that education experience on 2 thesis your resume. Notebook. If it doesn’t and you have some other sort of 2 thesis literature review, education/certification that is greed bad essay more relevant you may want to leave it off. If you have no other education or job training, leave the unfinished degree on your resume. A second thing to consider is chapter review whether eliminating your education creates a large gap in laboratory notebook your employment history.
If so, then include the specific years you attended. Large, unexplained lapses on your resume timeline often raise a red flag for potential employers. Third, are you simply taking a semester off, with plans to resume your studies in the near future? If so, you should indicate that on your resume. Finally, are there any specific courses you took that are applicable to the job you are applying for? If so, you can list these classes underneath the school name along with the dates you attended in order to show your knowledge and skill set. Regardless of your answers to these questions, if you have several years of work experience you should place the education section near the bottom of your resume rather than at the top. By placing your education section at the bottom of your resume, attention is drawn to chapter literature review your work experience and skill set, rather than the effects of advertising essay, unfinished degree. It goes without saying that you should always be completely honest in your resume. 2 Thesis Review. If you have not completed your degree, even if you are a single class short, do not state that you have one.
A little white lie on a resume may come back to haunt you. Juvenile Crimes. If you are granted an chapter 2 thesis literature review, interview, you will have an opportunity to discuss with the recruiter or hiring manger more information about your background and the reasons why you were unable to complete your degree. Below are some examples of qantas flight attendant letter, how to 2 thesis literature format the “Education” section of your resume if you have an unfinished degree: University at Buffalo , Biology 2010-2012. University at qantas flight attendant letter, Buffalo 2010-2012. Completed 60 credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Biology. Relevant Courses Included:
Intro to Biology Chemistry 101. Microbiology Organic Chemistry. University at chapter literature review, Buffalo , BS in of advertising essay Biology In progress. 48 Responses to “How to Address an Incomplete Degree on a Resume” These are in fact wonderful ideas in on the topic of 2 thesis review, blogging.
You have touched some fastidious factors here. Any way keep up wrinting. Fredericksburg Texas home health aide. Thanks for the marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back. sometime soon. I want to stuart mill utilitarianism encourage you continue your great job, have a nice day!
Thank you! I was unsure of whether I should include my early unfinished college work but this article answered that question and how to format it nicely. Thank you very much for this post. Chapter Literature. My masters is unfinished due to failing a module and your post has helped me to convey the learning experience of the degree in a positive manner. Glad the information you found in greed bad essay this post was helpful. Best of luck to 2 thesis you in your job search. say I do not know or am not sure how many credits I completed how would I structure my incomplete qualification?
Thanks for your question. I would still use the second example shown above, but you could say how many semesters you completed. If you don’t know the semesters or the flight attendant cover letter, number of credits you have complete, I would contact the chapter 2 thesis, school you attended to get a copy of Juvenile Crimes, your transcript to keep on hand. In the chapter literature, meantime, you could address that section by of advertising just leaving out the specific number of credits and just have more general information. I’ve had a quite a successful career for chapter 2 thesis literature, the last 16 years in the Information Technology field, however this is something I fell into. My education long ago is in Landscape Architecture and Management – something I never finished since I’ve become so proficient in my current career. I’ve had professional IT related training classes here and there since – but even many of those don’t seem worthwhile to list since technologies change. Most of my relevant knowledge is self taught from books. Not sure what do do in such a situation. Good question. In your situation I would still include an education section at the bottom of your resume, showing that you attended X number of years of school towards the Landscape Architecture and Management degree.
In my opinion I would also include the different training seminars, certifications that you earned during your IT career. While it may seem that some of them are dated, you never know what technology a company is of advertising using. One of their current programs could be a more modern version of literature review, something that you already have experience using in the past. Hello I have done business studies at delinquency, the college but did not write the exam due to my financial problem, so must I but it in my cv when applying for an employment. In this situation I would say to use your best judgment. If this was a recent situation, then I would be sure to chapter 2 thesis literature review include your education.
Just make sure that it is clear you did not earn the degree. However, if it was several years ago, and now not relevant to the positions you are applying for, then you can feel free to leave it off of delinquency, your resume. This helped me so much! I’ve been working with a recruiter and she hasn’t been helpful in literature highlighting my strong science background so I’m so glad I read this! Thanks so much.
Thanks for delinquency, this post. I’m 60 and have 40 years experience in marketing, journalism, publishing and media arts experience. I’ve even taught these subjects but I possess no degree which shuts me down almost immediately to even apply. Chapter Literature Review. My question is, even if the employer says I must have a degree, should I apply anyway with the qantas flight cover letter, tips that have been suggested? Thank you.
Kevin, In your situation, I would still consider those positions that include a degree as a requirement. For many companies, not having a 4 year degree doesn’t immediately mean you are disqualified, especially since you have years of industry experience. You have the opportunity to use your cover letter and chapter literature, the summary statement on your resume to delinquency tell your story and prove to chapter 2 thesis review employers that even without a degree you are qualified for their position. I’ve written quite a few resumes for friends and family members and on children, recently I offered my services to one of 2 thesis literature review, my friends. He is in his early 40s and Juvenile Crimes, his work history is pretty solid.
The concern is…For years he implied that he had a bachelor’s degree, however, through this process he admitted he only attended one fall/spring semester of chapter 2 thesis literature, junior college (1992-1993) before deciding that it was more important to work full-time at that point in his life. His courses were in business and finance and the next job that he landed was at a bank and less than six years later he became the Vice President of the branch. Then he had a career change and went into sales. I’m stumped whether I should even mention schooling but if I don’t, because of his age I don’t really think I should list high school, He hasn’t really have any other formal training, recent seminars, etc… can I put this on delinquency his resume : xxx Junior College, 1992-1993; Coursework (courses?) in Business and Finance? Thank you for your time and advice. With his years of work experience I would probably leave off the coursework that he did complete. Unless he plans on going back to chapter literature school to finish his 2 or 4 year degree, companies most likely will not care about a few college courses taken over 20 years ago. I have one subject not cleared in by BBM degree. But i have a 16 years of work experience.
Now i have come to a mode where in Juvenile Crimes i need to apply for a job. But when i check the job profile they mention degree is required. I am bit confused how to calculate credits in literature review semester system where in i have not cleared one subject in semester 4. Thanks in advance. Hi there, I have attended a community college for more than 2 years and greed bad essay, accumulated more than 60 credits (I have 66) required for anow associates degree. I am in the process of transferring to chapter 2 thesis review a university this Spring, but I am uncertain if I will be accepted since I haven’t completed my math. I was informed that I should list my academic level as an Associate degree because I am so close, but I don’t feel comfortable with that. How would you recommend I list my academic experience. Thank you so much.
Since you have not completed the degree, I would not recommend saying that you have on attendant cover your resume, even if you are one class short. Instead, you can include something like ‘Completed classes towards a degree in blank’ or list the number of credit hours you have towards the specific degree. Hi, I’m retiring from the military and I have 30 years…I’m 50, should i start with over 30 years experience or over 20…I was just thinking over 2 thesis, 30 might preclude me from delinquency some positions as they may be looking for younger… First off, I’d like to chapter review say congratulations and thanks for your service. When it comes to of advertising essay applying for a job age bias (while illegal) is 2 thesis literature review still an laboratory notebook, issue. In order to avoid throwing out there how old you are, try just saying ‘years of experience’ rather than a specific number. Hope this helps. Hi! I’m helping my husband edit his resume. His educational background is 2 different schools (one a community college and one a university) studying history (which will not be relevant to chapter literature review any of the jobs his is applying for).
He went to school for 3 years and did not complete his degree. Would you still recommended including it (nearer to the bottom I’m assuming) and if so how would you recommend wording/formatting it? Thanks! Assuming your husband has several years of relevant work experience towards the position that he is applying for, then leaving the uncompleted degrees off of his resume would not do him any harm. On the other hand, if he doesn’t have much work experience I would include that section at the bottom of the resume to help explain any gaps in stuart mill essay employment or what he was doing for a period of time.
Try phrasing it like: Earned XX credits towards a _____ Degree at chapter 2 thesis, _____ College. Hope this helps, Hi! I am struggling with my resume. Juvenile Crimes. I worked as a server for the last 5 years. 2 Thesis Literature Review. I was enrolled in the nursing program at our local university, but in greed bad essay the end failed out of nursing school. My overall gpa at the time was 3.1…I took a break from 2 thesis literature review school for about 6 months, before transferring to delinquency another university. currently I’m on track to 2 thesis graduate at the end of the year and I have a 3.9 GPA. I’m looking for internships, but I am mostly struggling to decide if I should include my previous university or not. I don’t have much experience, but really made huge strides in my academics.
Thank you! Thanks for laboratory notebook, your question. Chapter 2 Thesis Review. I have 2 different suggestions for you. First off, if you transferred to a new university to complete the same degree, then I would list the name of the first school and then the one you are currently enrolled at. John Mill Utilitarianism Essay. You can say Currently working towards a degree in “Blank” and then your expected graduation date. The second option would be if you are now working towards a different type of degree, I would leave the first school off of your resume, and just include information about the current one. If someone were to chapter 2 thesis literature review ask you about your education in more detail, during an interview, obviously you don’t want to lie, but there are other ways to make the situation sound better. Hi, what is your suggestion for someone who has a BA and completed all course work for an MA but did not complete their thesis so did not receive their degree. Delinquency. I have almost 20 years work experience since then. Currently I have the BA listed and note that all course work was completed for chapter literature review, an MA in Juvenile Crimes Communication.
Thank you! Since you have so much work experience, I would actually recommend taking the information about 2 thesis literature your MA in Communication off. Unless you have plans to go back and finish the thesis so you get the degree, then I would leave it how you currently have on Juvenile Crimes your resume. Since you are no longer a newbie with little experience, that is probably information that adds little to no value to literature the rest of your resume. Hope that helps. thank you for the information! i am in an awkward situation that i failed one class my last quarter of school and because of my financial situation i desperately have to start working. Once i started working i really have no time nor the money to complete the class. now a friend is willing to help me to get a job but that requires a college degree. to delinquency me this is a life changing opportunity and 2 thesis literature review, i am struggling on what to put on my resume. Laboratory. i am currently working as a waitress and the degree i am working to 2 thesis literature complete is BS in Business Administration. Qantas Flight Cover. Looking for some guidance.
Thank you! okay i am sorry. i want to chapter literature review modify what i just posted. Delinquency. so apparently i met all the literature review, credit requirement and more to complete my degree but just because that one class they wouldnt let me graduate, even if i met all the Juvenile Crimes, credit requirements. in this case what should i put on my resume? Thanks for your question. In this situation, I would suggest just including that you completed x number of credits towards a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration. If the job specifically requires you to have the actual degree, you don’t want to mislead the company into thinking that you have it. It could be worse for them to find out later that you actually don’t have the degree that they thought you did. Hope this helps, Thank you for the ideas. 2 Thesis Literature Review. I needed that.
Hi there, I’ve read your blog and all the discussion but still I want to take your opinion for another different scenario. I’ve attended a university bachelor program of 4 years which was in effects of advertising on children Environmental Sciences. But I completed only chapter 2 thesis 80 credit hours out of effects essay, 140 as I didn’t appear in the exams of incomplete courses but attended all classes. After that I decided to enter the field of chapter, travel and tourism leaving that program incomplete. I did two professional diplomas in travel and tourism (each one of 6 months duration). Now I’ve 3 years of experience in travel industry in greed bad essay my home country and I am looking for a job in chapter literature Dubai (UAE) in the same field. Here I am facing a higher competition and most of the companies demand bachelor degree. In this case, what do you suggest about effects of advertising on children essay mentioning that program in my resume for 2 thesis, the purpose of showing that I am not lacking university education.
Thanks and attendant, Regards. Thanks for your question. If the jobs that you are now applying for do required a degree, I would certainly mention that you attended university, but make sure to be truthful that you didn’t complete the degree. Instead I would do your best to highlight the professional diplomas that you have, and explain how the knowledge and 2 thesis literature, training you received has prepared you for the position you are applying to. Hope this helps. I spent four years at a university not really going anywhere (just cos I was unsure of a major) and unfortunately failed in getting a qualification. Notebook. But the review, next year I cross credited to a new university and have graduated.
Do I include the first university I attended? I would just include the university that you earned your degree from on qantas attendant cover your resume. Ok cool. Thanks heaps. When I first began college, I went for chapter 2 thesis literature, an associate in management at notebook, the local community college. Due to some difficulties with the classes and chapter, not being able to Juvenile Crimes complete my degree after 2.5 years, I switched to a different associate degree program in 2 thesis literature business administration that was meant to transfer to a 4-year institution (the previous incomplete one didn’t transfer). Flight Attendant. Some of the chapter, classes from the management degree counted towards the effects of advertising, business administration one. I complete most of the coursework for this one, but transferred to review university before completion. I should be completing the bachelor in business administration by utilitarianism essay the end of the year.
I’m not quite sure how to list my education at 2 thesis literature, the community college and if I should even list the first attempted degree in management. I usually list the john utilitarianism essay, student internship I did as part of my requirement for the management degree (I didn’t receive college credit due to 2 thesis review a paperwork issue and my professor refusing to give me credit despite having put in qantas attendant the hours) as work experience, along with the chapter 2 thesis literature, job I held as a pizza delivery driver as they’re my only effects essay work experience so far. Hi AJ. I would just include the chapter review, current program you are in on greed bad essay your resume with the 2 thesis literature, expected graduation date to avoid confusion and laboratory notebook, a busy resume. BS in Biology Expected Graduation Date: December 2017.
University at Buffalo. If you are worried about the time gap, you could always add something like this: University at Buffalo – Buffalo, NY Expected Graduation Date: December 2017. Erie County Community College. Completed coursework in 2 thesis literature Business Administration. Hope this helps. Hi, I have a bachelor’s degree and of advertising, I failed to complete only 2 thesis my thesis during my master’s program. Now I have about 2.5 years of work experience in notebook a different field from my master’s. Should I just mention the credits I’ve gained or should I leave it out? Please help.
Since you have a four-year degree, I would leave the uncompleted degree off. I really do love this write up and all the comments following it. So helpful. Thank you. I attended a university for two years and ended up leaving the university. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature. I went back to school 2 years later and got an delinquency, Associate Degree. I have 17 years experience in chapter 2 thesis literature IT but my studies were not related to IT. Should I list my colleges on my resume? Unfortunately, I had a sick family member that I needed to take care of and of advertising, had to leave my last position six months ago on good terms with my employer. This situation has passed and I am ready and willing to get back into the work field.
How do I address my college experience and chapter 2 thesis literature, my six months gap in employment. I would put your Associate’s Degree on your resume, even if it doesn’t relate to IT. Employers are always looking for some sort of education. As for the gap, it’s not uncommon for Juvenile Crimes, us to come across applicants who have taken time off for chapter literature, family reasons. I would VERY briefly address the gap in your cover letter or introductory email and state you are ready to get back out there. You can mention the gap was for notebook, family reasons in your interview and 2 thesis, provide them with great references to clear the air. I have attended college on and off for delinquency, several years. I have finally gotten to the point of 2 thesis literature, making some lead way with completion of my AS degree in Business Administration. I have worked over the last 10 years in the Human Resources field and laboratory notebook, my not having a degree haven’t really held me back… but I do feel like I should have finished long ago. With that said, I want to make sure I note my resume accurately to clearly represent where I am presently with my AS degree.
I have 51 out of 60 credits until completion of my degree. Per my advisor I have 10 additional classes with transfer credits if they will accept them. I just want to let my employer know how serious I am . Associate’s Degree in Business Administration Currently Enrolled. Name of College. This way, it shows you are working towards it without broadcasting how long.
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CHAPTER 2 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2 1 Introduction - WordPress com
The Complete Maus by chapter literature, Art Spiegelman. Cat and Juvenile Crimes Mouse by Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes, 2016) In a German newspaper article written in 1930s the author states, “away with Jewish brutalization of the people! Down with Mickey Mouse! Wear the Swastika Cross”. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review! It seems as if the Germans were the aggrieved victims, taking revenge on the brutal mice. In his comic story, The Complete Maus, the Pulitzer Prize winning author, Art Spiegelman, utilises anthropomorphic imagery of the cat and mouse to depict his parent’s experiences in Nazi Germany. Using this unusual medium, the cartoonist graphically relates the Holocaust story based on a series of interviews with his father that took place between 1972 and 1982.
In these stories, he foregrounds Vladek’s experiences of horror, during which he survived 10 months in Auschwitz. Stuart! However, as a child of a survivor, Art’s story also humorously and review poignantly interweaves his own trauma as well as the parents’ love story and the subsequent suicide of the beloved wife and mother, Anja. Greed Bad Essay! As these stories of the past and present clash and chapter literature review collide, so readers become aware of the effects on children, pain of broken, disrupted relationships. Vladek died in 1982 of 2 thesis review “congestive heart”; in of advertising essay 1986 the first part of Maus was published to critical acclaim. The novel is presented in two parts: the first part, My Father Bleeds History , focuses primarily on Vladek and 2 thesis literature the stories of the Jews living through the Nazi occupation of Poland from 1939 to 1945.
Art’s interviews with Vladek focus on his stories of survival and courage. The second part, And Here my Troubles Began , continues the story of greed bad essay his parents’ incarceration in chapter 2 thesis review Auschwitz but also includes more of greed bad essay Art’s own personal story as he seeks to understand the delayed trauma of an literature Auschwitz-related son. Of Advertising On Children Essay! One of his most pressing points is that the scars are generational: the psychological scars of the parents continue to haunt subsequent generations. The comic story is chapter literature review, loosely conveyed in chronological order, but with narrative present-time intrusions that focus on the interview process itself and letter the act of remembering what is essentially a horror story. Centred around the father’s memories, Art also includes aspects of his own frustrating relationship with his father as he seeks to deal with his excessively neurotic and obsessive attitude to review, money, disease and death. Vladek’s recount, related in broken English and awkward grammar, gives an impression of spontaneity and authenticity. “I’m telling not rumors, but only what really I saw” says Vladek, who as a tinman, helped to disassemble the gas chambers in Auschwitz because the john mill utilitarianism, Germans did not want to leave a “sign of chapter 2 thesis literature all what they did”. “For this I was an eyewitness” (229). Sadly, though the destruction of delinquency Anja’s diaries ruin other first-hand stories that would have complemented and validated Vladek’s.
Whilst the first-hand stories loom large, the 2 thesis literature, cartoonist is also aware of the qantas flight cover letter, “rebuilding” process and the fact that he is recreating the father’s memories at chapter 2 thesis review, the same time. Qantas Flight Attendant Cover Letter! (258) At times, Art despairs of the enormity of chapter review this task; he realises that reality is too complex for comics and agonises over the fact that “so much has to be left out Juvenile Crimes, or distorted” (176). In Auschwitz, the outline of the captions become sharp and serrated as Art struggles with his frustration at chapter, trying to greed bad essay, draw the father’s experiences as a tinsmith. (207) This is then, always the case when “rebuilding” and “reconstructing” remembered stories. Furthermore, Spiegelman also includes historical facts that complement the documentary-style black and white graphics to chapter, authenticate his father’s memories. The incorporation of notebook these facts and the sparse and direct drawing style reflects the cartoonist’s obsession with the macabre style documentary footage that so obsessed him during his research. For example, the chapter 2 thesis literature review, cartoonist, notes factually, from May 16 to flight attendant letter, May 24 in 1944, over 100,000 Hungarian Jews were gassed in Auschwitz. Likewise, the map of Poland (p. 62) highlights the three divisions. Jews are systematically rounded up and sent to the “Protectorate” in Poland which has been simply identified on the map. Vladek and Anja live in Sosnowiec — in the ‘REICH” which was “annexed to Germany” (62). The story of life as a Jew in 2 thesis Poland during the Nazi occupation is the obvious focus of the interviews.
However, Art broadens the story to include a snapshot of his father’s post-traumatic stress that suffocates him as he tries to delinquency, deal with the enormity of his loss. Chapter Literature Review! A touch of black humour conveys this depiction, which is both poignant and mocking. John Stuart Utilitarianism Essay! Art ridicules the literature, father’s neurotic obsession with pills and death; it also seems impossible for Vladek to flight attendant cover, have a fulfilling relationship with Mala because of the grief over his wife and the traumas that still beset him. Review! Vladek imagines that Mala is stealing his money; he imagines her screams upon Juvenile Crimes his deathbed: “I want the money. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review! The money. The money”. (129). The Holocaust narrative. Despite his anxiety at trying to convey the complexity of the Nazi occupation, Spiegelman achieves an amazingly simple portrayal of the power and brutality of the Gestapo and the impotence and emasculation of the Jews. The visual images whereby Spiegelman anthropomorphizes the main protagonists endow the narrative with a sense of childlike simplicity and directness.
However, the animalistic imagery also gives an impression of the john utilitarianism essay, wild jungle. (In Dachau they are like “wild animal they would fight until there was blood.”) The cat-like Gestapo with their gruesome expressions, often with hats and overcoats and usually with batons or guns, dominate many of the images as an omnipotent, evil force that robs the Jews of humanity. For example, in Solniewic, when the Jews are marched to work “every day” for “about an hour and literature a half” the Juvenile Crimes, cats, in black uniform, are quick to beat them. Typically, the 2 thesis literature, mice-like compliant and petrified Jews are completely dehumanized. The cats have vicious dogs which they use to sniff out the Jews (113) Vladek’s direct narrative relates how the family skillfully foils both the dogs and the guards. “Even when they came with dogs to smell us out – and they knew that Jews are laying here – but still they couldn’t find.” (113) 210 In the Camp, the delinquency, Gestapo – “finished” one guy off because he did not stand straight in the Appel. “I heard he pushed him down and jumped hard on his neck”. Chapter 2 Thesis Review! Graphically, the powerful Gestapo stomps on greed bad essay a body. “He never anymore complained”. Only rarely did a guard have a heart and the one who did in chapter 2 thesis literature Auschwitz was soon moved. Retaliation was difficult; if you killed one German they killed “fast a hundred from you” (233/239) Contrastingly, the Jews are portrayed as the faceless victims of the German pogrom; they are stigmatized and Juvenile Crimes portrayed as vermin. One Jew carries a sign “I am a filthy Jew”. Emblazoned in the background, the swastika appears in a circular shape in chapter 2 thesis review four frames to highlight its overwhelming power and delinquency its allegedly honourable aim — to rid the towns of Jews, “This town is Jew Free”.
Once the rabbi departs, Vladek states, “I never heard again from him. Chapter! It came such a misery in Warsaw, almost none survived.” The Jews are often grouped together en masse to show their vulnerability and anonymity. To the Gestapo, their background, profession, age and effects of advertising on children essay gender are irrelevant. Literature! As Spiegelman would suggest, it is easier to delinquency, bash to death contaminated vermin. It is chapter 2 thesis literature, harder, when such people have individual human dimensions. Attendant Letter! During one such evacuation, Jews are rolling on the ground like the chapter 2 thesis, “neighbour’s dog” (242).
Children were treated just as, if not more, brutally. During one massacre, four young girls got hanged a “long, long time’. Jews are typically depicted as faceless animals, as vermin. The dangling legs of one such victim suggest that anybody could be tortured and killed. Killing is an impersonal business. (p. 85). However, specific captions draw attention to personal characteristics to remind viewers that individuals, families and Juvenile Crimes communities are being systematically destroyed. Many of the Jews hanging from the stake sport their respectable professional business attire. One is Mr Cohn who “had a goods store.” As such, Art critiques the German’s shameful tendency to stereotype or objectively categorise the Jews in order to chapter, exterminate them.
At times, the graphics and numerous motifs are childlike in their simplicity as Spiegelman seeks to convey the complexity of the horror. Trains symbolise loss and displacement on a grand scale. They were used by john utilitarianism essay, the SS in their systematic attempt to rid the state of 2 thesis literature review Jews and to ship them to notebook, various destinations. Chapter 2 Thesis Review! In one image, the train is depicted as a long unending block of black colour transporting Vladek to Lublin where Jews could be summarily killed “in the streets!” (62) (Vladek cannot believe, when he is finally exchanged on the Swiss border, that there is a “train, not for qantas cover, cows and horses, but a real train to take passengers — a train for people!” (257) One of the most poignant moments in Vladek’s recount is the separation from the parents of the young children, Lonia and Richieu. The parents feared that they would be killed if kept in Srodula and safer if sent to Zawiercie with Uncle Persis. The barbed wire (110) separates the young kids from the parents as a reminder of the inhumanity of the 2 thesis literature review, regime. (“It was the last time ever we saw them; but that we couldn’t know”.) At that time the SS guards sent 1,000 people to Auschwitz; to stop the kids from screaming, the guards “swinged them by the legs against a wall…” and “they never anymore screamed”. (110) Sadly, Tosha poisoned herself and delinquency the kids because she refused, stoically, not to be sent to the gas chambers. The father is depicted as a kind, compassionate and innovative creator — a portrayal which at times contrasts with the 2 thesis, older Vladek who appears domineering and unhelpful. During his war-time experiences in Poland, if Vladek doesn’t have a skill he invents it to survive; he becomes a tinman, carpenter and shoemaker in Auschwitz. He was always friendly and charming; he always found someone at the last resort who would help him, share food with him, or shelter him. In Dachau, the French prisoner shares food received from the Red Cross with Vladek — “it saved my life” (253) Both he and Anja used their language skills to advantage; Anja taught Mol ‘s son German; Vladek was often teaching the Kapo or guards English.
He was always confident, and, resourcefully exploited situations to his advantage. During his sessions with the psychologist, Art agonises over the fact that it was not necessarily the best people who survived, but that good ones did survive, often despite themselves. (205) Vladek is an greed bad essay excellent example of the resilient and resourceful survivor, whose luck runs mostly in his direction. He saves everything, because food scraps are so precious. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature! He uses their precious gems as barter, but those who buy and sell on Juvenile Crimes the black market are routinely hanged. It is 2 thesis literature, again a question of qantas flight luck. As Vladek’s story shows, much depends upon making the chapter 2 thesis review, right decision at the right time. For example, when he and essay Anja hide in Mrs Kawka’s farm (Szopienice) 20 kms from Sosnowiec he must catch the tram back into the city, to the Dekerta courtyard. Vladek states that he alights in the front car with the Germans and Officials where they paid no attention. “In the polish car they could smell if a Polish Jew came in” (142). The comic image shows the differences in the two compartments of the 2 thesis literature review, streetcar with German officials parading in the second. (At Mrs Motonowa’s, after her husband’s return, they stay in john stuart mill utilitarianism the cellar with big rats and live on candy for three days, p. 150 .) At least the rats won’t kill you; they learn to be “happy even to have these conditions”. The children were often the biggest dangers, yelling at Jews whenever they saw someone suspicious.
They were indoctrinated: “be careful. A Jew will catch you in a bag and eat you.” (151) During the evacuation, Vladek was lucky to be one of only 25 of 200 Jews who got out of the train alive (245).) (However, Vladek makes an extremely costly error that leads to the end of the road – Auschwitz. Anya suspected the smugglers but for once Vladek let down his guard. His nephew Abraham’s letter reassured them that they would get to Hungary, but later in Auschwitz he revealed that he wrote the letter under threat of death. Ironically, Vladek’s brother Miloch was living in much worse conditions: almost in a garbage bunker, but survived the war when he moved to Mrs Motonowa’s cellar after Vladek and Anja left. (155)) Vladek’s clear and simple narrative constantly punctuates the stark horror of the graphic images reminding readers of the sheer terror and heartache of the victims as they are hurled onwards towards Hitler’s final solution. Arriving at Auschwitz and chapter review confronted by the slogan “Arbeit Macht Frei”, Vladek is aware that their chances of attendant cover letter survival are minimal despite their valiant attempts to resist: “And we knew that from chapter 2 thesis here we will not come out anymore”. Such simple statements ring true given the brutal depiction of the SS-cats wielding batons, the leaping dogs and the locked train carriages which tower over the helpless Jew holding up his arms in a surrender.
Another caption states, “we knew everything, and here we were” to reinforce again the essay, inevitable march towards oblivion; it is 2 thesis literature review, a picture of evil. (159) The double width frame of the screaming Jews tell of their unspeakable pain at being burned alive. “And the fat from the burning bodies they scooped and poured again so everyone could burn better.” (232). The beginning of Vladek’s story also presents the parallel love story between the parents as Anja replaces Lucia as preferred fiance. Vladek sustained his wife, especially after the attendant, death of family members. She was devastated to have lost most of 2 thesis literature her family and “now they’ll take Lolek”. She lies completely dejected on the bed; Vladek’s face is omitted from the top of the graphic to show her inconsolable state (124) He urges her, “to die, it’s easy” but you have to struggle for life! .. We must struggle together. I need you.” He promises and convinces her, “And you’ll see that together we’ll survive.” (124).
During this sequence of statements, Vladek’s face becomes increasingly larger until he dominates the clip and suggests hope and courage (124). The high-angled long shot of Juvenile Crimes Vladek and Anja walking hand in hand along a road configured as a swastika (127) shows their solidarity against an invincible enemy. The confusion, the chapter literature review, hopelessness, (“Anja and Juvenile Crimes I didn’t have where to go”) and the constant danger that beset them both provide the 2 thesis, dramatic tension in laboratory notebook the narrative. The love story becomes particularly poignant when Anja and Vladek are separated in Auschwitz and chapter literature review Birkenau. Manci intervenes only because she is touched by their love. Juvenile Crimes! Anja was in Birkenau with 800 people in a building made for 50 horses, just a “death place” (211) the news makes them all sob. Mancie helped pass messages between Anja and Vladek and he sends food. “You always arrange miracles” 217. He received a beating such as the likes that would have killed Anja, just for talking to a prisoner/his wife. (217) The Jews are often examined; lined up as skeletons – naked and bony and separated. Chapter Review! (218) The gas chambers are often referred to euphemistically as “the other side” (218). The big ugly face of the Guard seeks to intimidate them all during the “Appel”; the effects, friends do not betray her. “You can IMAGINE what she went through”. During a typical “Selektion” (the use of German terms throughout Maus suggests that there is chapter 2 thesis literature review, no translation for their unique agenda of genocide) the dangerously thin Vladek escapes to greed bad essay, the toilet to avoid examination. Chapter 2 Thesis Review! (227) (Manci protected Anja who ended up in Ravensbruck and effects of advertising essay back in Sosnowiec before Vladek, crying each day as she waits and literature review checks with the greed bad essay, Jewish Organisation.) Art depicts their reunion as a happily resolved love story. Chapter! “Everybody around was crying together with us”. “We were both very happy and lived happy, happy ever after”.
And he finally addresses Art as Richieu, dreaming of Juvenile Crimes his lost son. (296), suggesting the 2 thesis literature review, beginning of the trauma. The character of Vladek in qantas flight cover Germany contrasts with his post-war story in America. In Germany, Vladek has always an literature ‘amazingly present minded and resourceful’ person, both during the war and the present day in john mill essay which the comic was set. However, he becomes stingy to the painful shame of both Art and Mala. For example, Vladek always saved cigarettes and tried to return the groceries and even “partially eaten food” to ‘Shop-rite’ (249).
Such as when he boasts that he received six dollars worth of chapter literature review new groceries for only one dollar, His character often seems to change little; it is effects of advertising essay, rather the environment and the society’s standards that change. One of Vladek’s most enduring memories is that he survived because “I saved” and this somehow troubles Art as he recognizes the caricature of the stingy Jew, which he also, conveniently, sets up for ridicule. Mala believes that it causes him “physical pain to part with money”. As a writer, Art is also acutely aware that his father “is like the racist caricature of the miserly old Jew”. (Accordingly, Art exploits but ridicules the father’s miserly habits in an attempt to personalise the stereotype.) However, Mala notes that it’s not necessarily the camp that has made him miserly as many of the Jews who had similar experiences did not end up so profligate. (Art despairs of his father’s efforts to chapter 2 thesis literature, fix the flight attendant, drainpipe; he climbs on the roof and nearly has an accident (p.98).) The blending of the past into the present is often reinforced by chapter review, a palimpsest technique. The four girls who were hanged were also good friends of Anja. Art’s car in the foreground seamlessly passes the hanging bodies. (239) Likewise the grid of fifteen boxes peels away to reveal an aerial shot of Auschwitz dominated by greed bad essay, the black smoke. (211) The palimpsest is symbolic of a variety of forms of separation, although the past seeps into the present. The narrative of the nine remaining frames focuses on literature the parents’ separation as Vladek outlines the delinquency, plain, historical facts of the two camps, Auschwitz and Birkenau (211). However, the black band between Art and Vladek in the panels also reinforces the separation between father and son; their roles as interviewer and interviewee become symbols of the gulf forged by their different experiences. Ironically, both are now separated from chapter review mother and greed bad essay wife through her suicide, the shadow of which becomes the chapter review, most traumatic reminder of the bleeding of the past. Self as protagonist.
Art’s parallel story shifts the emphasis to the aftermath, the consequences and the effects on on children essay the people, e specially as Art would be aware of the fact that there are already numerous texts dealing with the horror. The incorporation of self as protagonist in literature the comic enables him to elaborate on the Jewish population’s ‘ceaseless’ battle. More importantly however, Art’s inclusion in the comic gives him the opportunity to express his own personal guilt as to whether or not he should be prospering from his ‘presumptuous’ comic and his anxiety about the enormity of the task. “I can’t even make any sense out of my relationship with my father. How am I supposed to make any sense out of Auschwitz”. (174) Art explores the effects essay, consequences of growing up with such a miserly father, who has been irrevocably influenced and psychologically warped by the experience of horror. By inserting his own feelings and experiences into the story, there is literature review, always a direct or implied comparison. By presenting the parallel experiences of delinquency father and son, Art suggests that as a son, removed from the holocaust experiences, his experiences will always pale into insignificance.
In other words, anything he achieves is 2 thesis, dwarfed in comparison by the father’s achievements of survival Auschwitz. “No matter what I accomplish, it doesn’t seem like much compared to on children essay, surviving Auschwitz”. Chapter Review! (204) As a result it is just as much a personal journey of discovery and growing up as it is of advertising essay, a story about horror and instruction. Immediately in the prologue, Art foregrounds his relationship with his father to focus on the difficulties of chapter 2 thesis review growing up in effects of advertising families dominated by holocaust victims and the transference of literature emotional and psychological scars. Delinquency! We are constantly reminded throughout the comic that “my father’s ghost still hangs over literature me,” and later, that the father “took his guilt out on you”. Qantas Flight Attendant Cover! As an eight-year old, Art is deserted and humiliated by friends whilst rollerskating in the street. The father offers advice to Art that is chapter 2 thesis literature, based on his traumatic experiences during the holocaust. Effects On Children Essay! In the chapter literature review, caption, spanning the double-width frame, Vladek states, “if you lock them together in a room with no food for a week … then you could see what it is friends!” The father seems unable to comfort Art because of their different and unbridgeable experiences of “friendship” and horror. (Later, readers become aware of the parents’ attempt to survive three days on a small amount of candy, or their attempt to utilitarianism, ward off hunger by literature, nibbling wood shavings — a testimony to the parents’ strength and friendship.) In a close-up shot, Art exaggerates the father’s saw and his work to depict a fractured relationship owing to the father’s evasion through distracting physical work. Notebook! (Perhaps showing his obsession to chapter 2 thesis, constantly “fix” things.) Another close-up shot reminiscent of delinquency a fireplace-crematorium becomes just a small element in chapter 2 thesis review the long-shot picture of historical prison-like conditions that dwarf the prisoners. Art and his father are reduced to an insignificant margin in the background suggesting that their relationship is dwarfed by the father’s traumatic holocaust experiences. However, the father advises Art to develop resilience by placing his own experiences into perspective. That Art’s childhood experiences are insignificant compared with his father’s becomes the subject of his discussion with Pavel, the psychologist, thus showing that Art does indeed ruminate frequently over this sense of disadvantage.) Art’s relationship with his father. Art’s conflicting emotions fuelled by overwhelming guilt are evident in the varied motifs and the combination of imagery and captions.
The crux of the psychologist’s diagnosis, “he took his guilt out on laboratory notebook you”, alludes to chapter 2 thesis literature review, a real and impenetrable psychological barrier between father and son that prevents a secure and trustworthy relationship. Art visits a psychologist (wearing a mask) to help him deal with his personal trauma; this suggests that he too has suffered the consequences of his parents’ horror; he has born the brunt of effects on children his mother’s depression who is clearly unable to deal with the hidden ghosts and killed herself in May 1968. Art embeds the literature review, comic strip that was done for stuart utilitarianism essay, “an obscure underground comic book” which Vladek inadvertently found. The very dark tonal shades of the graphics in “Prisoner of the chapter 2 thesis literature, Hell Planet” reveals Art’s sense of suffocation as he struggles to deal with his father’s overbearing personality and his mother’s depression and delinquency eventual suicide in May 1968. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature! As Art comments, his father’s guilt strangles and challenges him — the psychologist says he “took his guilt out on YOU, where it was safe … on the REAL survivor” (204). Entitled “Prisoner on the Hell Planet; a case history”, the short comic reveals a significantly different artistic style. Starting with a simple, poignant photo of mother and son as if from a family snapshot album, the comic strips are incredibly dark as Art delves into his subconscious grief.
The captions are almost typewritten in perfect script. A string of half faces with a tear is interrupted by the grim reaper type figure: “She’s dead. A suicide. I felt angry, I felt numb. I didn’t exactly feel like crying, but figured I should.” The striped pyjamas again signal the concentration camps and the son’s guilt looms large. In the panel of Juvenile Crimes Art’s last conversation with Anja, after trying to chapter 2 thesis literature, reassure her that he still loved her, “[he] turned away, resentful of the way she tightened the umbilical cord.” (105). This caption, juxtaposed with the imagery of Art, himself wearing an Auschwitz inmate’s uniform and advising Anja that she has “committed the perfect crime,” reinforces his psychological vulnerability. John Stuart Mill Essay! She “shorted all my circuits … cut my nerve endings .. and crossed my wires”. Furthermore, the motif of Richieu’s photographs display a constant reminder that Art can never assuage the 2 thesis literature review, horrors of his parents, nor can he replace their “ideal” son, Richieu.” The parents were in greed bad essay such shock about his death that they followed the chapter 2 thesis literature, vaguest of rumours searching orphanages throughout Europe (175). “it was an idea kid and I was a pain in the ass. Juvenile Crimes! I couldn’t compete” (175). The photo was a kind of “reproach” (“spooky having sibling rivalry with a photograph”.
Not only can he not compete with a sibling who does not have tantrums, but he rationalises his guilt (“I never felt guilty about Richieu”) (176); instead he has nightmares about gas coming out of the showers and wishes he could have been in literature Auschwitz so he would have experienced the horror. “I guess it’s some kind of guilt about having had an easier life than they did.” (176) Evidently, guilt swirls everywhere in the graphic novel claiming more victims after Auschwitz. Art as a writer/comic artist. The artist reflects Vladek’s command, “so now you can know what happened and God forbid we must never let this should never happen again.” Art’s sense of Juvenile Crimes indignity looms large as he retells the stories of the ‘victims who can never tell their side of the story’. “It’s an important book. People who don’t usually read such stories will be interested”. The father professes that even he is interested in comics, although he does not read them and predicts the son will be as famous as “Walt Disney” (135). However, as writer and artist, Art is necessarily caught in an ambiguous situation, whereby to tell the stories of the victims he also feels he is exploiting their story and their horror. He does not want to benefit, but if he is to successfully capture their story then it will lead to success for the artist. Guilt swirls in literature review the comic strip. Cover! He mocks the fact that it should have a message, and that everyone should feel “forever” guilty. “My father’s ghost still hangs over me.” He tried to be “fair” whilst he also shows “how angry I was”. (204) Maybe the father felt guilty about surviving and he “took his guilt out on you”; maybe Art is guilty because nothing can be compared with Auschwitz; he feels guilty proving his father wrong about his success. He also agonises over how to visualize such horror. “My father worked in a tin shop near the chapter, camp.
I have no idea what kind of tools and stuff to draw. There’s no documentation”. (206) Art feels that he is wrongfully prospering from delinquency his presumptuous ‘critical and commercial success’ which was made achievable by ‘over 100,000 Hungarian Jew who were gassed in Auschwitz’. Chapter 2 Thesis Review! Art realises that he ‘can’t begin to imagine what it felt like’ in john mill the hellish prisons and warzones, how it would feel to literature, lose the love of of advertising essay your life, and also how it would feel like to survive the war; yet he still publishes this comic which shows his second-hand understanding of the war. Art’s shrinking figure, smothered by the media pack, symbolizes his sense of chapter entrapment, but he rationalizes that he did not exploit every possible business proposition.
However, he does feel ‘completely messed up’ at the thought of ‘walking on qantas attendant top of dead bodies’ to complete his comic. He was given lucrative deals, offered 50 per review, cent of the profits, but he just “wants my Mommy”. (202) The artistic son. Guilt manifests in the depiction of the disrespectful and selfish son. There are numerous occasions in the comic where Art harshly characterizes his insolent attitude towards his father.
For example, Art ‘promised’ Vladek that he would not write about ‘such private things’ between Vladek and Lucia; and Art also impatiently interrupts Vladek’s process of organizing his important medicine just so Vladek would tell him about Anja. Furthermore, Art consistently smokes inconsiderately in the presence of his frail and ageing father. It is not until after Vladek passed away that Art begins to reminisce and regret his negligence. Art will always feel as though his ‘father hangs over’ him. However, in the end a guilt-ridden Art also feels that he may have contributed to the deterioration of his father’s death and wonders whether he was a worthy son and whether he deserves the success, which is heaped upon the Pulitzer Prize winning author. Samuel Beckett once said, “every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and greed bad essay nothingness.”
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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
A literature synthesis of symptom prevalence and severity in persons receiving active cancer treatment. Patients with cancer experience acute and chapter, chronic symptoms caused by their underlying disease or by the treatment. While numerous studies have examined the impact of john stuart mill utilitarianism, various treatments on symptoms experienced by cancer patients, there are inconsistencies regarding the symptoms measured and reported in treatment trials. This article presents a systematic review of the research literature of the prevalence and severity of symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. A systematic search for chapter studies of persons receiving active cancer treatment was performed with the search terms of “multiple symptoms” and “cancer” for studies involving patients over the age of 18 years and published in English during the years 2001 to 2011. Search outputs were reviewed independently by seven authors, resulting in the synthesis of 21 studies meeting criteria for generation of an Juvenile Crimes Evidence Table reporting symptom prevalence and severity ratings. Data were extracted from chapter 21 multi-national studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in greed bad essay, whom the prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to chapter 2 thesis literature, 97 years).
A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to qantas flight attendant cover letter, tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens. Eighteen instruments and structured interviews were including those measuring single symptoms, multi-symptom inventories, and single symptom items drawn from HRQOL or health status measures. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was the most commonly used instrument in the studies analyzed ( n = 9 studies; 43 %), while the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and 2 thesis literature, Symptom Distress Scale were each employed in two studies. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the greed bad essay 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings. Chapter Literature Review? Symptom prevalence and severity were calculated across the laboratory entire cohort and also based upon sample sizes in which the symptoms were measured providing the ability to rank symptoms. Chapter Literature? Symptoms are prevalent and effects of advertising on children essay, severe among patients with cancer.
Therefore, any clinical study seeking to evaluate the impact of treatment on patients should consider including measurement of 2 thesis, symptoms. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is common across cancer types. This set may serve as the basis for defining a “core” set of symptoms to be recommended for qantas flight cover letter elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Patients with cancer experience acute and chronic symptoms caused both by their underlying disease and by the often toxic treatments employed in oncology care [ 1 , 2 ]. Clinical investigators, regulators, and healthcare providers often focus on 2 thesis the prevention or cure of illness, whereas relief of symptoms is a paramount goal for patients [ 3 , 4 ]. Symptoms are a common reason healthcare is sought and an impetus for stuart essay testing to definitively diagnose an illness or injury. Once treatment is implemented, symptomatic treatment toxicities frequently develop [ 5 ]. While numerous studies have examined the impact of various treatments and medications on symptoms in patients receiving cancer treatment, a limitation in comparing these outcomes is the lack of a common or “core” set of patient-reported symptoms, consistently measured across studies. For example, one study may report an chapter improvement in nausea with a specified treatment and another study may report worsening fatigue, leaving the clinician and patient comparing treatment efficacies and weighing side effects based upon disparate outcomes. These differences in symptom outcomes between studies to some extent can be attributed to the use of varying symptom assessment questionnaires and notebook, strategies. Chapter Literature? While there is value to focusing on specific symptoms in particular clinical contexts (e.g., pain in delinquency, patients with metastatic prostate cancer to bone), there is also value in assessing a common set of symptoms both in order to characterize the chapter broader impact of disease and treatment on greed bad essay the patient experience, and to enable cross-trial comparisons and aggregation of chapter 2 thesis review, data. Therefore, in greed bad essay, 2011, the chapter literature review National Cancer Institute sponsored a scientific meeting to identify a standard core set of patient-reported symptoms to be recommended across cancer clinical trials as well as existing questionnaires that are appropriate for assessing these symptoms. Attendant Cover Letter? As a component of chapter 2 thesis literature, this initiative, a multi-disciplinary team conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that measured the prevalence and severity of symptoms in delinquency, patients undergoing cancer treatment. In 2009, Esther Kim et al. 2 Thesis Literature Review? [ 25 ] published a literature synthesis of greed bad essay, cancer symptomatology in 18 studies.
This paper and four additional literature reviews [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ] identified in our systematic search were excluded from this analysis. Instead, the findings by literature Esther Kim et al. Effects On Children Essay? (that also contained these four papers) were compared to our findings (see “ Discussion ”). 2 Thesis? Unlike the Esther Kim et al. Laboratory Notebook? synthesis which only included studies that used the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales (MSAS), or the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), this present analysis intentionally did not limit to any specific assessment instrument so that a wide array of symptoms could be collated and analyzed across a broader range of studies. Nine publications that failed to report symptom statistics [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ] and 2 thesis, one publication that was a secondary study of a sample already included in this analysis [ 39 ] were excluded, resulting in 21 studies included in john essay, this analysis [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ]. Chapter 2 Thesis? Potentially relevant data were abstracted for the review including disease/treatment, sample, instrument used to measure symptoms, and symptom prevalence and severity. Where information about prevalence and severity was not presented, the authors were contacted by Juvenile Crimes e-mail to obtain the necessary detail. Data were managed using Excel. Analysis and synthesis methodology. 2 Thesis Literature? Sample characteristics ( n , age, stage, treatment type, phase of qantas flight cover, care, special population) Outcome measure(s) of symptoms, functioning, and/or HRQL.
Study design/analytic approach. Symptoms and symptom dimensions (provide %s or #s as they relate to prevalence, severity, duration, and/or interference) Comments and caveats. 100 patients during the acute phase of autologous PBSC transplantation with multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-BMT) and 2 thesis literature, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) were completed at baseline, 3–4 days into notebook conditioning, day of 2 thesis, transplant, day of nadir, and 30 days post transplant. The Profile of on children, Mood States (POMS) and chapter literature, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) at BL and 30 days. The time point associated with the most reported disturbances was nadir: the top five symptoms at each time point rated by mill utilitarianism essay patients as moderate to severe were: BL 29 % fatigue, 21 % pain, 17 % distress, 14 % weakness, 13 % sadness; Conditioning: 34 % disturbed sleep, 22 % fatigue, 22 % loss of chapter 2 thesis literature review, appetite, 14 % nausea, 13 % weakness; Transplant: 34 % loss of appetite, 32 % fatigue, 26 % disturbed sleep, 25 % nausea, 23 % weakness. Nadir: 56 % lack of appetite, 55 % fatigue, 52 % weakness, 42 % feeling sick, 39 % disturbed sleep; Day 30: 34 % fatigue, 31 % weakness, 14 % disturbed sleep, 11 % loss appetite, 10 % distress. Cancer diagnosis was a significant predictor of laboratory notebook, changes in symptoms over 2 thesis literature review time. The patterns of fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and lack of appetite were significantly different for delinquency patients with multiple myeloma as compared with patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) 76 adults undergoing allogeneic HSCT from a single institution. 2 Thesis Literature? Mean age of 40 years (SD 13.5 years). 67 % of the sample was male; 30 % of the sample was Hispanic; two thirds were undergoing transplant for acute or chronic leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma; 66 % were in a complete remission at greed bad essay the time of literature review, transplant, while 34 % had progressive disease. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal study with data about the symptom experience collected pre-transplant, day 0 (after HSCT conditioning), and effects on children essay, days 30 and 100 post-transplant. The most prevalent symptoms at baseline were fatigue and worry (both 68 %), at day 0, the most prevalent symptom was appetite change (88 %), and fatigue was most prevalent at 2 thesis days 30 (90 %) and 100 (81 %). Greed Bad Essay? Symptoms that were severely distressing including worry (16 % severely distress at baseline), insomnia (32 % severely distressed at day 0), appetite change (22 % severely distressed at day 30), and fatigue (11 % severely distressed at day 100). The SDS was highest at day 0 (mean 26.6 SD 7.6), when the highest number of symptoms were reported. Symptoms formed clusters comprised of fatigue, appearance change, and worry at baseline, and fatigue, insomnia, and bowel changes at literature days 0 and 30. Examining the symptom experience over time, it is apparent that HSCT patients tend to present for transplantation with low symptom distress, and experience multiple symptoms and high symptom distress after conditioning. Juvenile Crimes? Though not consistently the most prevalent or distressing, GI complications, including bowel changes, nausea, and review, appetite limitations, were noted across the treatment trajectory.
Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) 121 patients with breast (40 %), head and neck (33 %), or esophageal cancer (27 %) who were hospitalized in Northern Taiwan for chemotherapy (76 %), symptom management (20 %) and follow-up or surgery (4.1 %). Notebook? Male = 55 %. Mean age = 52.19 (SD 10.44). Range = 26–81. Chapter 2 Thesis Review? Cancer stage = II (15 %), III (17 %), IV (33 %), missing (36 %) Patient Disease Symptom/Sign Assessment Scale (PDSA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale (HADS-D) Insomnia was the most prevalent symptom (67 %), followed by pain (62 %), anorexia (47 %), fatigue/weakness (40 %), nausea/vomiting (24 %), wound/pressure sore (17 %), dyspnea (14 %), edema (8.3 %), elimination problems (2.5 %), and Juvenile Crimes, change in consciousness (0 %). The average number of symptoms for total sample was 2.83 (median 3.0, range = 0–7). 55 % reported 3 or more.
25 % were classified as depressed (HADS-D cutoff of 11). Chapter Literature? The average number of greed bad essay, symptoms observed total sample was 3.77 (median 3.5), depressed patients had average number of 3.77 (median = 3.5) and chapter 2 thesis review, non-depressed had 2.52 (median = 2.0). Depressed patients showed a significantly higher occurrence rate than that of non-depressed patients in insomnia, pain, anorexia, fatigue, and wound/pressure sore. Patients simultaneously experiencing insomnia, pain, anorexia, and fatigue had a higher risk of depression (odds ratio 5.03) Using HADS-D to measure depression decreases the likelihood of confounding the assessment of depression with physical symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment since HADS-D does not use physical symptoms to measure depression. 329 multi-disease site pts. Study from Taiwan 29 % breast; 25 % GI; 76 % local disease without mets; time since dx 1–311 mos with median of on children, 14 mos; 53 % had chemo; 73 % had RT. MDASI-Taiwanese-13 common ca related symptoms measured on scale 1–10 assessed in chapter review, primary study but only 9 symptoms used in this secondary CFA analysis based on previous EFA (Chen and Tseng 2006) Secondary analysis of cross-sectional study; confirmatory factor analysis. Mean # of symptoms per pt = 6.6 (range 0–13); prevalence 72 % dry mouth; 70 % fatigue; 63 % sleep disturbance; 3 clusters: sickness including pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep and drowsiness; GI including NV and Juvenile Crimes, lack of appetite; emotional including distress and literature, sadness. John Mill Essay? 115 outpatients with cancer, who had not received cancer treatment in the last 30 days who reported at least 2 symptoms. Female = 61 %. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review? Mean age = 57.2 (SD 13.5).
Type of cancer—breast = 38.9 %, lung = 23.9 %, prostate = 10.6 %, genitourinary = 13.3 %, head and greed bad essay, neck = 7.1 %, gastrointestinal = 5.3 %, and other = 0.9 %. Presence of metastases = 67.6 %. Previous treatment—chemotherapy = 51.4 %, radiation therapy = 55.0 %, hormonal therapy = 19.8 %, and surgery = 66.7 %. Country of 2 thesis review, study = Brazil. Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Prevalence and mean of Juvenile Crimes, symptoms as follows: pain 100 %, 7.36; fatigue 87 %, 41.50; insomnia 73 %, 57.39; constipation 51 %, 36.52; lack of appetite 50 %, 37.97; dyspnea 44 %, 24.19; depression 44 %, 14.43; nausea and vomiting 28 %, 11.65; diarrhea 11 %, 5.01. Application of two-step cluster analysis resulted in two distinct patient subgroups based on 113 patient symptom experiences. One group had multiple and severe symptom subgroup and another had less symptoms and with lower severity. Pain scale 0–10, depression 0–63, other symptoms 0–100. n = 220, with newly diagnosed lung; sample from 24 community oncology sites in Michigan; 91 % white; 65–89 years (mean 72); stages 0–II—38 %, stages III–IV—62 %; treatment—surgery 42 %, chem 43 %, rad 63 % Given (lead author) Physical Symptom Experience tool (37 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference). Secondary data analysis of 2 thesis review, NIH panel study; data collected at greed bad essay diagnosis.
Most frequent (%): fatigue 79; up at night urinate 68; cough 65; pain 60; diff breathing 58; weakness 57; app loss 50; dry mouth 49; wt loss 45; altered taste 35; nausea 34; lack of sex interest 31; diff swallow 30; dizziness 23; diff concentrating 20; problems coordination 16; vomiting 15; hot flashes 7; arms swelling 2. Most severe (mean, scale 1–3): arm swell 2.33; lack sex interest 2.07; vomit 2; hot flash 1.94; trouble sleep 1.89; fatigue 1.84; pain 1.84; diff breath 1.82; diff swallow 1.82; alter taste 1.76; app loss 1.74; weakness 1.69; wt loss 1.67; problems coordination 1.61; dry mouth 1.56; cough 1.54; diff concentrating 1.44; dizziness 1.43; up at night urinate 1.39. 31 adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients: average age 55 years; 55 % of chapter review, patients were male, 74 % had attended college, and of advertising on children essay, 97 % were Caucasian. The participating RCC patients were a convenience sample drawn from the Kidney Cancer Association (KCA) membership. Chapter Literature Review? A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the relevant signs and symptoms of both localized and metastatic patients. Laboratory Notebook? Pending additional content validation, the 2 thesis review index can be used to assess the of advertising on children signs and chapter literature review, symptoms of laboratory, RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from RCC treatment. National cross-sectional study was conducted to define patient-reported RCC symptomatology. The five most frequent symptoms among localized stage patients ( n = 14) were irritability (79 %), pain (71 %), fatigue (71 %), worry (71 %), and sleep disturbance (64 %). Among metastatic patients ( n = 17), the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82 %), weakness (65 %), worry (65 %), shortness of breath (53 %), and irritability (53 %). Chapter 2 Thesis Review? More than 50 % of localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. The RCC Symptom Index was developed through a structured, iterative process that drew upon essay, several information sources to identify the review appropriate signs and symptoms.
A broad range of physiological and psychological disease manifestations were identified and found relevant by a national, US cohort of RCC patients who were undoubtedly treated at different cancer centers. N = 287, Australian women age 74 or younger (mean 54), early stage, all post-surgery (PS) by 4 mo+, 87 % had one or more LNs dissected w median of 12 LNs examined. PRO: FACT-B + 4 (arm subscale), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, Hand (DASH) collected at 6 mo and qantas attendant cover letter, q3 mo ?4. Literature? Objective measures: ROM, Exercise protocol, Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) to measure LE. Descriptive study, prospective, longitudinal, population-based sample through cancer registry in greed bad essay, Queensland, Australia. Numbness (19–29 %) and literature review, swelling (13–23 %) most common symptoms. Multiple symptoms were 1.7? more common in john mill utilitarianism, LE pts and by 18 mo PS, having LE doubled chance of 1 or more symptoms.
By 18 mo the differences were minimal, except those w LE reported more tingling, swelling, and numbness. 1 in 2 women reported moderate to chapter 2 thesis review, extreme pain, tingling, weakness, stiffness, poor ROM, swelling, and/or numbness at john stuart mill utilitarianism 6 mo PS, but 51 % reported at least 1 complaint 12 mo later. n = 80 newly diagnosed with lung cancer; 2 CCOPs and chapter review, 2 Comprehensive CA centers; age range 41–83, mean 63; Caucasian 95 %; early stage 10 %; late Stage 90 % Given (co-author) Cancer Symptom Experience Inventory (15 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference) Secondary data analysis from baseline of randomized clinical trial; explore relationship among pain, fatigue, insomnia, and delinquency, gender. Most frequent (%): fatigue 97; pain 69; nausea 53; constipation 53; insomnia 51; poor appetite 50; cough 49; dry mouth 44; diff breathing 44; diarrhea 30; diff concentrating 26; coordination 24; vomiting 23; fever 11; mouth sores 8. 287 Turkish pts from chapter 2 thesis literature review a university hospital. 56 % male, 66 % had stage II disease; mean duration since tx was 3 yrs ± 2.5 yrs; 39 % GI, 17 % lung, 14 % AML/ALL, 13 % HN, 12 % breast.
72 % had chemo only, 2 % RT only and 8 % chemoRT. Effects Of Advertising? Cross-sectional design using hierarchical cluster analysis to identify symptom clusters and regression analysis to assess predictors of clusters. Prevalence: fatigue 95.5 %, difficulty remembering 91 %, sadness 90 %, loss of appetite 88 %, enjoyment of life 89 %, pain 88 %, distress 87 %, difficulty walking 87.5 %, dry mouth 87 %. Chapter Review? Overall, 37.5 % had moderate and 12.5 % had severe symptoms. Mean MDASI scores for 13 symptom items were 5 and john mill, 4.4 for chapter literature review the 6 interference items. 48 % of pts rated loss of appetite, fatigue, sadness, dry mouth, and distress as mod or severe. Loss of appetite was most prevalent symptom. The 6 interference symptoms formed a cluster (gen activity, mood, work relations with others, walking, and enjoyment with life); a second cluster was formed with sleep disturbance, difficulty remembering, pain, distress, sadness, fatigue, dry mouth, and appetite loss.
A third cluster was formed with nausea, vomiting, SOB, numbness, and drowsiness. N = 55, age 60 or older (mean 68), 61% white, 37 % AA, stage I or II BCA. John Stuart Mill? Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal data collection at 2 thesis literature hospital discharge and laboratory notebook, 3 and 6 mo post-discharge. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review? Secondary, descriptive analysis from a larger study of laboratory notebook, a home care nursing intervention on QOL of older pts newly diagnosed with several types of cancer. SDS scores range from 13 to literature review, 65 and flight attendant letter, mean total SDS were 23.81 at discharge from hospital and 20.52 at 3 mo, and 18.6 at 6 mo. 2 Thesis Literature Review? Most frequent sx were fatigue, frequency of pain, outlook, and delinquency, insomnia. More education and younger age were associated with greater symptom distress at discharge. This analysis did not consider the possible effects of adjuvant chemo or hormones or radiation as its focus was on symptoms post-surgery of older women. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) N = 56, age 55 and older (mean 65), newly diagnosed w local, regional, or distant recurrent BCA (29 had loco-regional recurrence) (1/3 had past hx of anxiety and/or depression) MSAS, MSAS-PHYS, MSAS-PSYCH, TMSAS (total symptom burden), MSAS-GDI, HADS, Sense of Coherence (soc) measures coping capacity, PACIS, QLQ-C30, IBCSG-QOL. Descriptive study, pts recruited prospectively from 2 oncology centers, correlation analyses with multiple regressions for developing prediction model.
65 % reported 10–23 symptoms (avg 14), prevalent sx 50 %: lack of energy (67 %), difficulty sleeping (61 %), pain (59 %), worrying (59 %), problems w sexual interest/activity (59 %), feeling sad (57 %), dry mouth (52 %) Stat sig correlations among highly related symptoms were worrying and feeling nervous, worrying and feeling sad, nausea and literature, lack of appetite, difficulty swallowing, and delinquency, feeling bloated. N = 282, women w BCA all stages, age 30, (mean 55), 92 % white, initiating rx of at chapter 2 thesis literature review least 3 cycles of chemo (44 %) or 6 wks of XRT (56 %) General fatigue scale, POMS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Side Effect Checklist. Time points—baseline pre-rx and 48 h post-rx 2 and delinquency, 3. Secondary analysis of data from RCT of cognitive behavioral rx on fatigue (1999–2002 at 2 ca ctrs), factor analysis for symptom clusters. Common factoring identified a psychoneurological symptom cluster at 1st time point: depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and chapter 2 thesis literature review, pain and was generalizable to all subgroups. Delinquency? Symptom cluster at 2nd time point included upper-GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite) Confounding variables on symptom clustering that included varying CTX regimens, XRT dose, hormonal rx, surgery type, and time lapse since surgery were not controlled for. n = 16 at lung cancer clinic in Toronto mean age 67; 9 men, 7 women; chemo before 1st interview—4; btwn interviews—radiation 9, rad and chemo 2, surgery and chapter review, rad 1, surgery only on children essay 1, chemo alone 1. Spontaneous reports and probes on symptoms (21 in review, total were identified) Semi-structured interview to describe their symptom experiences; interview at time of diagnosis and notebook, second interview 2 months later. 2 Thesis Literature Review? Out of N = 16, symptoms with greater than 25 % include (#s are reported at baseline and 2 months later): fatigue = 14, 15; pain = 10, 9; shortness of breath = 9, 7; loss of appetite = 8, 11; cough = 8, 8; insomnia = 8, 9; mucus = 8, 9; weight loss = 8, 8; wheeze = 7, 4. Fatigue and pain most troublesome symptoms; most often cited combo of symptoms was respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough, mucus, and shortness of breath) 165 cancer patients in Morocco (Arabic-speaking); mean age 48.7; 56 % female; 8 % receiving chemotherapy/14 % receiving radiotherapy; 32 % stage II–III/68 % stage IV; 95 % ECOG PS 2–4 (39 % ECOG PS 4); 21 % gastro-intestinal/19 % breast/15 % gynecological/12 % lung/8 % unknown/7 % genitourinary/7 % head and neck/10 % other.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory Arabic version (MDASI-A); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of john mill essay, mean severity high to low): pain (9.62); fatigue (7.05); lack of appetite (6.07); disturbed sleep (5.35); dry mouth (5.07); sadness (4.85); distress (4.33); shortness of chapter literature review, breath (3.89); numbness (3.76); drowsiness (3.28); nausea (3.03); difficulty remembering (2.85); vomiting (2.43). % with score ?5 (moderate or severe; in order of notebook, incidence high to low): pain (100 %); fatigue (86 %); lack of appetite (79 %); disturbed sleep (69 %); dry mouth (68 %); sadness (62 %); distress (54 %); shortness of chapter 2 thesis literature, breath (47 %); numbness (46 %); drowsiness (43 %); nausea (35 %); difficulty remembering (35 %); vomiting (25 %). % with score ?7 (severe; in order of Juvenile Crimes, incidence high to low): pain (96 %); fatigue (65 %); lack of appetite (48 %); dry mouth (30 %); sadness (31 %); shortness of breath (29 %); distress (28 %); disturbed sleep (24 %); numbness (22 %); drowsiness (16 %); nausea (16 %); difficulty remembering (16 %); vomiting (15 %) Interview format; very poor performance status overall. 48 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation 5040 cGY in 28 fractions, capecitabine and bevacizumab) on a phase I protocol. Median of chapter 2 thesis literature review, 58 years of age 9range 41–80), 92 % Caucasian, equally divided between males and females. Laboratory Notebook? KPS was preserved (100 % of the sample with KPS 80 %), however 74 % had one or more comorbidities. Longitudinal, descriptive, with symptoms and their interference with usual function measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at chapter literature the time of the first clinical assessment after chemoradiation. Delinquency? 95 % of the patients reported at least one of the 13 symptoms at initial presentation. The highest mean score was observed for fatigue, followed by chapter 2 thesis review lack of greed bad essay, appetite and chapter, pain. The mostly commonly reported symptoms at moderate to severe intensity over the course from presentation, during treatment and after treatment were fatigue, lack of attendant cover, appetite, pain, nausea and sleep disturbance.
At entry to the study, 51 % of the sample reported multiple symptoms that were of moderate to severe intensity, with the proportion reporting symptoms of moderate to chapter 2 thesis review, severe intensity decreasing to 20 % at greed bad essay the time chemoradiotherapy was concluded. Pain decreased across the course of treatment, while fatigue, nausea and sleep disturbance increased. Chapter 2 Thesis Review? Fatigue and appetite changes formed a distinct grouping. Forty-two patients with breast, head and greed bad essay, neck, lung, gynecological, gastrointestinal, prostate, or brain cancer in their 3rd to 8th week of chemoradiation. 2 Thesis Literature Review? Majority female, white, 55 yrs, breast cancer; 50 % metastatic cancer.
To examine the delinquency effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-h and 7-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Chapter 2 Thesis? Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) was also recorded at laboratory both T1 and T2. Chapter? The five most severe symptoms from both recall periods were fatigue, sleep disturbance, drowsiness, lack of appetite, and pain. Paired t tests did not find any significant difference between the Juvenile Crimes 24-h and 7-day recall periods. Literature? For both recall periods, more than half of patients reported moderate to severe fatigue. Percentages did not differ significantly between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. Comparing the 24-h and flight attendant letter, 7-day recall periods, the chapter correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888. All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were 0.7 except for distress ( r = 0.67). The percentages of moderate to severe symptoms (rated 5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of greed bad essay, moderate to severe symptoms. 45 patients actively receiving treatment for either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or pancreatic cancer. The mean age was 59 years, and 64 % were male.
51 % Caucasian, 22 % Asian, 18 % Hispanic, and 4 % African American participants. 2 Thesis? 50 % of the Hispanic and Asian participants were diagnosed with HCC, whereas most Caucasian participants were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The study sample included 22 patients with HCC and Juvenile Crimes, 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. The majority of chapter literature, participants had stage III (26 %) or IV (61 %) disease at the time of accrual; 82 % had been diagnosed recently, and 13 % had recurrent disease. Patients were followed from baseline for 3 months, with outcome measures repeated monthly. Outcome measures included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spirituality Subscale (FACIT-Sp-12) Descriptive, longitudinal study. Descriptive analysis of notebook, demographic, treatment, and chapter literature review, symptom data was conducted, followed by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance of delinquency, FACT-Hep and FACIT-Sp-12 scale scores by diagnosis and treatment type. No significant differences were observed in overall symptom subscale scores over time or by diagnosis. In the HCC group, the overall symptom subscale score decreased over 2 thesis literature review time from baseline, 1-, and 2-month evaluations, but was increased at 3 months. For the pancreatic cancer group, overall scores stabilized between 1 month and 2 months and then decreased by the 3-month evaluation.
These changes were not statistically significant. Juvenile Crimes? Overall, symptom scores were high for chapter weight loss, appetite, fatigue, ability to perform usual activities, and abdominal pain and tended to worsen over time. Pearson’s correlations between the disease-specific symptom subscale and each of the QOL subscale scores were computed for all four evaluations, including baseline. Results at cover letter baseline suggest that symptoms were highly correlated with physical well-being (0.72), functional well-being (0.73), and literature, overall FACT-Hep scores (0.93) Wang SY, Tsai CM, Chen BC, Lin CH, Lin CC (2008) n = 108 lung cancer in Taiwan; oncology in Juvenile Crimes, and outpatient units (3 sites); mean age 68; radiation 81 %; localized cancer 74 % Taiwanese version of MDASI. Most severe (mean score, range 0–10): fatigue 6.68, sleep disturbance 6.04; lack of app 5.83; short breath 5.59; distress 5.27; drowsiness 5.19; dry mouth 5.11; pain 5.10; sadness 4.87; diff remembering 4.65; numbness 4.01; nausea 2.48; vomiting 1.35. 2 Thesis Review? 1,433 patients were included in analyses: 524 patients from the USA, 249 from China, 256 from Japan, 226 from Russia, and 178 from notebook Korea. Percent female: US 55, China 54, Japan 42, Russia 62, Korea 40. Mean age (SD) US 55(15.0), China 51(12.8), Japan 62(12.1), Russia 61(14.3), Korea 51(11.3). Percent with metastatic disease: US 30, China 47, Japan 50, Russia 56, Korea 56.
Percent undergoing chemotherapy US 56, China 54, Japan 22, Russia 40, Korea 60. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), ECOG. Cross-nationally, fatigue was consistently the most prevalent moderate to severe symptom (rated ?5 on the MDASI 0–10 scale). Across all countries—prevalence moderate to severe MDASI symptoms: fatigue = 54 %, disturbed sleep = 41 %, distress = 39 %, pain = 35 %, lack of appetite = 34 %, drowsiness = 33 %, dry mouth = 32 %, sadness = 32 %. Treatment-induced symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and chapter 2 thesis literature, numbness were consistently rated as the least severe of the 13 MDASI symptoms. MDASI symptoms severity mean (SD): fatigue = 4.75 (2.95), disturbed sleep = 3.73 (3.16), distress = 3.60 (3.17), pain = 3.16 (3.16), lack of appetite = 3.25 (3.23), drowsiness = 3.25 (2.92), dry mouth = 3.11 (3.16), sadness = 3.15 (3.13), shortness of breath = 2.51 (2.92), difficulty remembering = 2.39 (2.69), numbness and tingling = 2.38 (2.97), nausea = 1.95 (2.86), and delinquency, vomiting = 1.34 (2.97) The results of this study indicate that national and linguistic (country) variations in patient responses to the MDASI are small relative to individual patient-related factors.
Analysis of chapter 2 thesis, MDASI symptom and interference ratings from qantas cancer patients in chapter, five countries revealed that the variance of the random effects for country was between 20 % and 50 % of the inter-subject variance. Wang XS, Williams LA, Eng C, Mendoza TR, Shah NA, Kirkendoll KJ, Shah PK, Trask PC, Palos GR, Cleeland CS (2010) 184 gastrointestinal cancer patients (English-speaking in the US); median age 60; 53 % female; 61 % currently receiving chemotherapy/33 % receiving no treatment; 34 % local or regional disease/54 % metastatic disease; 12 % ECOG PS 2–4; 28 % colon/25 % pancreas/19 % rectum/15 % hepatobiliary/13 % gastric/1 % esophageal. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory plus 5 gastrointestinal-specific symptom items (MDASI-GI); Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of mean severity high to low): fatigue (2.57); drowsiness (1.97); pain (1.87); disturbed sleep (1.66); lack of appetite (1.62); diarrhea* (1.51); numbness (1.43); distress (1.42); dry mouth (1.32); difficulty remembering (1.15); bloating* (0.98); sadness (0.95); constipation* (0.93); change in taste* (0.77); nausea (0.70); shortness of breath (0.50); vomiting (0.36); difficulty swallowing* (0.19). *GI module. Percentage of patients experiencing each symptom not provided. Characteristics of papers included in synthesis. Number specified when provided. Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) B = 48; D = 33; E = 40.
A = 6; B = 93; C = 79; E = 57; H = 55; I = 24; L = 7. B = 44; C = 6; E = 8; G = 15; I = 27; J = 12; L = 1. B = 34; C = 113; E = 37; F = 15; H = 39; I = 49. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) B = 32; C = 35; E = 12; F = 25; G = 12; H = 4; I = 20; K = 6; L = 19. Wang SY et. Notebook? al (2008) USA, China, Japan, Russia, Korea. Multi-cancer, not defined. Wang XS, et. al (2010) Cancer type/location: A = brain/CNS; B = breast; C = digestive/gastrointestinal; D = esophageal; E = head and 2 thesis literature review, neck; F = gynecologic; G = genitourinary/renal; H = hematologic; I = Lung; J = Prostate; K = stem; L = other/unknown. Prevalence and severity of symptoms by paper.
Bevans et. Delinquency? al (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) Keene Sarenmalm (2007) Wang SY, et. al (2008) Wang XS et Al. (2010) A similar procedure was used for tabulating severity, although mean severity by symptom was often not reported. In addition, many of the studies only reported those symptoms in which the severity was classified as moderate to severe. Because there was variation in the range of the severity scales among the instruments used in the studies, mean values were linearly transformed to a 0–10 scale to 2 thesis literature review, facilitate comparisons. Thus, symptoms rated a 2 on laboratory notebook the 0–4 scale were linearly transformed to a 5 on literature review the 0–10 scale. Lastly, to assess if the most commonly used instruments asked about the most compelling symptoms to greed bad essay, patients, thresholds by 2 thesis number of patients queried for the symptom were constructed. Greed Bad Essay? This allowed for the comparison of chapter, ranked symptoms based upon the number of patients queried. Thus symptoms that were assessed in cover letter, 100 or more people were ranked by frequency and severity, symptoms assessed in 500 or more people, and then a final threshold of review, 1,000 or more people. Delinquency? The lowest threshold of 100 people had the review most symptoms ranked while creating the threshold of 1,000 people limited the number of symptoms.
Some symptoms found in this synthesis did not include query by at least 100 patients and were therefore not included in this rank ordering of symptoms by Juvenile Crimes threshold level. Data were extracted from the chapter literature reported studies to develop a pooled sample of flight attendant, 4,067 cancer patients in whom the prevalence and severity of chapter 2 thesis literature review, individual symptoms was reported. Individual studies contributed from Juvenile Crimes 16 to 1,433 participants; nine (43 %) studies included a sample size less than 100. All of the investigations employed convenience samples. Chapter Review? Eleven (52 %) of the studies were conducted in laboratory notebook, the USA while the chapter literature remainder were multinational as listed in Table 2 . In the US studies where race and ethnic demographics were reported, 1,154 participants were studied of whom 18.5 % of the samples were non-white. Studies from john stuart mill utilitarianism essay other nations failed to chapter 2 thesis literature, distinguish race/ethnicity. In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of 38 % male and 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to 97 years).
A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to qantas cover letter, tumor site (predominantly breast and chapter literature, lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens. Juvenile Crimes? Table 2 summarizes the chapter review characteristics of participants in the included studies by cancer disease site, stage, and treatment type. Persons with breast cancer were the single largest group by cancer site (approximately 25 % of patients) followed by Juvenile Crimes lung (approximately 20 %). In the pooled sample, 51 % of patients were classified as stage I–II with 46 % metastatic disease. The largest majority of chapter literature, study participants were treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Approximately 5 % of the participants additionally received HSCT, with symptom assessment before and after this treatment. For these two longitudinal studies, the frequency and severity of symptoms was averaged across the various assessment times for this synthesis. Delinquency? Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings.
While many studies only reported the most prevalent or severe symptoms, some reported every symptom acknowledged by patients. In an 2 thesis attempt to be as inclusive as possible, all symptoms reported were included in qantas attendant letter, this synthesis. Summary of pooled prevalence and pooled mean severity rates (when available) Number of chapter 2 thesis literature, patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Fatigue and weakness (100 % of notebook, studies) Pain (100 % of studies) Sleep issues (91 % of studies) Anorexia and weight loss (91 % of studies) GI issues (81 % of studies) Affect (76 % of studies) Respiratory issues (76 % of studies) Impaired cognition (67 % of studies) Oral and chapter 2 thesis, swallowing issues (62 % of delinquency, studies)
Neurologic issues (57 % of 2 thesis literature, studies) Edema (29 % of studies) Urinary elimination issues (19 % of studies) Skin and wound issues (19 % of studies) Hot flashes/sweating (14 % of qantas flight cover, studies) Fever (14 % of studies) Sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies) Hair loss/appearance (5 % of studies) The pooled prevalence and mean severities reported in chapter 2 thesis review, Table 4 were calculated by aggregating all queries for john stuart mill utilitarianism essay that specific symptom across studies to chapter review, provide a pooled prevalence per essay symptom. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review? Where possible, symptoms of the same nature but labeled differently such as anorexia and decreased appetite were combined into one symptom. Stuart Essay? This was possible when only one term was used in a study providing one statistic; however, some symptom terms which could be synonymous for literature each other were often reported as separate items in delinquency, the same study. Examples include the terms “fatigue”, “lack of energy”, and “weakness”. Each is listed separately in this synthesis to assure the 2 thesis literature capture of constructs that may be related but distinct. Of note, while all of studies measured and thus reported the symptom of delinquency, fatigue, 59.63 % of the pooled patients reported some degree of literature review, this symptom when queried. Laboratory? Further, the severity of the fatigue when assessed with such large pooled data was rated a 4.62 on 2 thesis literature review a 0–10 scale. Given the large spread of sample sizes, the variety of instruments utilized and the identification of 47 separate symptoms presented in Table 3 , it was determined that the most appropriate method to greed bad essay, rank symptoms in a systematic, unbiased, and 2 thesis, interpretable fashion was to compare the symptom prevalence by aggregated sample size thresholds. Three thresholds were constructed for of advertising on children combined samples of greater than 100 patients, greater than 500 patients, and greater than 1,000 patients who were queried for the symptom. Thus the most inclusive threshold was 100 taking into account all symptoms in literature review, which at least 100 patients across studies were queried.
Not included in this analysis then were symptoms such as irritability which was only assessed in qantas letter, a total of 85 patients in chapter literature review, two studies or headache included in only one study of 31 patients. Rank ordering of symptom prevalence by sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 1,000.
Prevalence ordering of symptoms in delinquency, sample 500. Chapter 2 Thesis? Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 100. Qantas Flight Attendant? Rank ordering of symptom severity by sample threshold. Chapter Literature? Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. John Stuart? Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Prevalence ordering of chapter 2 thesis literature, symptoms in sample ?100.
Forty-seven distinct symptoms were reported in the 21 studies of this literature synthesis across different cancers. Most studies employed instruments that assessed for symptoms of greed bad essay, fatigue and chapter review, weakness (100 % of studies), pain (100 % of delinquency, studies), sleep issues (91 % of studies), anorexia and chapter 2 thesis literature, weight loss (91 % of Juvenile Crimes, studies), GI issues such as nausea and vomiting (81 % of literature review, studies), affect issues such as depression and Juvenile Crimes, irritability (76 % of studies), and respiratory issues such as cough and dyspnea (76 % of studies). Fewer studies assessed symptoms related to chapter 2 thesis literature review, urinary elimination issues (19 % of greed bad essay, studies), skin and wound issues (19 % of studies), hot flashes/sweating (14 % of studies), sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies), fever (14 % of studies), and hair loss/appearance (5 % of studies), yet the prevalence and literature, severity of some of greed bad essay, these symptoms was greater than the more commonly assessed symptoms. This disparity is most obvious when evaluating the review prevalence and severity by threshold levels. Nocturia is an example of an infrequently measured symptom that patients report is highly prevalent (74.8 %) and moderately severe (4.07 on scaled of 0–10). Further analysis of the delinquency two studies that assessed for nocturia reveals that one study was completed in literature review, the USA and the other in Turkey, that adequate sample sizes of 220 and 287 were included, and that various cancer sites were involved with lung being the predominant cancer [ 45 , 49 ]. Effects Of Advertising On Children Essay? Given the literature heterogeneous nature of the studies, this finding suggests that nocturia is a symptom that has been infrequently assessed, but which necessitates further systematic evaluation and effects of advertising on children, consideration as a symptom to literature, assess in a broad range of cancers.
Similar arguments can be made for sexual dysfunction [ 45 , 51 ] and stuart essay, cough [ 45 , 46 , 48 , 51 , 53 ] which each were reported by patients in disparate studies (nation, cancer site, and sample sizes) as highly prevalent and literature review, of moderate to high severity. Findings from this literature synthesis are most useful when compared with the research synthesis by Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] Many similarities between the greed bad essay two syntheses exist including the similar mean age of 58 and 59 years, a predominance of 2 thesis literature, heterogeneous cancer diagnoses (62 % and greed bad essay, 50 %), and when reported for US studies, an approximate 18 % non-Caucasian sample. Differences include a greater range of 2 thesis, sample sizes in this present analysis (16–1,433 compared to 26–527) and john mill utilitarianism essay, a greater proportion of females in this analysis (62 % vs. 48 %). Whereas Esther Kim et al. Chapter Literature? limited their review to effects of advertising on children essay, only studies that employed the MDASI, MSAS, or the SDS, this present analysis included studies employing any symptom assessment tools. Chapter Literature Review? Comparison of prevalence statistics between this literature synthesis and Esther Kim et al. Esther Kim et al. prevalence.
Key for symptom assessment in qantas attendant cover letter, the Esther Kim et al. synthesis: MDASI MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, MSAS Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales, SDS Symptom Distress Scale. Chapter Literature? Limitations and john stuart, future directions. As with any literature synthesis, findings must be tempered by acknowledging publication bias as only published manuscripts were included in chapter review, this literature synthesis. Further, because most studies used questionnaires with preselected lists of symptoms (without collection of unsolicited symptoms), any symptoms not included in the lists were not measured. Therefore, systematic under-reporting of symptoms which could be prevalent and severe in a population is possible in the included studies.
An example of this is nocturia, which when elicited was prevalent and severe, but was infrequently systematically assessed in studies. Future studies should included a two-step methodology, starting with qualitative work in which patients in a given population are interviewed in groups or individually to determine likely prevalent and severe symptoms, followed by questionnaire administration in a larger sample. Over-representation of studies in breast, colorectal, and lung cancer may have yielded a disproportionate influence on the results, and work parallel to this paper supported by greed bad essay the NCI is evaluating prevalence and severity of symptoms by cancer type and stage. It is unclear if symptoms reported in this analysis are attributable to the morbidity of chapter review, cancer, to side effects of treatment, to accumulated toxicities of prior treatment, or to delinquency, comorbidities. As previously noted, this is a synthesis of cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies whereby symptoms in the longitudinal studies were average across the measurement times, and review, no control was made for cross-sectional sampling related to the time of symptom measurement (i.e., at diagnosis, following treatment, or at notebook another arbitrary point in 2 thesis literature, time). In addition, attribution is beyond the scope of this paper, but is a salient consideration because the impetus for measuring symptoms in a given clinical trial may be contingent on the cause of the symptom. For example, a trial seeking to qantas cover, evaluate whether a cancer-related symptom improves with active treatment may yield a negative result if the principal driver of measured symptoms is toxicity or comorbidity. Literature? Therefore, any given clinical trial aiming to measure symptoms should provide a rationale specific to effects on children, the population and interventions regarding why particular symptoms were selected, and chapter 2 thesis literature review, their suspected cause and hypothesized direction of Juvenile Crimes, change. This synthesis is literature focused on the prevalence and delinquency, severity of symptoms and did not assess measures of chapter 2 thesis, health-related quality of life domains such as enjoyment of life or physical functioning.
Future work will evaluate these areas. Effects Of Advertising On Children? Symptoms are prevalent and 2 thesis review, severe among patients with cancer. Therefore, any clinical study seeking to evaluate the impact of treatment on patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. Without such an laboratory assessment, the chapter literature picture of the patient experience is incomplete [ 61 ]. Symptoms may be due to various etiologies, and understanding their trajectories in a given context is notebook essential to profiling both the chapter benefits and harms of Juvenile Crimes, treatment. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is common across cancer types. This set may serve as the basis for defining a “core” set of symptoms to chapter, be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Indeed, the NCI is currently engaged in such an activity, which serves as the impetus for delinquency this review.
It is notable that a number of existing multi-symptom questionnaires already include a set of 2 thesis review, pre-specified symptoms. It is the authors’ hope that the laboratory data included in review, this review will assist in greed bad essay, the design of future studies and questionnaires, and in improved methods for assessing the prevalence and 2 thesis literature, severity of symptoms in cancer populations. On Children? The analyses reported in this paper were conducted in chapter literature, conjunction with preparations for on children essay an NCI Clinical Trials Planning Meeting Building Bridges: The Identification of Core Symptom and 2 thesis, Health-Related Quality of Life Domains for Use in Juvenile Crimes, Cancer Research, convened by the National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee. Support from the chapter 2 thesis National Cancer Institute is gratefully acknowledged. Delinquency? The authors have no conflicts to declare, had full control of all primary data, and agree to allow the journal to review the data if requested.
Carolyn Miller Reilly 1 Email author Deborah Watkins Bruner 1 Sandra A. Chapter Review? Mitchell 2 Lori M. Minasian 2 Ethan Basch 3 Amylou C. Dueck 4 David Cella 5 Bryce B. Reeve 3 1. Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing Emory University Atlanta USA 2. National Cancer Institute Bethesda USA 3. University of North Carolina Chapel Hill USA 4. Mayo Clinic Scottsdale USA 5. Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago USA. Published in cooperation with. Published in delinquency, cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. 2 Thesis Literature? .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Customer Relationship Management and chapter 2 thesis literature, Nike Inc. Essay Sample. Web2.0 is effects of advertising a hottest topic among the different companies; many companies using web2.0 application to interact and stay connect with their online customers and chapter literature, users. Moreover its Sales2.0, Marketing2.0, Enetrprise2.0, and Supply Chain 2.0. This research paper is about the on children impact of chapter review, web2.0 technology and how web2.0 helps different departments of organization to provide them benefit in term of business. For this we apply different web2.0 application with different model such as TAM, TPB and Nike inc. Case studies.Web2.0 can helps different companies to achieving their future goals. Juvenile Crimes! Keywords: Nike Inc, TAM, TPB, CRM2.0, Web2.0, SCM2.0 Case Studies. INTRODUCTION: Internet before the concept of the web2.0 is very difficult, in fact it is very tricky to chapter literature, interact with others, internet is only use for different chatting software’s like msn or yahoo messengers, but web2.0 not only changes life for delinquency, consumer, but also useful as a prospectus of organizations. it helps to attach with each other anywhere in the world, web2.0 includes wiki’s, blogs, now a day’s web2.0 providing a lot of chapter 2 thesis review, benefits in different fields in of advertising marketing2.0, sales 2.0, hrm2.0, scm2.0 and according to the (Almeida, 2012)Mostly social networks site like face book, twitter is 2 thesis review more than 100 million visitors in a month. (Almeida, 2012).
For sure at the end of 2015 web3.0 will be introduced which open the new era for the organizations and mill, consumers where the concept of virtual 3d world will appears. Nike is the chapter 2 thesis literature one of the most famous brand in the world, founded in delinquency 1968. It is famous not only for their athletic footwear’s but also making sports bags and others different sports equipments. Nike’s online business is growing day by day, in chapter 2 thesis review 1999 company use website to sale their products online via internet. Today, Nike finds out the new innovative way to become a perfect athletic product and stuart mill, new innovative communication ways to chapter review, interact with their consumers, including becoming an official partner of the National Football League (NFL) starts in 2012. Social CRM/ CRM2.0 is basically software which allows organizations to manage a customer relationship in a organized way, Nike Inc. focusing on CRM2.0 system, to make good and strong relations which their customers, TAM is on other hand according to the sources TAM is all about the adoption and john mill utilitarianism essay, acceptance of 2 thesis review, different IT technologies(Davis, 1989)as summarized by (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011), TAM introduced two concepts, Perceived Usefulness(more related to greed bad essay, the job recital) and Perceived ease of use( more related to the utilize of system, which is easy to manage). (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011) According to the resources Davis; Venkatesh(2000), Introduced TAM2 based on a bases of TAM. There are two types of model (Social Influence Process, Cognitive Instrumental Process), those were very important to understand the study of chapter 2 thesis, acceptance. (Wu et al., 2011), more over Venkatesh (2003), basic aim of the UTAUT is to define the delinquency user how to use IS.
There are four predicators of behavioral objective or usage (Performance Expletory Effort; Social Influence and Condition) (Payng and Curtis, 2008) TPB (Mathies, (1991); todds;Taylor (1995), has been used in different fields of IT and it consists of chapter 2 thesis literature, three variables; Attitudes, Subjective norms, Perceived behavior control. Attitude: It is defined as the positive or negative feeling towards the behavior. Subjective Norms: Subjective norms are strain from others to engage or not engaged with behavior. Perceived Behavior Control: This reflected people’s behavior perceptions of their aptitude to use achieve a given behavior.
Web2.0 introduced in 2004 by Tim O’Reilly, referred second generation of the world wide web, where many new version of notebook, software’s are introduced, it includes wiki, blogs, social networking, According to the research Web 2.0 as a social phenomenon, where marketers thinks how to use a web2.0 in a positive way and build a personal relation with the consumer’s (Parise and Guinan, 2008). Chapter Literature Review! However Nike Inc. use web2.0 not only for their online customer, but also for the Soccer community. LITRATURE REVIEW: Literature review of this report is based on TAM, TPB, CRM2.0 and acceptance of Web2.0. Technology Acceptance Model: According to the Legris; Ingham; Colleretts (2003), TAM was introduced by Davis in 1986, it helps to delinquency, find out the behavior of user towards the IT (Park, 2009), there are two variables of TAM; Perceived Usefulness or Perceived ease to 2 thesis literature, use.
Shown in figure1. Figure1.Framework of technology acceptance model. Davis et.al.(1989), previous researches on Juvenile Crimes, TAM, talks about the user satisfaction or behavior towards the chapter 2 thesis review technologies. Flight Letter! (Venkatesh, Davis and chapter 2 thesis literature review, Morris, 2007) TAM is very useful to comprehend the acceptance of technology and information system, Taylor;Todds (1995), as summarized by (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011), anticipated the effects on children included model of TAM and TPB by the combine name of TAM-TPB (Chih Chen, HanLi and YILI, 2011). THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR: According to the Azjen (1985); Fishbein (1975), as summarized by (Taylor and Todd, 1995), in TPB behavior is more linked with behavior intention and perceived behavioral control is chapter 2 thesis twisted with the stuart mill help of attitudes (Taylor and Todd, 1995) TPB is introduced by Ajzen (1985;1991), many previous studies regarding the TPB is more discussed on Replication and Generalization to different types of behavior (Venkatesh, Davis and Morris, 2007), Mathies (1991); Todds, Tyalor (1995),as summarized by (Taylor and Todd, 1995) TPB has been used in different fields of IT and it has three variables; Attitudes, Subjective norms, Perceived behavior control (Taylor and Todd, 1995). Figure2. Theory of planned behavior. Source: http://www.courseweb.uottawa.ca/pop8910/Outline/Models/Theory%20of%20Planned%20Behavior.htm This report is based on the acceptance of web2.0 in different fields. As you all that there is no specific definition of web2.0 but according to the O’Reily (2000), as summarized by (Leuy, 2009) the revolution in computer industry is caused by to utilize internet as a raised area (Leuy, 2009). Those companies which using web2.0 is more beneficial as compared to the other companies.
Public trader companies that directly sold to their retailers such as Wall Mart and Target (Parise and Guinan, 2008) According to the Mckinsey (2011), use of chapter 2 thesis, world wide web in organization is increasing day by day and organizations by using these technologies improving their systems and find out the new market era Bughin; Manyika;Miller (2008), as summarized by (Miller, 2008), as compared to qantas attendant, the last year many companies in now more involved in chapter 2 thesis review web2.0 technologies, and Juvenile Crimes, those companies who are contented with these technologies now seen the changes all the way throughout the enterprise.(Miller,2008) Mckinsey Quarterly.com shows the survey about the chapter 2 thesis literature web2.0 in 2007 or 2008 , following figure shown web2.0 is more common now days. Now a day’s new type of Web2.0 technologies is using to promising employees requirement and to Juvenile Crimes, interact with customer, suppliers of organizations(Bughin and Chui, 2011) According to another research by (Jacques Bughin ; Michae Chui, 2011), mostly companies now improving their reports by using this effective Web2.0 technology. According to 2 thesis literature, the MckenseyCompany(2009) survey , which shows 69% of the companies getting benefit from web2.0, in a term of low cost with high revenue, efficient marketing, innovative products and services, this shows that web2.0 technology is accepted by other companies because it increasing their revenue, this figure shows using of laboratory, web2.0 technologies. Figure3. Literature! Using of greed bad essay, web2.0 technology.
SOCIAL CRM/ CRM2.0: Before the explaining of 2 thesis review, social CRM system you must know about the concept of basic CRM system, CRM main focus is to same relation with every customers that amalgamate data base knowledge with long term customer relations (Parvatiyar and delinquency, Sheth, 2002), CRM system is mostly used by chapter 2 thesis every companies in various departments such as ; marketing, sales. Qantas Attendant Letter! When we use CRM as Sales it also known as SFA (Sales Force Automation) In 2007 CRM began a revolution and now it known as the social CRM or CRM2.0, according to the Corn score, Face book is a social network and in chapter 2 thesis review 2007 had a 200,000,000 different customers, which shows a new era of communication between the customers and companies, but also a new knowledge as cause from customer approaching. Basically CRM provide a new era to customers that allow them to personalize and share their experience with those who already got benefit from experiences. (Greenberg, 2010). Social Media is more focused on mission, guidelines, but Social CRM related one step further than Social Media, such as marketing, customer responsibilities by implementing cross functional network like sales and customers cares (Baird and laboratory notebook, Parasnis, 2011). The below diagram shows the progress from social media to Social CRM. Figure4. From social media to social CRM Strategy. This research paper is more towards the qualitative work base on journal articles and literature review, case studies, for this referred 35 empirical studies out of which 18 is more relevant to the research, remaining 16 discussed about the different technologies.
2 case studies were taken for essay, this research paper. Mostly journal articles which used in review is electronic and searched from emerald and different academic sites, which talks more about the different technologies e.g. TAM, TBP, CRM2.0 SCM2.0, WEB2.0. FINDINGS AND RESEARCH: The first part of the case study (Co-creating value through customers’ experiences) is more related to the Web2.0 and Social CRM2.0, in 2006 Nike launched social networking site www.joga.com , in partnership with Google. Review! Nike online customers can show their talent, upload videos, commenting, rate on the user spawn content and internet community do voting, more voting announced to be a winner of the month and laboratory notebook, Nike using this feedback for the betterment of their strategies. And sales people can connect with their customers. Nike launched this system because one of their competitors Adidas they using Web2.0 for interact with their customers and chapter literature review, Nike was losing their market share that’s why they launched www.joga.com a Web2.0 system through which they can easily interact with their customers.
After implement this web2.0 systems Nike Inc. got 32 millions downloads and attracted one million customers. This is web2.0 application linked with TAM two variables; Perceived usefulness or Perceived ease to use; in relation to Juvenile Crimes, usefulness joga.com helped Nike to attract more customers and helped them to increase their productivity. This could be outline in the case study as there was 32 million downloads and it attracted one million customers. Moreover this fact could be taken as ease of literature review, use of the qantas flight attendant cover letter technology that this much of customers was attracted. The second part of the case study also related with web2.0 and CRM2.0 technologies, Nike Inc introduced Nike ID from where online customers can easily customize their own sport soccer shoes by literature review putting flags and coloring and Nike Internet community can vote on that design and delinquency, arrange a competition, more voting design will be select as the next season design. Figure5.
Nike ID. From Nike ID website www.nikeid.nike.com I made this sport shoes design and post it on my Facebook page and my friends and other people can do comments and like this my design and chapter review, if my design gets more commenting and liking than other, it will be selected as the greed bad essay next Nike season design. From this strategy Nike better understand about their customers choices what actually they wants This Web2.0 technology is chapter 2 thesis more linked with TAM; perceived usefulness and perceived ease to greed bad essay, use, in chapter review relation to usefulness Nike ID helped them to mill utilitarianism, understand customer needs and wants through which Nike Inc. Chapter 2 Thesis Literature Review! make better relation with their customers. This could be mentioned in case study that they connected with thousand of soccer’s fan around the world. Moreover this detail could be taken as ease of use of the technology. The second case study (implementing of supply chain management and its impact on the value of greed bad essay, firms), which is more related to the failure of web2.0 technology, In 2000 Nike shows that their second quarter revenues increased by 7 % and net income is $0.44 as compared to $108 millions, but shocking news is that Nike faces a problem regarding software which shows more inventory in slower selling shoes because when implementing I2 technology system production was delayed. Stakeholders of Nike did a sue case on the manufacturing company of that technology, after that they apologize from Nike Inc. This is more related to the Theory of literature, planned behavior (TPB) and TAM; TPB has three variables attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, attitudes toward this failure is not acceptable as discussed in case study while implementing this system mostly persons not agree with it, while implementing this failure web2.0 with TAM; perceived usefulness, Nike wants to maintain their inventory stocks and might be because of lack of Juvenile Crimes, training which shows not ease to use of this technology that’s why web2.0 failed. CONCLUSION/ RECUMANDATION:
Web2.0 is proving a lot of oppournities to different organizations in chapter 2 thesis throughout every fields, technology never do this alone. Therefore, companies required to understand how they can fill these gaps, Nike inc. comprehend these gaps and launched different technologies like CRM2.0 which is more related to the web2.0 application, by using these technologies Nike getting benefit in a term of profits. Nike Inc. using Nike ID and www.joga.com make better direct relation with their customers. CRM2.0 is very effective for laboratory, Nike Inc. because CRM2.0 humanize the company which increase the trust of customers on Nike Inc., it allows customers in the hub of company strategies and chapter 2 thesis review, introduced new type of drivers in notebook company strategies. CRM2.0 is a collaboration of web2.0 and CRM, which helps customers to interact and chapter, sharing experience, allow business to understand the customers need and wants in a innovative ways, with the help of CRM2.0 company can build a strong relation with their customers via different applications and mill, continuously communications to improve product eminence and increase customer experience. When Nike inc. launched I2 technology for supply chain, which was totally failed might be because of lack of training and literature review, information within the staff, Supply chain includes two different segments from input to notebook, suppliers and output to consumers, SCM2.0 should concern for these two segments and SCM2.0 is the effective combination of physical and financial, main responsibilities is to give advantages to end users like; customers suppliers. Newly technologies which using in SCM2.0 is RFID and GPS track device, allow computerized data to supply 24/7 time visibility.SCM2.0 is 2 thesis also more related to greed bad essay, functional of web2.0 so that trust between the members can be improved to make a practical team. Almeida, F. Chapter Literature! (2012) ‘Web 2.0 Technologies and Social Networking Security Fears in Enterprises’, (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and attendant, Applications,[Online] vol. 3, no. 2.Available from: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1204/1204.1824.pdf[Accessed: 24-Sep-2012] ANDRIOLE, S. J. Chapter Review! 2010.
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Taylor, S. and Todd, P.A. (1995) ‘Understanding information technology usage: A test of of advertising essay, completing models’, Insitute of chapter 2 thesis literature, Opertional information and Juvenile Crimes, management science, vol. Chapter 2 Thesis! 6, no. 2. Venkatesh, V., Davis, F.D. and Morris, M.G. (2007) ‘Dead or Alive? The development, trajectory and future of technology adoption research’, [online]Information technoogy research insitute, march.Available from: http://vvenkatesh.com/Downloads/Papers/fulltext/pdf/Venkatesh%20et%20al%20JAI. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Customer Relationship Management and Nike Inc. essay editing for only $13.9 per john stuart essay page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
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