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appendix of an essay I am writing my chemistry assignment, complete with equations, diagrams and definitions, and my teacher has recommended that, to save our words, because we have a word limit, to construct an appendix . I am writing my chemistry assignment, complete with equations, diagrams and definitions, and writing, my teacher has recommended that, to save our words, because we have a word limit, to construct an appendix to put, in particular these three things, in. I just want to residues, know how to online, format an appendix; what it should look like and what to put in Assessment it. Some ideas on how to build and writing, use the appendix: It sounds like your Chemistry teacher is giving you license to make an appendix that will work for you and that the format isn't as important. I don't know Chemistry but I do know Algebra, so I'll describe how an Assessment, appendix could work in an Algebra paper and I'll let you get creative with the Chemistry. The purpose of the appendix will be to get rid of duplications of explanations and things in your paper. You'll be able to make mention of a rule in the body of the paper and have the definition in writing essay the appendix.
For example, in my Algebra paper, in showing how to solve a variety of problems, I need to use the Commutative Law (the one that says that #a+b=b+a# ). And so each time in my paper that I want to use the The Role Commutative Law, all I need to say is by the Commutative Law. and so I can avoid describing it each time and, if I can manage it, I can skip steps in my equation solving/examples (I could say Using the Distributive and Commutative Laws we get. Online. ) and in that way save words. To make this work, the way to set up the appendix will be to take the terms you want to use in your paper repeatedly and simply list them in alphabetical order with a brief explanation of what it is. For my Algebra paper, I could have: And if you have a base graph you need to include, and The Role of Educational Assessment, using my Algebra example, perhaps the graph of #y=x# , I can add that in as well: You can put that into writing, the appendix (so in essay attacks in pakistan my example between Associative and Commutative). Writing. It can help to in pakistan, have in the body of the paper those terms you have defined in the appendix highlighted in some manner - perhaps bolded or italicized to writing essay online, let the reader know there is The Role of Educational, more information in the appendix. Make sure when referring to the items in the appendix that you use the term exactly as listed in the appendix. For the base graph of writing essay #y=x# , I'd always want to refer to it in the paper as Base Graph, #y=x# so that it can be found easily. Those are some ideas. I hope it helps and good luck on 7th grade the paper! Appendices are used to present relevant details to writing essay online, the people you want to essay on suicide attacks, present your report/assignment to.. The details must contain or concern the contents of the essay online report/assignment..
Most people/few of them, might likely get tired due to the huge contents of the research given, so the Appendix is likely to impress them to enable them have interest in your work done or also give them more information that is too large to fit in the report.. Assessment. Lets just say, its closely related to writing, Table of Contents, but not exact.. So if you are advised not to good, exceed the word limit, you can use the writing essay Appendix to easily achieve that.. What should it look like #-# Similar to table of contents format, but not always.. What to put in it #-# Only contents concerning the assignment or contents that is very large, but can be reduced to research, few words in a sentence or two.. Videos and questions. How do you format an appendix (in an essay)? Give the answer first, then explain Break answer into small paragraphs Read our guide to great answers.
How do you format an appendix (in an essay)? Give the answer first, then explain Break answer into small paragraphs Read our guide to great answers. Some ideas on how to build and use the essay online appendix: It sounds like your Chemistry teacher is giving you license to make an appendix that will work for you and essay on suicide, that the format isn't as important. I don't know Chemistry but I do know Algebra, so I'll describe how an essay, appendix could work in an Algebra paper and I'll let you get creative with the Chemistry. The purpose of the appendix will be to get rid of duplications of explanations and things in your paper. You'll be able to make mention of a rule in the body of the paper and have the definition in the appendix. For example, in my Algebra paper, in showing how to solve a variety of problems, I need to use the Commutative Law (the one that says that #a+b=b+a# ). And so each time in my paper that I want to use the Commutative Law, all I need to say is by the Commutative Law. and so I can avoid describing it each time and, if I can manage it, I can skip steps in my equation solving/examples (I could say Using the Distributive and Commutative Laws we get. ) and in that way save words.
To make this work, the way to set up the appendix will be to take the terms you want to use in 7th grade research rubric your paper repeatedly and simply list them in alphabetical order with a brief explanation of what it is. For my Algebra paper, I could have: And if you have a base graph you need to include, and using my Algebra example, perhaps the graph of #y=x# , I can add that in as well: You can put that into writing essay online, the appendix (so in my example between Associative and Commutative). It can help to have in the body of the paper those terms you have defined in the appendix highlighted in some manner - perhaps bolded or italicized to let the reader know there is more information in essay the appendix. Make sure when referring to essay, the items in research paper rubric the appendix that you use the writing essay online term exactly as listed in the appendix. For the base graph of of Educational #y=x# , I'd always want to refer to writing essay online, it in the paper as Base Graph, #y=x# so that it can be found easily. Those are some ideas. I hope it helps and good luck on the paper! How do you format an appendix (in an essay)?
Give the answer first, then explain Break answer into small paragraphs Read our guide to great answers. Appendices are used to good life essays, present relevant details to the people you want to present your report/assignment to.. The details must contain or concern the contents of the writing essay online report/assignment.. Most people/few of The Role Assessment them, might likely get tired due to the huge contents of the research given, so the Appendix is likely to impress them to enable them have interest in your work done or also give them more information that is too large to writing essay, fit in the report.. Lets just say, its closely related to Table of Contents, but not exact.. So if you are advised not to research papers, exceed the word limit, you can use the Appendix to writing, easily achieve that.. What should it look like #-# Similar to table of contents format, but not always..
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Major Social Problems of India and other Countries: It’s Causes and Solutions. Major Social Problems of India and other Countries: It’s Causes and writing online, Solutions! We have indicated some of the major social problems dealing with die family education, religion and other institutions of essay on suicide social life. Here we shall consider some other problems facing contemporary society and having far-reaching effects on it; these are the problems of poverty, unemployment, crime and war. Poverty is relative to richness. Poverty is essay online one of the foremost social problems facing India and other countries. John L. Gillin asserted that poverty may be regarded as “that condition in which a person either because of inadequate income or unwise expenditures, does not maintain a scale of living high enough to provide for his physical and mental efficiency and to enable him and his natural dependents to function usually according to writing research papers tips, the standards of society of writing essay online which he is a member.” Poverty exists when one is not able to get sufficient food and necessities of life. According to Goddard, J.G., “Poverty is the insufficient supply of those things which are requisite for an individual to maintain himself and 7th grade rubric, those dependent upon him in health and online, vigour.”Rich and research rubric, poor have always existed in society but historically the existence of poverty did not constitute an important social problem until exchange system and a scale of values came into existence. When trade expanded, some people began to amass wealth leading to essay, its uneven distribution. They started living a luxurious life depriving others of comforts. The members of 7th grade research society began to compare the differences in economic status and look upon themselves as either poor or rich in accordance with the writing, prevailing living standards.
So poverty is considered a problem only when obvious differences in economic status among members of a society are established and comparisons and evaluations of those differences are made. In the absence of Assessment these differences poverty does not exist, even though life may be most precarious. Thus poverty was no problem in the middle ages, even though by modern standards the level of living at online, that time was incredibly low-poverty was simply accepted as inevitable. Poverty is relative to richness. It is only when people feel resentment at their lot as compared with that of of Educational Assessment others that they feel the sting of poverty. In case of extreme privation too they may feel this sting without comparing their lot with that of others. They fail to achieve more than what they have and the awareness of this failure causes resentment of poverty among them. Therefore, it is the attitude of resentment which brings the problem of poverty to the forefront. The primitive people lived a more precarious life but they considered their discomfort as a natural condition, rather than as a problem calling for solution and essay online, hence accepted if without being resentful. People are poor not because of an increase in misery but because of the attitude of resentment at what they do not possess and what others possess. They regard themselves as poor when they feel deprived of what others possess and enjoy.
It is then that poverty becomes a social problem. The standards of poverty judgment are not uniform throughout. According to Adam Smith, “Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, the conveniences and the amusements of life.” In the Western societies people are not poor because they lack the necessities of writing research tips life, such as food, clothing and shelter, but only because their possessions are considered insufficient according to the prevailing standards. Thus the inability to own a radio or an automobile may be, and often is, taken as an indication of poverty. In India, on the other hand, deprivation of the necessities of life constitutes poverty. The possession of radio or automobile is essay a sign of richness. A vast majority of India’s population lives below the subsistence level. Many do not get two meals a day; they pass their nights on pavements and live half clothed. How poor we are!
In India, poverty is a foremost social problem. Nothing to speak of comforts the people here is deprived even of the basic necessities of life. According to the United Nations Human Development Report for 1990, 48. Percent of the country’s population live below the poverty line; though as per Planning Commission 29.9 per cent of the 7th grade research paper rubric, Population is below the poverty line as per essay online, new methodology. The poverty line is drawn at Rs. Good? 49.9 per capita per month (1973-74 prices) in the rural area and an income of Rs. 56.44 per capita per month in online the urban area. Thesis In Antibiotic In Milk? In America the average income is Rs. 9196, in England Rs. Writing? 3858, and in Australia it is Rs. 4207.
Thus an American earns thirty three times more income to that of an Indian. Each year India adds about 5 million people to the growing multitude of poor. Poverty is on suicide attacks in pakistan more pronounced among the lower classes and in writing online the rural areas. What are the causes underlying poverty? According to Henry George, the main cause of poverty is the personal ownership and monopoly of the Individual on the land.
He writes, “In the great cities, where land is so valuable that it is measured by the foot, you will find the extremes of poverty and of luxury. And this, disparity in condition between the masters in nursing without thesis, two extremes of the social scale may always be measured by the price of land.” According to Marx, the main cause of poverty is the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists. According to Malthus, Increasing population is the cause of poverty. These thinkers however laid emphasis on one particular cause of poverty. As a matter of fact the causes of poverty are numerous and complex. Some of the causes are personal while others are geographical, economic and social. It is the task of an essay, economist to analyse them in detail. We shall not make any attempt to analyse them. The Gillins listed three factors as primarily responsible for poverty: (i) Incapacity of the individual, which may be due to a faulty heredity or to the environment; (ii) Unfavourable physical conditions, such as poor natural resources, bad climate and weather, and epidemics, and.
(iii) Maldistribution of wealth and of income and the imperfect functioning of our economic Institutions. Of these three factors the of Educational, last two factors are principally responsible for poverty in India. Ours is a country rich in natural resources, but we have not yet adequately exploited them. A vast area of land remains uncultivated. Our means of cultivation are old styled resulting in less production.
Industries are not well developed; a vast portion of essay population depends on agriculture. And in addition to its wealth is unevenly distributed due to bad economic planning which even leads to wastage. The lot of the poor people cannot improve except through economic development. There is life essays imperative need for drastic economic reforms. Essay Online? The progress we have made has fallen short of our plan targets. The malaises are many. The over- bureaucratisation, excessive control over Industrial sector and undue importance given to public sector without ensuring its profitability and now the lack of firm political leadership due to a fractured mandate have pushed the country back compared to many emerging nations.
Closely associated with the problem of poverty is the problem of unemployment because when people remain idle they become poor. If there are needs to The Role Assessment, be satisfied, then men must be employed in satisfying them. Unemployment leads not only lo suffering and privation but also affects adversely the social organisation which is the main interest of Sociologists. Defining unemployment, Karl Pribram has written that “Unemployment is a condition of the writing essay, labour market in which the thesis in antibiotic residues in milk, supply of labour is writing online greater than the 7th grade paper, number of available openings.” According to Fairchild, “Unemployment is forced and involuntary separation from remunerative work or the part of the essay online, normal working force during normal working time, at essays, normal wages and under normal conditions.” According to Chapman, unemployment is of two kinds: (i) Subjective unemployment, and. (ii) Objective unemployment. Subjective unemployment is caused by physical and mental diseases of the individual. Objective unemployment is writing online of four types: (i) Seasonal unemployment, (ii) Cyclical unemployment: (iii) Structural unemployment, and. (iv) Normal unemployment. In addition to these forms of unemployment there may also be agricultural unemployment, technological unemployment and educational unemployment.
Though unemployment is universal but in India it is writing papers tips more marked. The number of total unemployed youth with at least matriculation qualification is put about at five million. This included about 1.5 million unemployed graduates. A study undertaken by the Manpower Division of the Directorate of Employment Exchange, Ministry of Labour and Employment of the online, pattern of unemployment among graduates showed that about 93 per cent of the unemployed graduates seeking employment were men and about 7 per cent women. 48.5 per cent of the essay on suicide, unemployment graduates were B.A’s. 22.7 B. Sc’s and writing essay, 12.8 per cent B. Com’s. Unemployment is also widespread among the professionally trained like engineers, doctors and other technically qualified people. No reliable figures are available about unemployment among the illiterate people-those who earn their bread through daily wages. The statistics maintained by the Employment Exchanges do not give any exact idea of the level of thesis in antibiotic residues in milk unemployment because firstly, the Employment Exchanges cover mainly urban areas, secondly, because all the unemployed people do not get themselves registered and, thirdly, because some of the registrants are already employed and seek better jobs. Causes of Unemployment Economists have explained the causes of unemployment and its cumulative tendencies.
They have distinguished between the ‘frictional’ unemployment due to a change over from one job to another and the Immobility of those who do not feel inclined to move away to a strange district to essay, find work on the one hand and masters thesis, unemployment due to more profound economic dislocation on the other. New inventions take jobs away from men before new jobs are created. Also, much unemployment is caused by business depressions which arise because production moves faster than purchasing power. Unemployment, then, represents changes in business conditions which come more quickly than changes in population. In India the problem of unemployment among the educated youth is assuming serious proportions. As discussed earlier the faulty system of essay online our education has been responsible for it. We are admitting thousands of young boys and girls to the institutions of higher learning without any prospects of employment for them. Even the technical people like engineers, doctors, and those trained in specialized jobs are without employment. Unemployment is a great cause of social disorganisation.
The crisis in Indian Society today is good life experience essays largely a crisis of finding suitable jobs for the millions who join institutions aimlessly and come out of them only to suffer frustration outside and become deviant. Writing Essay? Unless and until employment opportunities increase fast enough, poverty cannot be removed. Associated with the problems of poverty and unemployment is the problem of beggary which is a social problem of great magnitude and grave concern in developing and under developed countries where it exists in a crude form but the developed countries also are not immune from it where it exists in Assessment less degree. Begging is a curse both for the individual beggar and the society. The beggar suffers from writing a sense of humiliation, shame and leads a life of squalor and filth. Beggary is a problem for attacks children beggars. For them it is an undesirable environment in which to grow up.
It implies undernourishment and essay online, inadequate opportunities for education. It means idleness, bad company and delinquency. Begging is without a problem for essay society in as much as a large number of beggars means non-utilization of available human resources and a drag upon the existing resources of the society. Beggars are also a public health hazard. They are often carriers of infection and 7th grade research paper rubric, disease. They are marginal social group and have been found to be associated with the activities of the underworld. Probably, India is the only country in the world where lakhs of its population wander about the streets, public places, markets, temples, bus stands, railway stations and even in moving trams with perfect freedom, living on online, the spontaneous unorganized charity of the individual citizen. Though beggars may be found in other parts of the civilized world, here the public tolerates persistent, open and methodical bagging in writing research public places without hindrance.
While in the West, the writing essay online, beggar begs on the sly and the citizen gives alms with a feeling of remorse. In India the beggar begs importunately with the essay on suicide, attitude of essay one demanding his daily wages or with the contentment of one proudly carrying on masters without thesis, his parental profession. The citizen, in his turn doles out his charity with religious sanction and the self-satisfaction of doing a good deed. It may not be possible to give a precise definition of beggar The beggar in England is described as consisting of every person wandering abroad or placing himself or herself in any public place, street, highway, court or passage, to beg or gather alms or causing or procuring any child or children (under 16) to do so. In India a person who has no ostensible means of subsistence or who cannot give a satisfactory account of himself is regarded as a destitute, vagrant or a beggar. (Criminal Procedure Code Section 55(1)). The definition of beggary can be found in the vagrancy Acts of essay some of the states of India. On the basis of the paper rubric, provisions of these acts a person to be labelled as a beggar should satisfy these conditions: (i) He lives by soliciting alms in any public place, temple or mosque, private premises, public street, road or thoroughfare, or place of public resort, hotels bus-stops, pavements or markets etc., for the maintenance of himself or his family. (ii) He wanders from writing online door to masters, door, exhibits or exposes sores, wounds, bodily ailments or deformities or makes fraudulent pretences of them or allows himself to writing online, be used as an exhibit for exciting pity for seeking alms. (iii) He is masters in nursing without without any visible means of subsistence.
Beggars, have been classified into various categories. According to Dr. Kumarappa, beggars can be classified under the following heads: (i) The child beggar, who may be a paid or an unpaid assistant of the adult beggar. (ii) The physically defectives, including the blind, the deaf, mute, the crippled, the writing online, maimed and deformed. Besides these, there are the chronically under-nourished and those afflicted with various organic troubles, or weakness of the vital organs. (iii) The mentally defectives, including a large proportion of the destitute, immoral, delinquent and criminal population. (iv) The diseased persons, suffering from infections, diseases such as leprosy, epilepsy, T.B., venereal diseases and skin diseases, with sores and ulcers covered with plasters on which myriads of flies settle and feed. (v) The able-bodied, who considers begging as his birth-right and life essays, bullies, harasses and troubles the public into giving them alms, and who are lazy and roam about in the cities. They beg by day and turn into essay thieves and robbers by night. (vi) The religious mendicants, so familiar is the figure of the Sanyasi, the Yogi, the Sadhu, the Bairagi, the Fakir and the Darvesh with all the paraphernalia of saffron robe, wood-bead-necklace and bowl in hand. (vii) The bogus mendicants, who are able-bodied laymen and who have no affiliation with any religious order whatever, but like to get on without work, don the garb of a Fakir or a Sadhu and profit by the generosity of the unsuspecting and religious minded orthodox people.
(viii) The tribal beggars, who move about from place to place singing and reciting local songs and begging. Among this class may be included the seasonal vagrant and the permanent vagrant. The seasonal vagrant comprise those migratory casual labourers who work on the fields or on some trade on craft in their native village during the season and in the off season migrate to larger cities where they live on thesis in antibiotic in milk, footpaths or open maidens and maintain themselves by begging or stealing. The permanent vagrants are the migratory non-workers. They are purposeless wanderers who beat their way from place to place, begging for food, getting in any way they can and carefully avoiding rendering and online, useful service to the society. (ix) The employed beggars are the persons who work in night shifts in mills and factories and go out begging during the day. Beggary constitutes a very complex social problem at the root of which can be traced a multitude of masters in nursing causes that conspire to produce the individual beggar. It is also intimately related with other social problems such as unemployment, intemperance, poverty, crippling diseases, leprosy, lack of provision of old age, security, disruption of joint family and writing essay online, mental derangement. Furthermore, in a country like India, where religion sanctions the formation of mendicant orders and also prescribes charity and public sympathy for mankind for one’s own elevation, the problem of beggary assumes greater complications. In a survey of the Beggar Problem in Greater Bombay, Dr. Moorthy has mentioned the in milk, following causes, giving rise to beggary:
Over-population with consequent pressure on land and inability of land to writing online, support the people ; System of land tenure ; tyrannical landlordism ; subdivision of holding coupled with large families and unprofitable methods of farming ; Debts ; Famines, floods and epidemics which weaken the community or impose hardships ; family breakdown ; economic and emotional disabilities imposed on a man or woman after desertion ; chronic and pernicious diseases ; physical and mental handicaps ; truancy and delinquency ; inability to secure a job ; unwillingness to work ; religious bias and residues, vow binding one to the mendicant order; anti-social attitudes and writing online, child lifting ; lack of facilities for life experience the welfare of the unattached, abandoned and disabled ; lack of facilities for training for employment ; lack of social security and absence of social responsibility ; attractions of city life, linked with the possibility of easy and ticketless travel ; and the general outlook on life which inclines one to believe in destiny.” Most of the civilized countries of the essay, World have long prohibited begging in thesis in milk public and declared it an offence under the law, whereas England began her Poor Law Relief as early as the reign of Queen Elizabeth from the writing essay online, beginning of the 17th century, Japan has enacted social laws to care for on suicide her aged and infirm in State and Municipal Homes, and writing essay online, begging in Japan is scarce as in countries like Great Britain and Germany. But beggars still stalk the streets of China, India, Muslim and other countries of the Near, Middle and ‘Far East and essay on suicide, even some of the smaller eastern European countries though all have realized the fact that the essay, beggar problem can never be solved by private charity, however profuse and that State intervention and legislation are necessary if the of Educational Assessment, allied problems of begging, destitution and vagrancy are to be effectively tackled. Special Acts have been passed by most of the states in India to prohibit beggary in essay public places. To deal effectively with persons who kidnap children for the purpose of exploiting them for begging. The Indian Penal Code (Section 263-A) makes kidnapping or obtaining custody of minor and maintaining of good life a minor for the purpose of begging specific offences and provides for deterrent punishment which may extend to life imprisonment where children are maimed. These laws follow a more or less uniform pattern, viz.— (1) They prohibit and penalize begging in public places. (2) Most of them distinguish juveniles from able bodied and disabled beggars, and writing online, commit juvenile to the jurisdiction of the Children Act and the able-bodied to writing papers tips, workhouses and the disabled to special homes, if available. (3) Most of writing online them are operative in areas on notification by the Government and some of them only if there are special homes and workhouses. (4) All of them penalize escape or violation of discipline with imprisonment. There are institutions in the states for the custody, and assistance of the beggars in experience essays their rehabilitation.
The inmates of these homes are provided with food, clothing and education, facilities for physical, cultural and vocational training. Mere legislative enactments would not stop the evil. Other measures need to be taken to root out and lessen this menace: (i) The old attitude that charity blesseth him who gives and him who taketh should be abandoned, for it demoralizes both. (ii) As begging is an offence, the giver of the charity is a part of writing essay it and should be equally liable to punishment, even as the bribe-giver is as guilty as the bribe taker. (iii) When begging is declared prohibited, it is necessary to guarantee the beggars and their dependents an alternative and life experience essays, equally paying employment. (iv) Social security services should be developed to look after the innocent dependents. At present the criminal law seems to reward the criminal with social security and penalize the innocent with social insecurity.
(v) As there are different causes and situations of beggary the institutional treatment has to be adjusted to the different categories of beggars. Poor Houses should have an infirmary for the disabled and diseased and essay, other suffering from non-infectious diseases. Child beggars should have a department where they may be taught to read and write and become self-supporting. Of Educational Assessment? There should be a Work-House or an Agricultural colony for the able-bodied never-do-wells who live by lying and blackmailing. (vi) Provision of after-care and follow-up should be a legal obligation. Development of placement agencies and after-care hostels, marriage guidance bureau in case of female beggars and setting up of establishments for online the deformed and physically handicapped and leprosy patients should be the first duty of the social welfare departments and social welfare agencies. (vii) Considering the fact that among the good life essays, large population of beggars in India a good man suffers from writing hereditary defects as are likely to be transmitted to their children, it would be desirable to provide for the sterilization of such persons. In sum, it may be concluded that in spite of a plethora of writing enactments adopted by different states, the Police Acts, Municipal Acts and writing online, the Indian Railways Act, beggary goes on good life, unchecked, assuming serious dimensions, leading to immeasurable crimes.
The solutions of the problems call for a comprehensive programme and reorientation of the existing programmes. Philanthropic approach to beggar problem should be replaced by therapeutic and rehabilitative work, and a positive attitude towards work should be developed among the able-bodied beggars. Crime or delinquency is a great social problem facing every society. According to C. Darrow, “Crime is an act forbidden by the law of the land and for writing which penalty is prescribed.” According to research, Barnes and online, Teeters, “Crime is research paper rubric a form of anti-social behaviour that has violated public sentiment to such an extent as to be forbidden by statute.” Crime is the omission of an act which the writing online, law of the land asks to in milk, do or commission of an act which it forbids to do. The law may be written or unwritten. When the law is not written then crime is generally recognized as transgressions against the traditions or mores of the writing essay, community.
Crime, therefore, may be regarded as behaviour of individuals which the group strongly disapproves. And since societies do not have uniform standards of right and masters in nursing without thesis, wrong and writing essay online, since these standards change in 7th grade a society from time to time, criminal behaviour is writing online relative and not absolute. Crime is the price paid for the advantage of civilization. Thesis In Antibiotic? Crime is said to be a major social phenomenon of modern civilized and advanced societies. Though there was crime in primitive societies too but therein it was not a major social problem. In primitive societies, the mores are strong enough to control the writing online, individual behaviour effectively, and the few who disobey the rules do not constitute a threat to the community.
In modern civilized societies, as we saw elsewhere, the influence of mores has lessened and it is difficult to compel universal observance of mores. The modern societies have a population which is heterogeneous in racial and cultural background and is differentiated into various classes. They have several norms of conduct which often clash with one another; and have limited control over the behaviour of their members. In primitive societies called backward there was a single code of beliefs and customs, the culture was static and homogeneous and there was little institutional disorganisation and a minimum class-differentiation. Naturally there was little crime among primitive tribes and in simple folk societies. But like many other social problems of our modern society, crime also is the price we have to pay for the advantages of civilization.
In India, there are no dependable figures on thesis, crime. The available statistics cover only those arrested and convicted, or the crime known to the police and even these figures are not reliable. What is more serious is the white-collar crime which amounts several times more than the conventional type of writing essay online crime. By white-collar crimes we mean the crimes committed by the upper strata of society in their business and Assessment, professional practices. The Securities scam, the sugar scam, the writing online, Telecom scam and the fodder scam are the recent examples. Racketeering, black-marketing, tax evasion, adulteration and corruption are some of the crimes committed by the white-collar men frequently which have assumed serious proportions threatening the entire social fabric. What is a more sorry state of affairs is that the racketeers, black-marketers, smugglers, tax-evaders and good life, bribe takers exert considerable political influence and have entered the legislatures.
The public seems willing to support their activities through extensive patronage. Our moral sense is at low ebb. From the crime statistics or from newspaper reports we can obtain only a slight idea as to the prevalence of writing crime in the country. In Antibiotic Residues In Milk? We would not be guilty of exaggeration if we say that in India crime has increased steadily in writing recent years. Moreover, the in nursing without, data from the penal institutions show that a large percentage of inmates are repeaters reflecting the failure of our society to rehabilitate the criminal. The country spends several crores of writing essay rupees in detecting, convicting and guarding the criminals, yet crime goes on increasing day by day.
If we in India place a high value on wealth, prestige, and political power regardless of the in antibiotic, way in which they are acquired and if the leaders refuse to writing online, abide by of Educational Assessment laws which they wish to be enforced against other persons, then, of course, we cannot expect the incidence of crime to go down. The sociologists are not unanimous on the point. Often the measures advocated are based upon a particular theory regarding the cause of crime. The most accepted view is that the causes of crime are multiple and no single theory can explain all the causes. These causes are biological, psychological, social and essay, economic. Among the biological causes we may include insanity, physical disability, defective glandular and nervous system. The psychological causes may be neurosis, psychopathy and emotional instability. The social causes are social disorganisation, social competition, social mobility, conflict, defective social institutions, lack of education, sexual literature, cultural lag and war. The economic causes are economic competition, poverty, unemployment, desire for more wealth, unlimited desires, industrialization, poor natural resources, inflation etc. The reasons for a person’s is having committed a crime can be discovered only after investigating his personality and environment.
According to Elliot and Merrill, ‘The factors in relation to the whole, rather than the in nursing thesis, sum of the single isolated factors, must be considered in any satisfactory analysis.” Some criminologists, such as Bonger believe that only a completely renovated society, one in which there is no capitalism, can solve the problem of crime. Others, who do not go to essay, this extreme, advocate reformatory rather than retaliative or deterrent treatment of the criminals. Ostensibly the reform of the criminal is the main motive in his treatment today. In India various means are being explored for giving a better treatment to papers tips, the criminal inside the jail. He is being provided with more and better amenities of life. Besides sufficient food, bedding and clothing he is also provided with recreational facilities. Indoor and outdoor games are played and tournaments are arranged in which teams from outside often participate. Even radios have been installed in some of the penal institutions.
The present prison administration in the country guarantees a prisoner better food, clothing, medical attention and recreational facilities than what are available to a poor honest man outside. Of the success of these measures it is impossible to speak with any certainty. We cannot say whether these measures have been responsible for the cure of such criminals who do not reappear before the court or they have simply given up crime by a process of social maturation. Writing? However, it is universally recognised that punishin6rit does not reform the criminal. Whether or not it deters potential criminals is open to debate.
The problem of war constitutes probably the most serious threat to society today. The havoc wrought by the last two world wars has made men dreadful of it. The clouds of The Role of Educational Assessment a third world war till recently hovering up in the sky have now somewhat lessened due to the extinction of U.S.S.R. from the globe. Why does war take place? There are two main classes of writing essay online theory: economic and psychological. Masters In Nursing Thesis? The former sees the online, causes of war in the clash of 7th grade paper economic interests, the latter in the nature of man. In the past the economic causes were comparatively simple; the expansion of empire brought booty and tribute, huge movements of people pushed their way from central Asia into Europe, Egypt, India and China. In our own times the economic causes are complex.
Modern war does not have booty or tribute in view because sometimes colonial war’s end merely in the occupation of the conquered territory. Writing? Hobson and the Marians take the line that war is the outcome of imperialism and that imperialism is the inevitable outcome of capitalism. In the Boer war and in the Russo-Japanese war the thesis in antibiotic residues, imperialist economic factors played a part.’ Another view is that the autocratic restriction of trade, and the erection of barriers impeding the flow of writing goods from one country to another, is the residues in milk, cause of war. Thus the economic causes of modern wars are different. In nature from essay online those of the ancient wars. However, it would be wrong to suppose that economic factor alone is the cause of war. People must be ready to in antibiotic, fight before war can be started. Essay? Man is aggressive by nature, though the degree of aggressiveness among peoples, both in primitive and in civilized societies, varies considerably. Between 3,000 B.C. and 1992 there were 14,541 wars; in all that time there were only 292 years of peace. Between 1945 and 1992, our planet experienced not less than 35 fair sized wars Including the rubric, Iraq war. To these may be added 30 or more minor revolts, civil wars, and online, other small conflicts, for a total of more than 60.
France seems to be more aggressive than other countries. Quincy Wright, in his ‘The causes of writing papers tips War and writing, the Conditions of Peace’ noted that since the beginning of the seventeenth century European states fought about 2300 battles. France was Involved in 49 per in antibiotic residues, cent of them. Writing? Austria, Hungary in 35 per cent, and other countries in lesser degrees. Sorokin, in his Social and Cultural Dynamics stated that in 1950 years the French were at war 80 per cent of the time; in thesis in antibiotic residues period of 875 years the English were at war 72 per cent of the time; and in 275 years, the writing, Germans were at war 29 per cent of the time. The causes of war lie not only in economic Interests and aggressive Instinct but also are found in certain other factors. These are the desire for 7th grade power and glory, the Identification of the Individual with the prestige of his group, the sense of insecurity in modern economic life, the resentment left behind by former wars, and the tendency of the people to writing online, leave the event to take their course. H. T. Mazumdar mentions seven circumstances under which wars flourish. (1) Unbridled sovereignty of states, (2) Power Politics, (3) The empire system either of the colonial or the thesis in antibiotic, totalitarian satellite variety. (4) Denial of freedom to certain nations, (5) Racial inequality, (6) Absence of even-handed justice to all alike, (7) Non-existence of essay machinery for peaceful change.
The effects of modern war upon society are varied and profound. While the wars of the pre-modern period were conflicts between groups that were both politically and socially discrete, modern wars are physical conflicts between politically discrete but otherwise interdependent states. They, therefore, injure both the victor and the vanquished and impose an increasingly heavy burden on all modern people. No doubt war has been a common place of human history and certain benefits are derived from masters without war, but these benefits have been completely overshadowed by the untold sufferings and miseries that accompany it. The social costs of a modern war are many and writing, impressive. 7th Grade? It causes mental derangement in the armed services by creating strains on the minds of the soldiers. During war all the important social institutions such as family, school and church become subordinated to the state and the army. The traditional functions of these institutions are neglected. Family, suffers the severe jolt, war separates many husbands and wives, encourages hasty and often ill-considered marriages and prevents many parents from providing the parental supervision that they would otherwise give to their children.
For many reasons, a relaxation of sex morality occurs in a nation at war. War propaganda distorts the minds of writing online individuals and stirs up feelings of hatred, turning whole nations into mobs. Instead of writing research papers tips calling forth our noble sentiments, war brings out in us the meanest and most brutal traits. People become brutalized as a result of relentless struggle in which no respect is shown for human dignity and online, life. Crimes against the state become the norm rather than the exception. The growth of war-occasioned political restrictions places a great strain upon thesis in milk, the citizen’s respect for essay law.
Many resent these restrictions. “Black-markets” flourish. The government becomes less efficient and there is popular revulsion against governmental controls. In addition to these evil effects upon the minds and hearts of people war leads to waste-less expenditure of The Role Assessment a huge amount of money. The First World War is estimated to writing, have cost more than $400,000,000,000. The official estimate of the total cost of the Second World War Is $1,116,991,463,034 to which should be added an estimated cost of property damaged amounting to $230,900,000,000.
The United States spent about $ 250,000,000 a day during most of the war: the total amounted to about $ 400,000,000. James H. S. Borsard estimated that the cost of killing a soldier was 75 cent in the Roman wars, $ 3,000 in writing research papers tips the Napoleonic War, $ 5,000 in the Civil War, $ 21,000 in the First world War, and $ 50,000in the essay, Second world War. These costs of war are exceeded by subsequent expenditures such as pensions, insurance and veterans’ bonuses. Barnes calculated that with the money spent on the First World War the following peacetime benefits could have been achieved : a $2,500 house, stocked with $ 1,000 worthy of furniture for every family in masters without England, France, Belgium, Germany, Russia, the writing essay, United States, Canada, and Australia, a $ 5,000,000 library and $ 10,000,000 university for masters in nursing without thesis every city of writing online 200,000 inhabitants in these countries; a fund, which, at 5 per cent interest would yield a sufficiently large sum to pay $ 1,000 annually indefinitely to 125,000 teachers and 125,000 nurses; and a remaining sum to buy all the property and wealth in France and Belgium. It can be easily calculated what could have been achieved with the in milk, approximately one and a quarter trillion dollars spent by all belligerents on the Second World War, plus the nearly four trillion dollars in economic losses, including property destruction.
Besides, war causes the disorganisation of the writing essay online, internal economy. There is good life essays inflation in the country and national indebtedness increases. Essay Online? Inflation and public indebtedness tend to discourage production. Taxes on the people increases which again discourages productive effort. Moreover, an additional drain upon post-war economy results from the need to make some provision for the families of the good life experience essays, dead wounded or otherwise rendered incapable soldiers. Writing Essay Online? In short, war reduces the productivity of a nation and at the same time creates a class that is composed of those businessmen who have managed to make an unconscionable financial profit out of the war itself.
This new leisure class is one which draws from but contributed nothing to the productivity of the thesis in antibiotic residues, nation. As said above, even the online, winner of the war stands to lose greatly. There is no possibility of in nursing securing from the defeated economic compensation for the costs of victory. Territorial gains hardly add much to the productivity of the nation. Sometimes they may even be economic liabilities.
The victorious nation for ideological reasons is impelled to aid in the economic rehabilitation of writing essay those whom it has defeated. War also disrupts international economy. It disrupts international trade, breaks up the old system of trade relationships and brings about new forms of international economic disequilibrium. It upsets the international financial structure and results in a host of unplayable and trade discouraging international debts. The aftermath of every modern war has been stagnation in international trade. How can wars be abolished? It is strange to thesis in antibiotic residues, see that as a means of keeping the peace among its many citizens while the modern state is without peer, in its relations with other states it is the primary breaker of the peace of the world. In its relations with other states the role and the function of the state is entirely reversed. The peace maintaining state then becomes the militant nation, its citizens as in group becomes opposed to the citizens of all other states. The solution to war, if any, lies in an exhaustive scientific study of the various factors leading to war.
The problem of war cannot be solved merely by pious wishes. The United Nations cannot solve the essay online, problem until a scientific research into the problem is made, until more knowledge about human relations is made available. As we have seen above, there is no event that is more disruptive to the normal lives of the essay, people than the advent of war. More is spent by writing modern states on defence than for roads, public services, education and other things that might contribute to paper, the welfare of the citizens. Yet war has been subjected to essay, less real scientific study. Some people place the responsibility for war on the shoulders of a single man, the recognised leader of the thesis in milk, nation who is said to have precipitated the conflict. Thus, Napoleon is considered the evil genius who caused all the havoc and writing, devastation of the early nineteenth century Europe.
Similarly Kaiser is considered to have brought the First World War. Hitler the Second. That no single individual, however great his role in 7th grade rubric the making of historical events, can bring about essay online, a war of his own volition and is apparent. The personal interpretation of war is no more valid than the personal interpretation of any social phenomenon. Therefore, war cannot be abolished by the execution of the person or persons supposed to have caused the war. Another version of the causes of war is that it is caused by the evil genius of an inherently war like people. Some people carry “bad blood” which is the cause of good war. Thus, the online, proposal to eradicate the 7th grade research paper, war put forward was to exterminate such people who initiated the war.
But this view also does not hold valid. The fact that people who at one period was militant ceased to be militant afterwards is writing sufficient to disprove this view. The Swiss were the terror during the fifteenth century; Spain was the most militant power during the sixteenth; Britain and France shared the seventeenth and much of the The Role, eighteenth. Then the Germans took to war. That various nations at various times have been exceedingly militant is obvious, but that this militancy has anything to do with the biological characteristics of the people of these nations is not true. Recently nations which have started war have tried to essay online, justify their undertaking.
This effort to justify the making of war itself shows that war is considered bad. Some have justified war on the ground of economic necessity while others have justified it on the ground of manifest destiny. The economic justification was based upon of Educational Assessment, the belief that war was the essay, only means for correcting the existing international misdistribution of the research paper rubric, world’s wealth. Prior to 1940, for example, many people in Britain and writing essay, America believed that Germany and Japan deserved a larger share of the world’s wealth and that if Germany and Japan could not secure it otherwise, they were justified in good essays taking their share by war. There is no gainsaying the fact that the nations differ greatly in regard to their national wealth and standard of living and that the writing essay online, territorial division of the world has come about by The Role of Educational Assessment historical accident and incident rather than in accordance with some abstract principles of economic justice. But these facts are ignored by the advocates of have-not argument. The first is that making of a modern war is so costly that it is writing essay not a poor man’s business.
The poor and impoverished people cannot set out to conquer the world. The second fact ignored is papers tips that the pre-war Germans enjoyed a higher standard of living than either the Poles or the writing essay, Russians whom they attacked. The third fact is that no nation has been able ‘o improve its economic welfare via war. Every nation that has attempted to do so has lost and thesis in antibiotic in milk, lost heavily. As said above even the victor nation loses heavily. They who have sought to justify war on the ground that a nation is destined by God to rule the nation whom it proposes to conquer on the ground of writing essay online their being the “best people” are also clearly wrong.
We have already shown the hollowness of the view that some men by nature are ‘supermen’ and sent by God to rule over the less fortunate ones. Thus, any single theory to research, explain the causes of war and abolish it is not satisfactory. The factors that actually enter into the making of modern wars are many and varied. The underlying cause is the marked functional disequilibrium between the political organisations of the writing essay, states and their economic and 7th grade research, other relationships. Inspite of the fact of growing interdependence of the nations the perpetuation of nationalism has prevented the birth of an effective international order. Online? We live in twentieth century world that is politically sub-divided in terms of eighteenth century conditions.
The consequence is that stresses within and between political units lead from time to time to conflict and war. As referred to above, the territorial division of the world is a product of historical accident and has little functional relation to technological, economic and other aspects of society. The boundaries of a nation are arbitrary. Research Paper? National sentiments have precluded people from writing essay online uniting in one political organisation. Having been prisoners of antecedent conditions which gave birth to the nation-state and which nourish the nation-state, we are unable to thesis, find a creative approach towards peace. Most men want peace, out few are willing to grant the writing essay online, power aims of another nation when these aims thwart or destroy the policies of their own nation. Given the worship of the nation-state men have failed to bring in peace. Both war and peace need to be viewed as dynamic processes, not as static events.
Unless the barriers of nationalism break down and durable forms of international political organisation develop, there will be constant conflict between nations that will culminate from time to time in war. Machinery for peaceful change and a new consensus regarding the irrelevance of brute force methods have to rubric, be created. Mr. C.E. M. Joad says. “My case is writing essay online that war is not something that is inevitable, but is the result of certain man-made circumstances, that man, who made the in antibiotic, circumstances in which wars flourish, can abolish, them as he abolished the circumstances in which plagues flourish.” However, since the writing essay, formation of an international political organisation with a world constitution is of Educational confronted with serious difficulties and is not feasible in the foreseeable future it appears as if the humanity is not going to get rid of the menace of war during the next few decades. Even if a world war does not occur, local wars between two or more states will continue to writing online, take place. Man has been since the dawn of civilization applying his mind to find out a solution to the problems which he met in the company of masters in nursing thesis his fellowmen. In the primitive days he employed the method of trial and writing essay online, error and frequently resorted to magic and supernatural powers. This was in accordance with his concept of causes of social problems.
Two Methods Remedial and Preventive: The modern man does not deal with the social problems through magic or supernatural forces but instead undertakes a scientific analysis of social problem. The modern approach at present is more realistic and promises to be more effective. There are two current methods to rubric, deal with social problems—remedial and preventive. The remedial method treats the symptoms or consequences of a problem instead of the underlying causes. The preventive method makes painstaking research to find out all the writing essay online, facts underlying each problem before taking a preventive action. Experience Essays? Undoubtedly, if the social problem can be checked at essay online, its source, it is the best cure; but the remedial method is now the residues in milk, more common method. Reformers, seeking solutions to social problems either through remedial or preventive method, have belonged, according to Phelps, to a variety of types through the ages. They have been drawn from the ranks of fanatics, well intentioned persons, opportunists, sentimentalists, laymen, scholars, professional bodies and political leaders. From the standpoint of writing essay online solutions advocated by them they may be classified into prohibitionists, diet-faddists, fundamentalists, eugenics. Blue-law advocates, Salvationists, spiritualists, etc.
Some reformers advocate an immense variety of cure-all remedies for ushering in the millennium, for example, a few of them see in “education”: or “better educational opportunities” the research papers tips, solution to most or all of essay our social problems. Henry George advanced the single tax plan (a tax on thesis, land), and A.E. Wiggin regarded the writing online, biological improvement of the race and 7th grade research, prevention of the propagation of the physically and mentally unfit as the solution to most social ills. Karl Marx regarded the capitalist system as the writing online, cause of thesis in milk our problems and held communism as the only way out of most of our problems. Ward regarded universal education and dissemination of writing essay knowledge as the chief means of bringing about the millennium. Sorokin felt that salvation lies in a return to more spiritual values, to a stage of masters in nursing thesis idealism.
Toynbee maintained that an active recognition of the true values of religion is the only way to avoid doom and to achieve a Kingdom of God on online, earth. Solution to social problems is beset with many hurdles. Firstly, the problem should be accepted by the members of The Role Assessment a society as a problem and as we know some die-hards may refuse to regard a particular situation a problem. The existing social structure is supported by powerful sentiments and writing online, vested interests who deny the existence of the problem to The Role, safeguard the advantages accruing to them under the situation. Writing Essay? Sometimes these vested interests argue that the remedies proposed would cause greater evils than the problem they are designed to solve. Secondly, some societies do not want to expose their ways of good life thinking, feeling and living to writing online, scientific inquiry. Thirdly, finances may be a hurdle, the necessary amount of money may not be available or some may object to expenditure for changing the writing research papers, established modes of living of the people. Finally, there is the writing online, problem of implementation, we may be possessed of sufficient knowledge of how to deal with a social problem, but that does not guarantee its implementation. Some thinkers advocate a laissez-faire philosophy to good experience essays, social problems.
According’ to essay online, Herbet Spencer, man is automatically moving toward a better adjustment to life conditions and meddling in this evolutionary process is 7th grade research rubric inadvisable. Writing? Sumner and Keller, too, held that man’s adjustment to conditions of life is automatic. According to them, large scale effective planning may have disastrous results if it is opposed to the mores and folkways. Thus, we find the thinkers advocating different solutions to social problems according to their concept of causation. But as we have described elsewhere no single solution can be offered to all the problems. Each social problem is to be scientifically and separately studied and solutions are to be found out masters without, accordingly. It does not however, mean that we should wait till all the causes became known and till scientific methods dealing with them are developed. Essay Online? Social problems must be dealt with as they come up. Social planning is a movement that has recently come into prominence. The days of laissez-faire are over; the majority of 7th grade paper rubric sociologists now believe that man must plan on the basis of facts discovered by scientific research in order to essay online, deal effectively with the problems facing him. They realise that social problems are mostly man made and can be adequately treated by man.
There is no longer any choice between laissez-faire and planning, but only between good and in nursing without, bad planning. Social planning has been defined by Himes as “a conscious interactional process combining investigation, discussion, agreement and essay online, action in good life order to achieve those conditions, relationships and value that are regarded as desirable.” According to Anderson and Parker, “Social planning is the development of a programme designed to accomplish predetermined objectives for a society or a segment of it.” In other words planning demands decisions about what we are to do, how we are to do it, who is to do it, and how the people affected by it are to be included. Planning differs from reform. Planning must be distinguished from reform. Reform is remedial and writing online, corrective, planning is preventive and of Educational Assessment, constructive even though it is usually undertaken to deal with problems already prevalent in the community. A plan Is laid out as an achievement to online, be made within a fixed period of 7th grade research time. The emphasis is on the practical rather than on writing online, fantastic aspirations. Planning in recent time is the result of the essay on suicide attacks in pakistan, ever-Increasing number and complexity of essay online problems which In turn, as we have seen earlier, are the life, outgrowth of technological civilization.
In the past problems were not as complex as they are today. They were solved by trial-and-error methods. But with the growing knowledge and advancement of civilization better and more scientific means were found out to deal with social problems. In India, It was after Independence that the great need for scientific planning became obvious. In the United States it was during the writing essay online, depression-of the 1930’s that the same need was realized. According to Phelps, contemporary social planning is residues in milk unprecedented because of: (i) The importance and complexity of the problems for which solutions are sought. (ii) The number of people that it involves, (iii) The amount of the financial costs, (iv) The thorough-going changes it requires, and. (v) The methods of approach.
The obvious aim of social planning is to check the writing, recurrence of social problems and to The Role of Educational, bring about a harmonious adjustment of writing essay relationships between the different parts of society. According to Odum, social planning is fundamentally a means to social progress, which he defined as “the mastery of 7th grade physical and societal forces and the resulting social order through which the continuity of human evolution may be ensured.” Social planning seeks to provide the writing online, means by which a better and richer human existence may be achieved. Unlike planning in the past, which consisted mainly of speculation and exhortation, present-day scientific planning is based upon scientific research and its aim is to produce “the equivalent of The Role of Educational a workable blueprint to serve as a programme of action.” According to C.C. North, the essay, aim of social planning is to adapt our culture to present needs. Barnes and many other sociologists express the view that the aim of social planning is to close the immense gulf separating our social institutions from our material culture by of Educational Assessment adjusting the institutions to changed conditions of life. As we saw above many of our contemporary social problems are due to cultural lag-lag existing between technology and social institutions. The misuse of writing essay online natural resources, the break-up of religion, the demoralization of family life, poverty in The Role of Educational Assessment the midst of plenty, the high rate of crime and mental disease are all primarily the result of cultural lag. Therefore, social planning must first aim at closing this gap between material culture and social institutions. Writing Essay? After this gap has been closed, social planning can proceed to deal effectively with the other problems’ facing society.
Earlier sociologists, like Spencer, believed that control was neither possible nor desirable. In Antibiotic? He taught that society grows according to fixed laws and that interference usually makes things worse. Sumner and Keller also wrote that “there is a natural course of things that human societies operate according to natural law, and that arbitrary interferences never destroy the force or alter its laws, but only divert its course and alter its incidence.” Comte, on the other hand, believed in the power of man to control his destiny. Ward later stressed the possibility and importance of social planning through his theory of social thesis. Experience with planning in recent years enables us to see some of its difficulties: (i) Emotional Raw-material:
The first difficulty is to get a real understanding of the working of human society. Many social problems involve highly emotional material about which opinion is divided. In economic planning ends are definite and concrete and means are readily susceptible to test; but in the field of social planning there is great controversy on many social questions, for example, on divorce, widow marriage, prostitution, prohibition etc. However, unless we possess a true understanding of the nature of society, social problems cannot be solved. To quote Sumner and Keller, the study of society must be “purely scientific; coldly scientific; as austerely unmindful of contemporary problems as deliberately to seek distance and detachment from them.” The scientific study of society requires patient and painstaking labour which most of writing essay our social planners lack. Unless we have sufficient objective data pertaining to social phenomena with us, we cannot make a farsighted and accurately planned campaign. (ii) Scientific Study Lacking: The second difficulty is the belief that human relationships are not amenable to scientific study. Many people seem to believe that the good life essays, solutions to online, social problems are known to everybody and that they need only be applied.
What is thesis in antibiotic needed is not a scientific study of social problems but only a change in the hearts of men. But by merely a change of heart social problems cannot be solved. There is nothing wrong with the hearts of men they have always possessed a strong desire for writing online freedom from The Role of Educational hunger. The problem of unemployment cannot be solved by a mere desire. To solve it a scientific study of our resources and adequate planning is needed. Writing Essay? Similarly, the problem of war and crime can be solved only by a scientific study of the causes which lead to them and by developing definite techniques for dealing with them. Too often, planning proceeds with much enthusiasm but meager data. Effective planning requires a thorough Investigation of the given problem, the circumstances surrounding it, the possible obstacles, and the probable results of the proposed course of action. If engineers wished to thesis, build a bridge over a river, they would hardly proceed without thoroughly investigating the conditions and collecting all the facts essential to understanding the situation so as to know what type of bridge must be planned.
Planning without adequate scientific knowledge can only essay online, result in failure. (iii) Lack of Workers: The third difficulty is the lack of workers and in nursing thesis, organisation to carry out the work of social planning. The work of social reorganization requires men of imagination, tolerance and integrity. We know far too little about essay, another. There are too many Iron curtains in modern society. Never have self-interest and essay in pakistan, self-aggrandizement been so naked and unashamed as today.
Integrity is writing essay our deepest need today. Integrity is the cement of society: when integrity crumbles, society collapses. The social workers must be people who can be absolutely depended upon, who will not sell their souls for cash and whose moral sense is sound. Social planning requires a high degree of The Role organisation, as in the case of army which may mean discipline and loss of writing essay online liberty. Papers? Concentration of authority is needed for the successful formulation and execution of a plan. Sir Arthur Sotter was of the view that democratic parliamentary government cannot plan, it can merely improvise.
(iv) Vested Interests: We also find that social planning is often opposed by vested interests who exercise powerful influence over the machinery of government. In carrying out social planning a change In society such as ours Is certain to be Inimical to the Interests of some established groups, but the interests of the whole should not be sacrificed for the interests of online a few. The vested interests should be curbed strongly and they should not be allowed to stand in the way of the larger good. (v) Apathy of the Masses: The indifference and apathy of the masses is the last difficulty of social planning.
Planning would be of little avail, unless the masses learn to thesis, view social phenomena objectively and cooperate in the formation and administration of social policy. It is not to be forgotten that social planning is not merely a procedure to be undertaken by authorities or specialists, but requires intelligent understanding and continuous participation by the masses for whom It Is meant. People are either not aware of the social problems or if they are aware they base their opinion on random observation, hearsay or prejudices. For social planning to be meaningful it must have as its base large numbers of educated persons who have been trained to observe social phenomena intelligently and to writing, arrive at research papers tips, conclusions scientifically. It may also be mentioned that planning in a democracy is a much more difficult matter than in a totalitarian society. In a totalitarian society the economic life of a people can be regimented and the whole frame work of their Institutions altered profoundly. But in a democracy power is diffuse and there is a multiplicity of vested Interests. There is writing essay traditional suspicion of programmes emanating from government. Techniques for voluntary cooperation are difficult to develop in a competitive society.
Further, there is also the difficulty in deciding as to how much of the planning should be at the level of the central government, and how much at the state or local levels. Moreover, there is also much disagreement as to how much of the planning must be government at all, and how much of life essays it can be carried out by voluntary agencies. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the writing essay online, following pages:
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Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Extracts from this document. Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the essay online, player is experience able to strike the ball hard enough to clear it from danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to online, win headers. * Balance is important so the player is able to stay on their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and taking on players. * Coordination is important in order to run and header at the same time and to run and kick at the same time. Paper. * Agility is important so the writing online, player is able to take on players whilst coming out of defence. It is also important for the layer so he is able to keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in and out of The Role Assessment players. * Timing is important so the player is able to kick and header the ball at the right time to get the best effect. Essay Online. * Control is important in order to able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to keep up with the pace of the in antibiotic, game and to keep track of your marker. * Flexibility is useful when playing centre because it helps you to intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. Online. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the player is able to keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is rubric needed so the player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. . read more. Writing. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at about 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of time. Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running.
My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and my third weakness is heading. 7th Grade. These two weaknesses could be combined and improved on in the same session. Circuit training could be used to improve these two weaknesses and instead of using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. Essay. For example at the first station the exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in 45 seconds. Assessment. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead. Another way of improving these weaknesses is by doing a skills training session. For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve. To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and header at writing online, goal, the thesis residues in milk, job of the defender is to win the ball and the goal keeper's job is obviously to essay, save it. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to writing research papers, heading in a game situation.
Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in essay online with my left foot in order to improve it. . read more. As a result of the masters without, six week training programme I would expect to online, see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for the whole match and research, I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths. My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on writing online any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on without thesis my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. Essay. I will write up an additional training programme in in nursing thesis order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in order to online, call them my strengths, therefore I will need to thesis, carry on essay working on them but not as often. On Suicide Attacks In Pakistan. I will write up another six week training programme and in writing essay one of those weeks I will include working on my previous weaknesses, in masters in nursing thesis this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of online those training methods once a week but for the rest of the paper, week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme.
I used interval training in essay online my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . read more. This student written piece of essays work is online one of many that can be found in life our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Online. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per 7th grade research paper month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to writing, tackle when the ball is away from the on suicide in pakistan, opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to the ball before the opposition All of the above are demands which.
Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in writing online my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position. GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from getting strained. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to masters thesis, prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is writing essay volleyball and he . My muscles started to get tired at the end. Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to feel it become more difficult. Improving my muscular strength and of Educational Assessment, reps. Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good.
An example of a sport specific training course could be: 1. press ups 2. sit ups 3. squats 4. star jumps 5. chin ups 6. bur pass 7. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. repeat Continuous training requires you to have your oxygen intake to be matched by the body's demand for oxygen. The first step will be to identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in Long Jump and . Writing Online. This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and timing was bad only when he was at speed. * Adams potential is great as he can adapt his posture and thesis in milk, technique when I ask him. which is getting in the way of a pass, and a phase of play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. I need to stay in the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line. PEP and performance analysis for rounders. (a) List in detail the strengths of the player/competitor/participant.
In Rounders I'm good at writing essay, hitting the ball when batting; in The Role order for me to online, do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. When batting it is good to essay, have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the essay online, anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for thesis, expert help with your Physical Education (Sport Coaching) work?
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International Political Economy Essay – China and The New Economic Order. One of the most discussed topics in economic circles is the rise of China and the possibility of it displacing the United States as an economic leader. There are those who believe this declinists attitude is validated by recent the recent rise in China’s exporting and the immense population. However, the United States holds the strongest educational resources, technological power and trade restrictions as well as the ability to utilize its hegemony. Writing Online? While some may believe in declinist’s ideas the facts remain that the United States is still far beyond the writing research papers China in almost every standard of living and globalization will only empower it if it approached and utilized correctly by the government and private sector. While both countries have fiscal challenges, the United States is still in a position of power and will remain so regardless of online, global changes in the economic and trade systems. This study will address the in nursing without tools at the disposal of the United States and how it can utilize these to maintain its position as the leading world power. There is no issue more discussed in online, the media and amongst economists than the rise of China and the economy. China’s economic growth is growing continually while the United States appears to be in decline. The wars in Iran and Afghanistan along with huge budget deficits appears to have plunged the United States into recession while China is doing so well that there is speculation over what will be the economic outcome for America. Much of the decline of the United States economy is the result of globalization and technological development in third world countries.
The United States has had undergo powerful changes and carry the burden of good life essays, globalization. While one view believes that America cannot bear this burden and China will become an economic front runner, there is another viewpoint on this matter. Many economists believe that the United States is durable and it will gain advantages as a result of globalization. There are economists who see the United States being able to writing, take advantage of globalization and gaining economic activity as a result of this trend. This study will argue that the hegemony of the United States is strong enough to be able to do gain from globalization.
Those who tend to favor the belief in the declining United States power are focused on issues of gross domestic product and population as well as focusing on essay on suicide attacks in pakistan, the size of the population in a country. These are not necessarily indicators of a country’s power and financial sustainability. There are many more indications of a country in a decline and these will be examined along with the strengths the United States does have that indicate it will prosper as a result of globalization. When viewed through different modalities of measurement the United States definitely holds its position of economic world leadership. Essay Online? How that will be maintained and research tips the path of China and writing essay the United States economically is projectable and various economic lenses will show the durability of the United States economic power and how it will utilize globalization to its advantage.
Measuring the Hegemony of a Nation. One of the major errors in measuring how a country is doing globally in the economic hemisphere is to measure it in what Michael Beckley describes as snapshots. To view only the GDP or the in nursing without population of a country is to limit the lens through which one is seeing the whole entirety of the power of a nation. Beckley states that, “However, GDP correlates poorly with national power; more than 90 percent of China’s high-tech exports are produced by foreign countries and consist of writing essay online, low-tech components” (Beckley, 2011). Beckley also points out that while America does suffer from a huge debt issue, it is not solving well politically China has also got internal problems on even a larger scale that it is not resolving through its political system. Beckley points out fallacies used in thesis in antibiotic residues in milk, evaluating whether China is catching up with America by looking at China as it was formerly. For example. He points out, “many studies note that the writing essay growth rates of China’s per capita income, value added in high technology industries, and military spending exceed those of the United States and masters without then conclude that China is catching up” (Beckley, 2011). Beckley points out that the online focus here is wrong.
China has high growth rates because it’s starting point was exceptionally low. Therefore, China may be growing but this does not indicate that it is surpassing the United States in any way. Arguments For and Against Decline. Beckley takes a detailed look at the arguments American decline and papers broadens the scope of the picture. This methodology is also backed up by writing, author, Mack, in his work on why larger nations lose small wars. He states, “In order to rise to industrial leadership, states must prevent vested interests from in antibiotic in milk blocking structural change.
States that are unable to writing essay, do this will get locked into yesterday’s technologies and industries, and will effectively have consigned themselves to long-term stagnation and decline”. (Mack, 1975). Mack basis his methodology on looking at thesis in antibiotic residues in milk, the economic and writing military power of countries over decades as opposed to closed lenses that only focus on 7th grade rubric, a small period of time. Beckley takes the same approach, and believes that the view of America’s decline is a small lens that is not seeing the large picture. For instance, Berkely looks at China and writing online America over the past twenty years and finds mixed results. However the The Role of Educational majority of writing, historical fact shows that the United States has not decline and is now wealthier an even more innovative.
Berkley points out that declinists state that history is cyclical and repeats itself and life essays will focus on the rise and writing fall of good life experience, empires such as the writing British Empire or the Habsburg French. This cyclical theory “fuses hegemonic stability theory with a traditional balance of power theory”, (Berkely, 2011). Berkely points out that if America is seen as providing goods to 7th grade, the world which then gets a “free-ride” on America’s back while engaging in sabotage and “erecting diplomatic and economic obstacles to U.S. initiatives and forming anti-American alliances”, (Berkely, 2011). Writing Essay? This is what Mack pointed out in his statement that a country would have to be blocked from structural change. In this scenario other countries rise while the United States is overstretched and declines. Berkeley also deals with convergence theory that states where there is an writing papers, open global market poorer countries will excel economically while wealthy countries decline. Essay? The main point Berkely is making here is that, “Globalization thus stimulates growth abroad while undercutting it at home, diffusing technology”, (Berkely, 2011).
Berkely and others dispute that there is an of Educational, alternative view that is overlooked by writing online, those who insist that decline is imminent for the United States. Thesis? This same vision is adopted by in his work on the subject where he states that, “One should be wary, however, of extrapolating long-term trends from cyclical events, while being aware of misleading metaphors of organic decline”, (Nye, 2010). Essay Online? Nye’s work suggests that it is far too early to judge long-term effects of attacks, globalization. According to his statistics the World Economic Forum still has the United States economically rated as the second most competitive in essay online, the world after Switzerland and China is 7th grade rubric, ranked as twenty-nine (Nye, 2010). Structural power is not only writing online, maintained but reinforced by the United States according to Susan Strange, who writes about the myths of the loss of hegemony.
Strange, whose findings demonstrate that stability “rests not with a realignment of-the world order, but with an thesis in antibiotic in milk, internal re-evaluation of the United States’ expression of its hegemony vis-a-vis the outside world”, (Strange, 1987). Writing? What those who see a broader picture of the 7th grade United States in terms of globalization can see is writing online, that it will be America’s own ability to adapt, which has always been one of its transcending qualities that will keep the country from falling behind in a globalized economy. The United States and Tools of Hegemony. The United Stated has many bargaining tools that other countries are lacking in masters in nursing without thesis, a globalized world. Its ability to restrict or even deny access to its vast technological market, its aid to other countries and political infrastructure which hold enormous power is still very much in-tact. The United States also has what Berkely refers to as “structural power”.
As he puts it, the United States has power over aspects of the international system itself”, (Berkely, 2011). It still sets schemas and structures that decide how countries interact with one another. The United States can put covert or direct force upon other economies and countries. Berkely states that this is benevolent but coercive and the goods then produced by the United States, “are less collective goods than private ones, accruing primarily to the hegemony and thus helping maintain its hegemony”, (Berkely, 2011). As Berkely and many of his colleagues point out, militarily the United States is writing online, still in a position of superiority over the rest of the world. Shifting military units around the world is The Role of Educational, a combination of covert and direct coercion used by the United States as a way of asserting its hegemony. The term, “soft power” is often applied by economists that are looking at China and Asia during financial crisis. China has utilized the concept of writing online, soft power to build bonds utilizing cultural enhancement as a political tool to of Educational Assessment, ease other countries into liaisons.
This “soft power” has limitations however. According to essay, Nye China’s attempt at a “charm offensive: failed. He writes that, “A poll taken in Asia late in paper, 2008 found China’s soft power less than that of the United States when the BBC poll of 28 countries in 2010 showed that China had a positive image only in some parts of Asia while it was poor to neutral in the Americas and Europe”. (Nye, 2010). So while China has been applying its new strategies, it appears that American hegemony still holds the staying power that it needs to writing online, hold its position of a leading power. Another issue that has become what declinists would like to label a competitive advantage for countries like China is low standards of living. Due to The Role, this the workers in these countries are willing to work for very low wages and thus are forcing outsourcing and online leaving American companies no choice except to hire these workers instead of paying good wages to American workers.
Berkely refers to this as “cost innovation” and writes, “The production of high technology products at a fraction of the cost of research paper, technological leaders leaves no competition from rich nations who may have little choice but to outsource parts of essay, their business to the developing world” (Berkely, 2011). Once again there are answers to this seeming dilemma. As globalization has allowed more access to technology, it has also created a new mode of production. Globally networked production and standardization has created cut off protective trade barriers. Of Educational Assessment? This allows the online wealthier countries to cut off any way of upgrading technology. Thesis Residues In Milk? While poorer countries can also protect their industries they are not legally or financially set up to do so. So while “soft power” is a strategy for countries such as China, it is not a strategy that is writing, able to compete with the thesis residues hegemony of countries such as the writing essay United States. The True Hegemony of the United States. The true strength of the United States will not only writing tips, work with globalization but will hold up and writing essay flourish in this new world economy. Berkely (2011) asserts in his study,
“Finally, given its position at the top of the world trade regime, the research paper rubric United States can distort international markets in its favor.48 Declinists expect the hegemony to use its power magnanimously. Writing? According to the alternative perspective, however, American foreign economic policy involves the routine use of diplomatic leverage at the highest levels to create opportunities for United States leverage. U.S. trade officials, “acting as self-appointed enforcers of the free trade regime, asserted the right with their own national law to life experience, single out and punish countries they judged to be unfair traders.”50 Globalization, therefore, may not be a neutral process that diffuses wealth evenly throughout the international system, but a political process shaped by the United States in ways that serve its interests. This will be how globalization will create more opportunities for the United States and how the nation will maintain its position as the essay economic leader it has been and will continue to be. Strange, in her work states that the United States holds dominance in the acquisition and superiority of Assessment, education and in cites that thirty one of the one hundred best universities are in the United States. The United States also has the greatest military budget in writing online, the world and The Role Assessment that military has superior technology to any other. Experimentation is more advanced in the United States military than in any other country in essay online, the world. Strange, like Berkely asserts that structural power is necessary for American hegemony and that in looking at global affairs it is clear that the good life experience United States continues to dominate the world in areas of, “National security, productive capacity, controls of writing essay, finance and credit, and the procurement of knowledge”, (Strange, 1987). Despite claims that the The Role of Educational Assessment world economic crisis has brought the United States into a pejorative position in global economics, it is writing, clear that the leadership of the country is addressing internal and global issues. Furthermore, it will be the United States that will reinstate solidity to the international economic structures now in crisis.
China is a formidable concern in the economic crisis we are faced with as we move to of Educational Assessment, a globalized world. There is no question that the United States has war debts and that China is growing at a rapid rate. When one analyses the low quality of life and economic disarray of the China until recently, the nine percent growth rate of the country is writing essay, not significantly a threat when compared to the quality of paper, life, economic conditions and power stature of the United States. Online? If the United States did not maintain its hegemony in the current globalized climate it would be a result of the loss of political structure, convenient policies and its collapse in an attempt to assimilate international standards that would cause any decline. It is unlikely that this would ever be a reality with the power structures the United States has in place. With national security, and the ability to use overt and covert coercion to maintain its power structures, the United States will hold its place a world power. Technologically the world may be moving forward, however, it will be the United States that continues to produce and deliver new technologies to the global community. Good Life Experience Essays? It ability to control trade will continue to writing online, keep the 7th grade research country in its current state of authority and maintain control over international commerce. With dominance in academics and the ability to access and finance research the country still emerges as a leader in knowledge and its attainment. China has tried strategies such as “soft power” to form alliances and met with little success. Essay Online? While their population is papers, exceptionally high and writing online outsourcing is an issue that the United States faces, these are not insurmountable barriers.
When comparing the United States with China across all the numerous regions that are of significance, including economic, technological and The Role Assessment military indicators, as Berkely and many other scholars have, there re many mixed result, however the volume of facts the support the hegemony of the United States is still an overwhelming body of evidence in terms of its ability to sustain its place as the online leading economic world nation. While globalization and fiscal burdens have increased for America, while China has grown as an exporting nation, China faces its challenges far greater than those the United States must overcome and does not have the of Educational and global problems on multiple levels. Writing Essay Online? While China has more scientists, they have not found a way to good life experience, make that fact work for them qualitatively. As the essay debate goes on as to whether China will dominate the without thesis world market, the United States continues to hold its place as a world leader, and globalization will be one more avenue for that hegemony in spite of the scrutiny of economic declinists. Beckley , M . Essay? Why America’s Edge Will Endure: China’s Century? (2011). Journal Article, International Security , volume 36, issue 3, pages 41-78. Mack, A. (1975) “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric Conflict”, World. Nye, J. (2010) American and 7th grade research rubric Chinese Power after the Financial. Crisis.
Center for writing online, Strategic and International Studies The Washington Quarterly o 33:4 pp. Strange, S. (1987) The persistent myth of lost hegemony. International Organization 41.4 p. Gill, S. and D. Law (1988) The Global Political Economy: Perspectives, Problems and Policies , New York, Harvester Wheatsheaf, “American Hegemony and International Order”, Chapter. Hurrell, A. (2006) “Hegemony, Liberalism and Global Order: What Space for Would-be Great. Powers?”, International Affairs , 82, pp. In Nursing? 1-19.
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